Dictionary of English Abbreviations (5,161 English abbreviations)

From Termhotel.com

  • 3G = /?ri_| d"i_/ TELECOMMUNICATIONS a wireless communications technology that, when fullyfunctional, will provide high-speed mobile access to the Internet, entertainment,information, and intranets Full form Third Generation
  • 4GL = COMPUTING fourth-generation language
  • 4WD = AUTOMOTIVE four-wheel drive
  • A = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS angstrom?1.COMPUTING 10 (used in hexadecimal notation) 2.ROADS a main road other than amotorway (NOTE: The abbreviation A is used before the road number, as in A28.) 3.CHEMISTRY activity 4.BIOCHEMISTRY adenine 5.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS ampere 6.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS angstrom 7.PHYSICS mass number
  • a = 1.PHYSICS acceleration 2.MEASUREMENTS are 3.TRANSPORT arrives
  • a.a.e. = HUMAN RESOURCES according to age and experience (used in job advertisements)
  • A'asia = Australasia
  • A/C = 1.COMMERCE account 2.BANKING account current 3.air conditioning
  • a/c = 1.COMMERCE account 2.BANKING account current
  • A/D = ELECTRONICS analogue to digital
  • A & E = HEALTH SERVICES the official name of the hospital department traditionally knownas casualty. The US equivalent is ER (emergency room). Full form accident andemergency
  • A.h. = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS ampere-hour
  • a.k.a. = also known as (NOTE: The abbreviation a.k.a.is used to introduce a pseudonym ornickname: Sean Combs a.k.a. Puff Daddy.)
  • A level = EDUCATION in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, the advanced level of anysubject studied to gain a General Certificate of Education qualification. Full formAdvanced level (NOTE: The abbreviation is used as a noun to denote both the level(studying biology at A level) and the qualification (candidates with two or more Alevels).)
  • A & M = CHRISTIANITY (Hymns) Ancient and Modern
  • a.m. = TIME in the period between midnight and noon. Full form ante meridiem (NOTE:The abbreviation a.m., from the Latin, ‘before noon', is used after a specific time in the12-hour clock. It is sometimes written AM or am.)
  • a/o = ACCOUNTING account of
  • a.p. = 1.FINANCE additional premium 2.PUBLISHING author's proof 3.PHARMACOLOGY beforea meal. Full form ante prandium (NOTE: The abbreviation a.p.is used in prescriptions.)
  • A.P.Nr = WINE an indication that a German wine has met the minimum standards requiredby law. Full form Amtliche Prüfungsnummer (NOTE: From the German, ‘official testnumber'.)
  • A & R = RECORDING artists and repertoire
  • a.s.a.p. = as soon as possible
  • A to D = ELECTRONICS analogue to digital
  • a.u. = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS angstrom unit 2.MEASUREMENTS, ASTRONOMY astronomicalunit
  • A/UX = COMPUTING a version of the UNIX operating system for the Apple Mac range ofcomputers. Full form Apple's UNIX
  • a/v = 1.FINANCE in proportion to the value. Full form ad valorem 2.MEDICINE audiovisual
  • A/W = MEASUREMENTS actual weight
  • A2 = EDUCATION in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, the second year of a full A-levelcourse, or the examination taken at the end of that year
  • AA = 1.HEALTH Alcoholics Anonymous 2.SOCIAL WELFARE a state benefit paid to disabledpeople to cover the cost of constant care or supervision. Full form attendanceallowance 3.AUTOMOTIVE Automobile Association
  • AAA = 1.ATHLETICS Amateur Athletic Association 2.ACCOUNTING AmericanAccounting Association 3.AUTOMOTIVE American Automobile Association 4.ARMSantiaircraft artillery 5.AUTOMOTIVE Australian Automobile Association
  • AAD = MONEY Arab accounting dinar
  • aae = HUMAN RESOURCES according to age and experience (used in job advertisements)
  • AAIA = ACCOUNTING Associate of the Association of International Accountants
  • AAM = ARMS air-to-air missile
  • AAMOF = ONLINE as a matter of fact (used in e-mails)
  • AARF = ACCOUNTING Australian Accounting Research Foundation
  • AAS = ACCOUNTING Australian Accounting Standard
  • AASB = ACCOUNTING Australian Accounting Standards Board
  • AAT = ACCOUNTING Association of Accounting Technicians
  • AAVE = LANGUAGE African American Vernacular English
  • AB = 1.NAVY able-bodied seaman 2.Alberta 3.US EDUCATION Bachelor of Arts 4.BUSINESSa type of company in Swedish-speaking countries. The abbreviation is equivalent to plcor Ltd. Full form Aktiebolaget
  • ABA = 1.BOXING Amateur Boxing Association 2.BANKING American Bankers Association 3.LAW American Bar Association
  • ABB = MANAGEMENT activity-based budgeting
  • abbr. = abbreviation
  • ABC = 1.MANAGEMENT activity-based costing 2.BROADCASTING American BroadcastingCompany 3.BROADCASTING Australian Broadcasting Corporation 4.the alphabet,especially in referring to basic reading and writing
  • ABCs = BUSINESS Audit Bureau of Circulations
  • ABEND = 1.COMPUTING a sudden failure of a computer program or system. Fullform abnormal end 2.ONLINE absent by enforced Net deprivation (NOTE: TheABI 2abbreviation ABEND is used in the subject line of e-mails to warn correspondents of thesender's imminent loss of Internet access.)
  • ABI = INSURANCE Association of British Insurers
  • ABM = 1.MANAGEMENT activity-based management 2.ARMS antiballistic missile
  • ABN = BUSINESS a numeric code assigned to a business so that it can be identified by theAustralian Taxation Office and other government departments. Full form AustralianBusiness Number
  • abn = airborne
  • ABR = COMPUTING available bit rate
  • ABS = 1.INDUSTRY a type of strong plastic used to make moulded casings, pipes, and carparts. Full form acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene 2.AUTOMOTIVE a system ofelectronically controlled brakes that prevents a vehicle's wheels locking if the driverbrakes suddenly. Full form antilock braking system (NOTE: The abbreviation ABS wasoriginally an abbreviation of the German term Antiblockier-System.) 3.COMMERCEAustralian Bureau of Statistics
  • ABTA = TRAVEL Association of British Travel Agents
  • abv = WINE alcohol by volume
  • AC = 1.WINE a Portuguese wine-making cooperative. Full form adega cooperativa 2.airconditioning 3.AIR FORCE Aircraftman 4.ELECTRICITY alternating current 5.METEOROLOGYaltocumulus 6.CALENDAR ante Christum (used before dates) 7.WINE a certification forFrench wine that guarantees its origin and verifies that it meets production regulations.Full form appellation contrôlée 8.ATHLETICS Athletic Club (used in club names) 9.Companion in the Order of Australia
  • Ac = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS actinium
  • ac = ONLINE academic organization (NOTE: The abbreviation ac is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • AC/DC = an offensive term meaning bisexual
  • ACA = 1.ACCOUNTING Associate of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England andWales 2.COMMUNICATION Australian Communications Authority
  • ACAS = HUMAN RESOURCES an organization that mediates between employers andemployees or trade unions in industrial disputes. Full form Advisory, Conciliation, andArbitration Service (NOTE: Sometimes written Acas, the acronym has entered thelanguage as a noun; the full form is rarely encountered in general usage.)
  • ACAUS = ACCOUNTING Association of Chartered Accountants in the United States
  • acc. = 1.COMMERCE account 2.GRAMMAR accusative
  • ACCA = ACCOUNTING 1.Associate of the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants 2.Association of Chartered Certified Accountants
  • ACCC = COMMERCE Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
  • ACCI = COMMERCE Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
  • acct = COMMERCE account
  • ACD = BUSINESS authorized corporate director
  • ACDI = COMPUTING asynchronous communications device interface
  • ACE = 1.EDUCATION Advisory Centre for Education 2.MILITARY Allied Command Europe 3.BIOCHEMISTRY an enzyme that increases blood pressure. Full form angiotensinconvertingenzyme (NOTE: The acronym ACE has entered the language as a noun, alsoused in ACE inhibitor, denoting a drug that blocks this enzyme.)
  • ACE inhibitor = a drug that blocks an enzyme that raises blood pressure
  • ACF = COMPUTING advanced communications function3 ADPCM
  • ACH = E-COMMERCE a wholesale payment network for interbank clearing and paymentsettlement, accessible through points of sale or cashpoints. Full form automatedclearing house
  • ACL = COMPUTING access control list
  • ACLU = LAW American Civil Liberties Union
  • ACM = 1.AIR FORCE Air Chief Marshal 2.COMPUTING Association for Computing Machinery3.MANUFACTURING Australian Chamber of Manufactures
  • ACR = HOUSEHOLD audio cassette recorder
  • ACRS = ACCOUNTING accelerated cost recovery system
  • ACT = 1.FINANCE a tax paid by any company that pays a dividend, calculated by deductingthe basic rate of income tax from the grossed-up value of the dividend. Full formadvance corporation tax 2.Australian Capital Territory
  • ACT-UP = HEALTH an activist organization concerned with the rights andtreatment of people with Aids. Full form Aids Coalition To Unleash Power
  • ACTH = BIOCHEMISTRY a pituitary hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to producesteroid hormones. Full form adrenocorticotrophic hormone
  • ACTU = HUMAN RESOURCES Australian Council of Trade Unions
  • ACU = MONEY Asian currency unit
  • ACVE = EDUCATION Advanced Certificate of Vocational Education
  • ACW = AIR FORCE Aircraftwoman
  • AD = 1.MEDICINE Alzheimer's disease 2.CALENDAR anno DominiThe abbreviation AD in this sense is used to indicate a date that is a specified number of yearsafter the birth of Jesus Christ. AD is traditionally put before the year number (AD 435), but itis normally acceptable to put it after the identification of a century (the fifth century AD). PE(Present Era) and CE (Common Era) have been suggested as non-Christian alternatives.
  • ad = 1.TENNIS advantage 2.ONLINE Andorra (NOTE: The abbreviation ad is seen at the endof Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • ad val. = FINANCE in proportion to the value. Full form ad valorem (NOTE: From Latin.)
  • Ada = COMPUTING a high-level computer-programming language that is used mainlyfor military, industrial, and scientific applications (NOTE: Sometimes spelt ADA, this is notan abbreviation: it is named after the English mathematician Augusta Ada Byron,Countess of Lovelace (1815–52).)
  • ADB = BANKING 1.African Development Bank 2.Asian Development Bank
  • ADC = ELECTRONICS analogue-to-digital converter
  • ADD = MEDICINE attention deficit disorder
  • add. = 1.addendum 2.MATHEMATICS addition 3.address
  • ADDACS = BANKING Automated Direct Debit Amendments and Cancellation Service
  • ADF = BANKING Approved Deposit Fund
  • ADH = BIOCHEMISTRY antidiuretic hormone
  • ADHD = MEDICINE attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • ADI = HEALTH acceptable daily intake
  • adj. = 1.GRAMMAR adjective 2.MATHEMATICS adjoint 3.LOGIC adjunct 4.INSURANCEadjustment 5.MILITARY adjutant
  • Adjt = MILITARY Adjutant
  • ADLs = MEDICINE activities of daily living
  • Adm. = NAVY 1.Admiral 2.Admiralty
  • ADP = 1.BIOCHEMISTRY a chemical compound derived from ATP that is involved in energytransfer reactions in living cells. Full form adenosine diphosphate 2.COMPUTINGautomatic data processing
  • ADPCM = COMPUTING adaptive differential pulse code modulationADR 4
  • ADR = BUSINESS American Depositary Receipt
  • ADSL = COMPUTING a high-speed telephone line that can transmit voice and video dataover copper wires. Full form asymmetrical digital subscriber line
  • ADT = N Am TIME Atlantic Daylight Time
  • adv. = 1.GRAMMAR adverb 2.GRAMMAR adverbial 3.MARKETING advertisement 4.advisory
  • advt = MARKETING advertisement
  • AE = 1.BUSINESS aggregate expenditure 2.ECOLOGY assimilation efficiency
  • AEA = INDUST Atomic Energy Authority
  • AEC = INDUST Atomic Energy Commission
  • AEEU = HUMAN RESOURCES Amalgamated Engineering and Electrical Union
  • AER = FINANCE annual equivalent rate
  • aero = ONLINE aviation industry (NOTE: The abbreviation aero is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • AEST = TIME Australian Eastern Standard Time
  • AEU = Aus EDUCATION Australian Education Union
  • AEX = STOCK EXCHANGE Amsterdam Stock Exchange
  • AF = 1.AIR FORCE air force 2.Anglo-French 3.ELECTRONICS audio frequency 4.PHOTOGRAPHYautofocus
  • Af. = 1.Africa 2.African
  • af = ONLINE Afghanistan (NOTE: The abbreviation af is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • AFAANZ = FINANCE Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand
  • AFAIK = ONLINE as far as I know (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • AFBD = STOCK EXCHANGE Association of Futures Brokers and Dealers
  • AFC = 1.AEROSPACE automatic flight control 2.ELECTRONICS automatic frequency control
  • AFIPS = COMPUTING American Federation of Information Processing Societies
  • AFL = Australian Football League
  • AFL-CIO = HUMAN RESOURCES a federation formed in 1955 by the merging of the AmericanFederation of Labour and the Congress of Industrial Organizations. _ CIO
  • AFLP = BIOTECHNOLOGY a rapid method for detecting variations in DNA sequences betweenindividuals. Full form amplified fragment length polymorphism
  • AFM = PHYSICS atomic force microscope
  • AFNOR = the French industrial standards authority. Full form Associationfrançaise de normalisation
  • AFP = 1.BIOCHEMISTRY alpha-foetoprotein 2.POLICE Australian Federal Police
  • Afr. = 1.Africa 2.African
  • AFTA = COMMERCE ASEAN Free Trade Area
  • AFV = MILITARY armoured fighting vehicle
  • AG = 1.ARMY adjutant general 2.BUSINESS a type of company in German-speakingcountries. The abbreviation is equivalent to plc or Ltd. Full form Aktiengesellschaft 3.LAW attorney general
  • Ag = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS silver
  • ag = ONLINE Antigua and Barbuda (NOTE: The abbreviation ag is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • AGC = ELECTRONICS a radio receiver control system by which the amplifier is adjusted tocompensate for variations in the volume of the signal, so that the volume of the outputis constant. Full form automatic gain control
  • AGI = BUSINESS 1.adjusted gross income 2.annual gross income5 al
  • AGM = BUSINESS annual general meeting
  • AGN = ASTRONOMY active galactic nucleus
  • AGP = COMPUTING a computer interface that allows the display of three-dimensionalgraphics. Full form accelerated graphics port
  • AGR = INDUST advanced gas-cooled reactor
  • AH = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS ampere-hour 2.CALENDAR anno Hegirae (NOTE: Theabbreviation AH is used to indicate the number of years from the Hegira (AD 622), akey date in the Islamic calendar.)
  • Ah = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS ampere-hour
  • AHA = CHEMISTRY alpha-hydroxy acid
  • AHF = BIOCHEMISTRY antihaemophilic factor
  • AHI = COMMERCE the Afrikaans chamber of commerce. Full form AfrikaanseHandelsinstituut
  • AHST = TIME Alaska-Hawaii Standard Time
  • AI = 1.CHEMISTRY active ingredient 2.MEDICINE artificial insemination 3.COMPUTING artificialintelligence 4.AEROSPACE attitude indicator
  • ai = ONLINE Anguilla (NOTE: The abbreviation ai is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • AIA = ACCOUNTING Association of International Accountants
  • AICPA = ACCOUNTING American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
  • AID = 1.MEDICINE acute infectious disease 2.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Agency forInternational Development 3.MEDICINE artificial insemination by donor
  • Aids = MEDICINE a disease of the immune system caused by infection with theretrovirus HIV, which destroys some types of white blood cells and is transmittedthrough blood or bodily secretions such as semen. Full form acquired immunedeficiency syndromeThe acronym Aids has entered the language as a noun, and the full form is rarely encounteredin general usage. A number of other English words originated in a similar way and are now sowell-established in the language that they are no longer regarded as acronyms. These includelaser ‘light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation', quango ‘quasiautonomousnongovernmental organization', radar ‘radio detection and ranging', scuba ‘self-containedunderwater breathing apparatus', and sonar ‘sound navigation ranging'. The noun flak,denoting anti-aircraft fire or strong criticism, comes from the German phrase Fleiger AbwehrKanone, meaning ‘aeroplane defence canon'.
  • AIFA = FINANCE Association of Financial Advisers
  • AIH = MEDICINE artificial insemination by husband
  • AIL = ECOLOGY aesthetic injury level
  • AIM = BUSINESS alternative investment market
  • AIMA = BUSINESS Alternative Investment Management Association
  • ain't = a contraction of ‘am not', ‘is not', ‘are not', ‘have not', or ‘has not'
  • AIR = RADIO All India Radio
  • AIRC = HUMAN RESOURCES Australian Industrial Relations Commission
  • AITC = FINANCE Association of Investment Trust Companies
  • AJA = PRESS Australian Journalists' Association
  • AJK = HORSERACING Australian Jockey Club
  • AK = MAIL Alaska (NOTE: The abbreviation AK is part of the US sorting code on the last lineof an Alaska address.)
  • aka = also known as (NOTE: The abbreviation a.k.a.is used to introduce a pseudonym ornickname: Sean Combs a.k.a. Puff Daddy.)
  • AL = MAIL Alabama (NOTE: The abbreviation AL is part of the US sorting code on the last lineof an Alabama address.)
  • Al = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS aluminium
  • al = ONLINE Albania (NOTE: The abbreviation al is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)Al 6
  • al. = 1.alcohol 2.alcoholic
  • ALA = all letters answered (NOTE: The abbreviation ALA is used in personaladvertisements.)
  • Alb. = 1.Albania 2.Albanian
  • ALBM = ARMS air-launched ballistic missile
  • alc. = 1.alcohol 2.alcoholic
  • ALCM = ARMS air-launched cruise missile
  • ALF = Animal Liberation Front
  • Alg. = 1.Algeria 2.Algerian
  • ALGOL = COMPUTING a high-level computer programming language that usesalgebraic symbols in solving mathematical and scientific problems. Full form algorithmorientedlanguage
  • ALMO = PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION arm's length management organization
  • ALP = POLITICS Australian Labor Party
  • ALS = MEDICINE amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • ALT = BIOCHEMISTRY alanine aminotransferase
  • Alt = COMPUTING a computer key that is held down while another other key or sequence ofkeys is pressed, to perform a particular function or produce a particular character. Fullform alternate (or alternative) key (NOTE: Some computer keyboards also have an AltGr (alternative graphics) key, which is used in a similar way.)
  • alt. = 1.alteration 2.BOTANY alternate 3.altitude 4.MUSIC alto
  • Alta = Alberta
  • ALU = COMPUTING a circuit in a computer's central processing unit that makes decisionsbased on the results of calculations. Full form arithmetic logic unit
  • AM = 1.MILITARY Albert Medal 2.RADIO amplitude modulation 3.anno mundi 4.TIME antemeridiem. _ a.m.5.ACCOUNTING asset management 6.associate member 7.USEDUCATION Master of Arts 8.Member in the Order of Australia
  • Am = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS americium
  • Am. = 1.American 2.BIBLE Amos
  • am = TIME in the period between midnight and noon. Full form ante meridiem (NOTE:The abbreviation a.m., from the Latin, ‘before noon', is used after a specific time in the12-hour clock. It is sometimes written AM or am.)?1.RADIO amplitude modulation 2.ONLINE Armenia (NOTE: The abbreviation am is seenat the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • AMBA = MANAGEMENT Association of MBAs
  • Amer. = American
  • AmEx = FINANCE American Express
  • Amex = STOCK EXCHANGE American Stock Exchange
  • Amicus = HUMAN RESOURCES a trade union formed by the merger of the AEEUand MSF in January 2002 (NOTE: Amicus is not an abbreviation: the name was chosenprincipally because it is Latin for ‘friend'.)7 AONB
  • AMP = BIOCHEMISTRY a compound involved in energy transfer reactions in living cells. Fullform adenosine monophosphate
  • AMPS = FINANCE auction market preferred stock
  • AMT = MANUFACTURING advanced manufacturing technology
  • AMU = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS atomic mass unit
  • amu = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS atomic mass unit
  • AMVETS = MILITARY in the United States, a private organization of veterans ofWorld War II and subsequent conflicts. Full form American Veterans
  • an = ONLINE Netherlands Antilles (NOTE: The abbreviation an is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • anal. = 1.analogous 2.analogy 3.analysis 4.analytic
  • anat. = MEDICINE 1.anatomical 2.anatomy
  • ANC = 1.POLITICS a South African political party that fought against apartheid and formedthe country's first multiracial government in 1994. Full form African NationalCongress 2.CHEMISTRY acid-neutralizing capacity
  • ANLL = MEDICINE acute nonlymphocytic leukaemia
  • ANN = COMPUTING artificial neural network
  • ann. = 1.PUBLISHING annals 2.annual 3.FINANCE annuity
  • anon. = anonymous (NOTE: The abbreviation anon.often follows a quotation of unknownauthorship.)
  • ANSI = American National Standards Institute
  • ANSI C = COMPUTING a standard version of the C programming language
  • Ant. = Antarctica
  • ant. = 1.antiquarian 2.antiquity 3.LANGUAGE antonym
  • anthrop. = 1.anthropological 2.anthropology
  • antiq. = 1.antiquarian 2.antiquity
  • ANU = EDUCATION Australian National University
  • Anzac = ARMY (member of the) Australia and New Zealand Army CorpsThe abbreviation Anzac originally applied to soldiers who served with the Australia and NewZealand Army Corps in World War I. It was subsequently used to denote any Australian or NewZealand soldier.
  • ANZCERTA = COMMERCE Australia and New Zealand Closer Economic Relations TradeAgreement
  • ANZUS = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS a defence treaty negotiated between Australia,New Zealand, and the United States in 1951. Full form Australia, New Zealand, andthe United States
  • AO = 1.Aus STOCK EXCHANGE All-Ordinaries Index 2.Officer in the Order of Australia
  • ao = ONLINE Angola (NOTE: The abbreviation ao is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • AOAI = ENVIRONMENT Area of Archaeological Importance
  • AOB = usually the last item on the agenda of a meeting. Full form any other business
  • AOC = WINE a certification for French wine that guarantees its origin and high quality. Fullform appellation d'origine contrôlée
  • AOL = COMPUTING America Online
  • AOM = ENVIRONMENT active organic matter
  • AON = STOCK EXCHANGE describing an order that must be executed in its entirety or not atall. Full form all or none
  • AONB = ENVIRONMENT an area of countryside officially designated as being special anddeserving of protection. Full form Area of Outstanding Natural BeautyAOR 8There are 41 AONBs in England and Wales. The first AONB to be designated was the Gowerpeninsula in Wales, in 1956. Other abbreviations connected with nature conservation includeESA (environmentally sensitive area), SAC (special area of conservation), SPA (specialprotection area), and SSSI (site of special scientific interest)
  • AOR = MUSIC adult-oriented rock
  • AP = 1.MILITARY Air Police 2.US TRAVEL accommodation and all meals at a hotel: the USequivalent of full board. Full form American plan 3.MILITARY antipersonnel 4.PUBLISHINGAssociated Press
  • ap = 1.FINANCE additional premium 2.PUBLISHING author's proof 3.PHARMACOLOGY beforea meal. Full form ante prandium (NOTE: The abbreviation a.p.is used in prescriptions.)
  • APA = COMPUTING all points addressable
  • APACS = BUSINESS Association for Payment Clearing Services
  • APB = 1.ACCOUNTING Accounting Principles Board 2.US CRIME a message broadcast to allpolice in a particular area, usually containing urgent information or a warning. Full formall-points bulletin 3.ACCOUNTING Auditing Practices Board
  • APC = COMMERCE average propensity to consume
  • APD = MEDICINE adult polycyclic disease
  • APEC = FINANCE Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
  • Apex = TRAVEL a system whereby air or rail tickets are available at a reduced pricewhen bought a specific period of time in advance. Full form advance-purchaseexcursion
  • APH = MEDICINE antepartum haemorrhage
  • API = 1.INDUST American Petroleum Institute 2.COMPUTING application programminginterface
  • APM = 1.COMPUTING a specification that allows an operating system such as earlierversions of Windows to control the power management features of a computer. Fullform advanced power management 2.COMMERCE average propensity to import
  • Apoc. = BIBLE 1.another name for the book of Revelation. Full form Apocalypse 2.Apocrypha
  • APP = 1.MEDICINE amyloid precursor protein 2.COMMERCE average physical product
  • app. = 1.apparatus 2.PUBLISHING appendix 3.applied 4.appointed 5.apprentice 6.approved 7.approximate
  • APPC = COMPUTING advanced program to program communications
  • approx. = 1.approximate 2.approximately
  • appt = appointment
  • APR = FINANCE 1.the annual equivalent of an interest rate quoted for a different interval,usually monthly. Full form annual percentage rate 2.annual purchase rate (NOTE: Theabbreviation APR is used to show repayment rates in hire-purchase schemes.)
  • Apr. = CALENDAR April
  • APRA = FINANCE Australian Prudential Regulation Authority
  • APS = COMMERCE average propensity to save
  • APT = RAIL advanced passenger train
  • apt = apartment
  • APV = FINANCE adjusted present value
  • APY = FINANCE annual percentage yield
  • AQ = EDUCATION achievement quotient
  • aq = ONLINE Antarctica (NOTE: The abbreviation aq is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)9 ASAP
  • aq. = 1.PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY water. Full form aqua 2.PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY asolution made in water. Full form aqua 3.CHEMISTRY aqueous
  • AQS = ECOLOGY air quality standards
  • AR = 1.ACCOUNTING a record that shows how much is owed to a company by customerswho have purchased supplies or services on credit. Full form accounts receivable 2.MAIL Arkansas (NOTE: The abbreviation AR is part of the US sorting code on the last lineof an Arkansas address.) 3.MEDICINE attributable risk
  • Ar = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS argon
  • Ar. = 1.Arabia 2.Arabian 3.LANGUAGE Arabic
  • ar. = TRAVEL 1.arrival 2.arrive
  • ARA = ARTS Associate of the Royal Academy
  • Arab. = 1.Arabia 2.Arabian 3.LANGUAGE Arabic
  • arb. = STOCK EXCHANGE arbitrageur
  • ARC = MEDICINE 1.the set of symptoms associated with infection by HIV, including weightloss and fever. Full form Aids-related complex 2.Aids-related condition
  • arch. = 1.archaic 2.archaism 3.archery 4.GEOGRAPHY archipelago 5.architect 6.architecture
  • archd. = 1.CHRISTIANITY archdeacon 2.archduke
  • archit. = architecture
  • ARD = MEDICINE acute respiratory disease
  • ARDS = MEDICINE adult respiratory distress syndrome
  • ARELS = EDUCATION Association of Recognized English Language Schools
  • aren't = 1.am not 2.are not
  • arg = COMPUTING a value that modifies how a command or junction operates in a computerprogram. Full form argument
  • ARL = RUGBY Australian Rugby League
  • ARLL = COMPUTING advanced run-length limited
  • ARM = US FINANCE adjustable-rate mortgage
  • ARP = 1.ECOLOGY acreage reduction programme 2.COMPUTING address resolution protocol3.MILITARY air-raid precautions
  • ARPANET = COMPUTING a wide area network (WAN) of the late 1960s linkinggovernment, academic, business, and military sites. Full form Advanced ResearchProjects Agency Network (NOTE: ARPANET was a precursor of the Internet.)
  • ARPS = STOCK EXCHANGE adjustable-rate preferred stock
  • ARQ = COMPUTING automatic repeat request
  • arr. = 1.MUSIC arranged 2.TRAVEL arrival 3.TRAVEL arrived 4.TRAVEL arrives
  • ART = MEDICINE assisted reproductive technology
  • art. = 1.article 2.artificial 3.ARMS artillery 4.artist
  • arty = MILITARY artillery
  • AS = 1.BANKING a term used for defining how long a person has to settle a bill after havingbeen presented with it, e.g. 30 days AS. Full form after sight 2.LANGUAGE Anglo-Saxon3.MILITARY antisubmarine
  • As = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS arsenic
  • As. = 1.Asia 2.Asian
  • as = ONLINE American Samoa (NOTE: The abbreviation as is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • AS level = EDUCATION in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, a school examinationtaken at an advanced level in a subject. It is equivalent to half an A-level. Full formAdvanced Subsidiary level (NOTE: Before 2000, the full name of the examination wasAdvanced Supplementary level.)
  • ASA = MARKETING Advertising Standards Authority
  • ASAP = as soon as possiblea.s.a.p. 10
  • asap = as soon as possible
  • ASAT = MILITARY antisatellite
  • ASB = ACCOUNTING Accounting Standards Board
  • ASBO = LAW antisocial behaviour order
  • ASC = ACCOUNTING Accounting Standards Committee
  • ASCAP = PUBLISHING American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers
  • ASCII = COMPUTING full form American Standard Code for InformationInterchange
  • ASD = MEDICINE autistic spectrum disorders
  • ASEAN = POLITICS Association of Southeast Asian Nations
  • ASF = COMPUTING Active Streaming Format
  • ASH = HEALTH Action on Smoking and Health
  • ASI = AEROSPACE airspeed indicator
  • ASIC = 1.COMPUTING application-specific integrated circuits 2.FINANCE Australian Securitiesand Investments Commission
  • ASIO = MILITARY Australian Security Intelligence Organization
  • ASIS = MILITARY Australian Secret Intelligence Service
  • ASL = LANGUAGE American Sign Language
  • ASLEF = HUMAN RESOURCES Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers andFiremen
  • ASM = ARMS air-to-surface missile
  • ASP = COMPUTING 1.a page in HTML with scripts that are processed on a server beforebeing sent to a user. Full form active server page 2.a company that provides one ormore program functions (e.g. accounting) on behalf of an enterprise, freeing it toconcentrate on its primary business. Full form application service provider
  • ASR = COMPUTING automatic send/receive
  • ASSR = POLITICS Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
  • asst = assistant
  • asstd = 1.assisted 2.assorted
  • AST = 1.TIME Atlantic Standard Time 2.STOCK EXCHANGE automated screen trading
  • astrol. = 1.astrologer 2.astrological 3.astrology
  • astron. = 1.astronomer 2.astronomical 3.astronomy
  • ASU = HUMAN RESOURCES Australian Services Union
  • ASX = STOCK EXCHANGE Australian Stock Exchange
  • AT = 1.COMPUTING a standard of PC originally developed by IBM that uses a 16-bit 80286processor. Full form Advanced Technologies 2.MILITARY antitank 3.TIME Atlantic Time4.EDUCATION attainment target
  • At = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS astatine
  • at = ONLINE Austria (NOTE: The abbreviation at is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • at. = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS atmosphere 2.PHYSICS atomic
  • at. no. = CHEMISTRY atomic number
  • at. wt = CHEMISTRY atomic weight
  • ATAPI = COMPUTING AT attachment packet interface
  • ATB = 1.VEHICLES all-terrain bike 2.EXTREME SPORTS all-terrain boarding
  • ATC = 1.AIR FORCE Air Training Corps 2.AVIAT air-traffic control11 aux.
  • ATM = 1.COMPUTING Adobe Type Manager 2.COMPUTING asynchronous transfer mode 3.BANKING another name for a cashpoint. Full form automated teller machine
  • atm. = 1.MEASUREMENTS atmosphere 2.atmospheric
  • ATO = FINANCE Australian Taxation Office
  • ATOL = AVIAT Air Travel Organizers' Licence
  • ATP = 1.BIOCHEMISTRY a chemical compound in living organisms that releases energy forcellular reactions when it converts to ADP. Full form adenosine triphosphate 2.TENNISAssociation of Tennis Professionals
  • ATPase = BIOCHEMISTRY an enzyme that aids the breakdown of ATP intoADP with a release of energy. Full form adenosine triphosphatase
  • ATS = 1.MEDICINE antitetanus serum 2.TECHNOLOGY Applications Technology Satellite 3.BANKING automatic transfer service
  • ATSIC = Aus POLITICS a federal authority representing the interests of Australia's indigenouspeoples. Full form Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission
  • att. = 1.attached 2.attention 3.LAW attorney
  • Att. Gen. = LAW Attorney General
  • attn = attention
  • attrib. = GRAMMAR attributive
  • Atty. Gen. = LAW Attorney General
  • ATV = VEHICLES all-terrain vehicle
  • AU = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS angstrom unit 2.MEASUREMENTS, ASTRONOMY astronomicalunit
  • Au = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS gold (NOTE: From the Latin aurum.)
  • au = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS angstrom unit 2.MEASUREMENTS, ASTRONOMY astronomicalunit?ONLINE Australia (NOTE: The abbreviation au is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • AUC = 1.ab urbe condita (NOTE: The abbreviation AUC, from the Latin, ‘in the year fromthe founding of the city', was used by Roman classical writers to specify dates in termsof the number of years since Rome's foundation in 753 BC.) 2.EDUCATION AustralianUniversities Commission
  • AUD = MONEY Australian dollar
  • aud. = ACCOUNTING 1.audit 2.auditor
  • Aug. = CALENDAR August
  • AUP = COMPUTING acceptable use policy
  • AUS = EDUCATION Australian Union of Students
  • Aus. = 1.Australia 2.Australian 3.Austria 4.Austrian
  • Aust. = 1.Australia 2.Australian 3.Austria 4.Austrian
  • AUSTEL = TELECOMMUNICATIONS Australian Telecommunications Authority
  • Austral. = 1.Australasia 2.Australia 3.Australian
  • AUT = 1.HUMAN RESOURCES Association of University Teachers 2.FINANCE authorized unittrust
  • auth. = 1.authentic 2.author 3.authority 4.authorized
  • AUTIF = FINANCE Association of Unit Trusts and Investment Funds
  • auto. = 1.automatic 2.MECHANICAL ENGINEERING automotive
  • aux. = auxiliaryA/UX 12
  • AV = 1.MEDIA audiovisual 2.BIBLE Authorized Version
  • Av. = ROADS avenue
  • av. = 1.average 2.MEASUREMENTS avoirdupois
  • AVA = WINE a designated grape-growing area for US wines. Full form AmericanViticultural Area (NOTE: The abbreviation AVA is used on US wine labels in a similar wayto AC or AOC on French wines.)
  • AVC = 1.PENSIONS additional voluntary contribution 2.BUSINESS average variable cost
  • avdp. = MEASUREMENTS avoirdupois
  • Ave. = ROADS avenue (NOTE: The abbreviation Ave.is used in addresses.)
  • avg. = average
  • AVM = 1.AIR FORCE Air Vice-Marshal 2.MEDICINE arteriovenous malformation
  • AVPU = MEDICINE a checklist for rating a person's level of consciousness that includesassessing his or her responsiveness to verbal and painful stimuli. Full form alert, verbal,pain, unresponsive
  • AWACS = MILITARY a radar and computer system carried in an aircraft to tracklarge numbers of low-flying aircraft. Full form airborne warning and control system
  • AWBC = WINE Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation
  • AWE = STATISTICS average weekly earnings
  • AZ = MAIL Arizona (NOTE: The abbreviation AZ is part of the US sorting code on the last lineof an Arizona address.)
  • az = ONLINE Azerbaijan (NOTE: The abbreviation az is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • az. = 1.ASTRONOMY azimuth 2.HERALDRY azure
  • AZT = PHARMACOLOGY an antiviral drug used in the treatment of Aids. Full formazidothymidine
  • B = 1.EDUCATION Bachelor (NOTE: The abbreviation B is used in degree titles, as in BSc.) 2.MUSIC bass 3.MUSIC basso 4.PHYSICS a scale for calibrating hydrometers that are used toascertain the relative density of liquids. Full form Baumé scale 5.GEOGRAPHY Bay (usedon maps) 6.MEASUREMENTS, ACOUSTICS bel 7.billion 8.CHESS bishop 9.black (NOTE: Theabbreviation B, when used on pencils, indicates that the lead is soft.) 10.book 11.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS boron 12.breadth 13.COMPUTING byte 14.COMPUTING eleven (used inhexadecimal notation) 15.PHYSICS the strength of a magnetic field multiplied by theporosity of a medium. Symbol for magnetic flux density 16.ROADS a secondary road(NOTE: The abbreviation B in this sense is used before the road number, as in B2143.)
  • b = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS a unit of nuclear cross section. Full form barn 2.MUSIC bass3.MUSIC basso 4.MEASUREMENTS, ACOUSTICS bel 5.billion 6.COMPUTING bit 7.book 8.born9.CRICKET bowled 10.breadth 11.CRICKET a run scored off a ball that has not been hitby a batsman, awarded to the team as a whole. Full form bye
  • B and S Ball = DANCE a social event held in the Australian outback for young people,typically a weekend of music, dancing, and drinking. Full form Bachelor and SpinstersBall
  • B & B = TRAVEL bed and breakfastThe abbreviation is sometimes used as a noun to denote a relatively small, informal, andinexpensive establishment offering such accommodation, especially a guesthouse or privatehome as opposed to a hotel.
  • B/D = 1.BANKING bank draft 2.BANKING banker's draft 3.BANKING bills discounted 4.ACCOUNTING brought down
  • b/f = ACCOUNTING brought forward
  • b.i.d. = PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY twice a day (NOTE: The abbreviation b.i.d., from the Latinut dictum, is used in prescriptions.)
  • B-ISDN = COMPUTING broadband ISDN
  • B/O = ACCOUNTING brought over
  • b.o. = 1.COMMERCE branch office 2.STOCK EXCHANGE broker's order 3.STOCK EXCHANGEbuyer's option
  • B/P = FINANCE bills payable
  • B/R = FINANCE bills receivable
  • B/S = ACCOUNTING balance sheet
  • b.s. = 1.ACCOUNTING balance sheet 2.COMMERCE bill of sale
  • b.v. = ACCOUNTING book value
  • B & W = PHOTOGRAPHY, TV, CINEMA black-and-whitebar. 14
  • B2B = E-COMMERCE business-to-business
  • B2C = E-COMMERCE business-to-consumer
  • B4 = ONLINE before (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • B4N = ONLINE bye for now (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • BA = 1.EDUCATION Bachelor of Arts 2.WINE German term meaning ‘selected berries', usedto refer to grapes selected by hand before pressing. Full form Beerenauslese 3.BritishAcademy 4.British Airways 5.SCIENCE British Association (for the Advancement ofScience)
  • Ba = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS barium
  • BAA = ACCOUNTING British Accounting Association
  • BAC = BIOTECHNOLOGY a sequence of DNA taken from another organism and inserted in abacterium to reveal its function. Full form bacterial artificial chromosome
  • BACS = BUSINESS a system for transferring funds directly from one bank account toanother. It is used, e.g., by companies making payments to regular suppliers. Full formBankers' Automated Clearing System
  • bact. = MICROBIOLOGY 1.bacteria 2.bacteriology
  • bacteriol. = MICROBIOLOGY bacteriology
  • BADC = ACCOUNTING Business Accounting Deliberation Council of Japan
  • BAFTA = CINEMA British Academy of Film and Television Arts
  • BAHA = MEDICINE bone anchored hearing aid
  • BAL = MEDICINE dimercaprol: an antidote to heavy metal poisoning. Full form British antilewisite
  • BAN = BANKING a short-term bond issued in anticipation of a larger bond issue. Full formbond anticipation note
  • Bar. = 1.LAW barrister 2.BIBLE Baruch
  • bar. = 1.METEOROLOGY barometer 2.METEOROLOGY barometric 3.MEASUREMENTS barrel (NOTE:The abbreviation BAR is used in the oil and brewing industries.)
  • BARB = BROADCASTING Broadcasters' Audience Research Board
  • BArch = EDUCATION Bachelor of Architecture
  • BARS = BUSINESS a method of assessing employee's performance according to theirbehaviour. Full form behaviourally anchored rating scales
  • Bart = baronet
  • BAS = 1.EDUCATION Bachelor of Agricultural Science 2.EDUCATION Bachelor of AppliedScience 3.Aus BUSINESS a tax statement made yearly by businesses. Full form BusinessActivity Statement
  • BASc = EDUCATION 1.Bachelor of Agricultural Science 2.Bachelor of Applied Science
  • BASIC = COMPUTING a high-level computer programming language that usescommon English terms and algebra. Full form Beginners All-purpose SymbolicInstruction Code
  • BASW = SOCIAL WELFARE British Association of Social Workers
  • BAT = COMPUTING a filename extension used in MS-DOS systems to signify a batch file(i.e. a computer file containing a series of commands to be processed as if they wereentered from the keyboard consecutively). Full form batch
  • bat. = 1.COMPUTING batch 2.MILITARY battalion
  • BATNEEC = ENVIRONMENT a principle applied to the control of emissions into theair, land, and water from polluting processes, minimizing pollution without requiringtechnology or methods that are not yet available or unreasonably expensive. Full formbest available technology not entailing excessive cost
  • BB = 1.Boys' Brigade 2.ONLINE bye-bye (used in e-mails and text messages) 3.double black(NOTE: The abbreviation BB, when used on pencils, indicates that the lead is very soft.)
  • bb = ONLINE Barbados (NOTE: The abbreviation bb is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • BBA = 1.EDUCATION Bachelor of Business Administration 2.BANKING British Bankers'Association
  • BBC = BROADCASTING British Broadcasting Corporation (NOTE: The abbreviation BBC itself issometimes informally shortened to Beeb.)
  • BBFC = CINEMA British Board of Film Classification
  • bbl = MEASUREMENTS barrel (NOTE: The abbreviation BBL is used in the oil and brewingindustries.)
  • BBQ = FOOD barbecue
  • BBS = ONLINE an online forum used to exchange e-mails, chat, and access software. Fullform bulletin board system
  • BC = 1.ONLINE because (used in e-mails and text messages) 2.CALENDAR before Christ 3.MEDICINE bone conduction 4.British Columbia 5.FINANCE budgetary controlThe abbreviation BC is used to indicate a date that is a specified number of years before thebirth of Jesus Christ. The alternative BCE (before the Common Era) may be used to avoid theassociation with Christianity.
  • BCA = COMMERCE Business Council of Australia
  • BCC = 1.COMPUTING an error detection method for blocks of transmitted data. Full formblock character check 2.HEALTH Breast Cancer Campaign 3.COMMERCE BritishChambers of Commerce15 BER
  • bcc = COMPUTING a copy of an e-mail sent to somebody at the same time as the originalmessage without the primary addressee being aware of this. Full form blind carboncopy
  • BCCS = FINANCE Board of Currency Commissioners
  • BCD = COMPUTING a numbering system in which each digit of a decimal is converted into abinary number. Full form binary coded decimal
  • BCE = 1.US EDUCATION Bachelor of Chemical Engineering 2.EDUCATION Bachelor of CivilEngineering 3.CALENDAR before the Common Era (NOTE: The abbreviation BCE is usedafter a date as the non-Christian equivalent of BC.)
  • BCG = PHARMACOLOGY an anti-tuberculosis vaccine made from a weakened strain of thetubercle bacillus. Full form bacillus Calmette-Guérin (vaccine) (NOTE: The abbreviationBCG is used as a noun denoting an injection of this vaccine.)
  • BCh = EDUCATION Bachelor of Surgery (NOTE: From the Latin Baccalaureus Chirurgiae.)
  • BCH code = COMPUTING an error-correcting code. Full form Bose-Chandhuri-Hocquenghem code
  • BChE = EDUCATION Bachelor of Chemical Engineering
  • BCL = Bachelor of Civil Law
  • BCNF = COMPUTING a method of structuring information in a database to improve storageefficiency. Full form Boyce-Codd normal form
  • BCNU = ONLINE be seeing you (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • BCNZ = BROADCASTING Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand
  • BCPL = COMPUTING a high-level programming language. Full form Basic CombinedProgramming Language
  • BCS = COMPUTING 1.a system that runs dedicated programs or tasks for a central computer.Full form basic control system (satellite) 2.British Computer Society
  • BD = 1.EDUCATION Bachelor of Divinity 2.MEDICINE Borna disease
  • bd = 1.ONLINE Bangladesh (NOTE: The abbreviation bd is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.NAUTICAL board 3.FINANCE bond 4.PUBLISHING bound
  • bd ft = MEASUREMENTS, CONSTRUCTION a unit of volume for timber, equal to the volume of aboard that is one foot square and one inch thick. Full form board foot
  • BDA = DENTISTRY British Dental Association
  • BDI = BUSINESS a measure of a brand's sales in an area in relation to the number of peopleliving there. Full form brand development index
  • Bdr = MILITARY Bombardier
  • BDS = EDUCATION Bachelor of Dental Surgery
  • bds = 1.PUBLISHING bound in boards 2.bundles
  • BE = 1.EDUCATION Bachelor of Education 2.EDUCATION Bachelor of Engineering 3.COMMERCEa document setting out an instruction to pay a named person a fixed sum of money ona specified date or when the person requests payment. Full form bill of exchange
  • Be = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS beryllium
  • be = ONLINE Belgium (NOTE: The abbreviation be is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • BEC = COMPUTING a device that extends an 8-bit bus to accommodate 16-bit add-in cards.Full form bus extension card
  • BECTU = Broadcasting, Entertainment, and Cinematograph Technicians Union
  • BEd = EDUCATION Bachelor of Education
  • Beds. = Bedfordshire
  • beds = bedrooms (used in property advertisements)
  • BEF = the British Army that served overseas during World War I and World War II. Full formBritish Expeditionary Force
  • BER = COMPUTING 1.basic encoding rule 2.bit error rateBerks. 16
  • Berks. = Berkshire
  • betcha = a form of ‘bet you' used mainly in conversation
  • BF = Belgian franc
  • bf = 1.bloody fool 2.PRINTING boldface
  • BFE = STOCK EXCHANGE Baltic Futures Exchange
  • BFI = CINEMA British Film Institute
  • BFN = ONLINE bye for now (NOTE: The abbreviation BFN, now used in e-mails or textmessages, predates modern technology, having been in general informal use since themid-20th century or earlier.)
  • BFPO = MILITARY British Forces Post Office
  • BG = N Am MILITARY Brigadier General
  • bg = ONLINE Bulgaria (NOTE: The abbreviation bg is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • BGC = BANKING bank giro credit
  • BGP = COMPUTING a protocol that allows routers to share routing information to allow eachrouter to calculate the most efficient path for information. Full form border gatewayprotocol
  • Bh = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS bohrium
  • bh = ONLINE Bahrain (NOTE: The abbreviation bh is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • BHC = CHEMISTRY benzene hexachloride
  • Bhd = BUSINESS a Malay word meaning limited, when referring to businesses in Malaysia.Full form Berhad
  • bhp = MECHANICAL ENGINEERING brake horsepower
  • BHT = CHEMISTRY a crystalline solid used as an antioxidant for fats and oils. Full formbutylated hydroxytoluene
  • Bi = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS bismuth
  • bi = ONLINE Burundi (NOTE: The abbreviation ac is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Bib. = RELIGION 1.Bible 2.biblical
  • bibl. = PUBLISHING bibliography
  • bid = PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY twice a day (NOTE: The abbreviation b.i.d., from the Latinut dictum, is used in prescriptions.)
  • BIM = COMMERCE British Institute of Management
  • BIN = BUSINESS a six-digit number used to identify banks for charge-card purposes. Full formbank identification number
  • BIND = COMPUTING software that provides the functions of a Domain Name Server forserver computers running BSD UNIX. Full form Berkeley Internet Name Domain
  • biog. = LITERATURE 1.biographer 2.biographical 3.biography
  • biol. = 1.biological 2.biology
  • BIOS = COMPUTING a small unerasable computer program that contains theinstructions needed to begin operation and controls the data flow between theoperating system and application programs and the hardware devices. Full form basicinput-output system
  • BIPS = E-COMMERCE bank Internet payment system
  • BIS = BANKING Bank for International Settlements
  • BITC = COMPUTING a time code that is transmitted with a video signal and appears on thescreen. Full form burned in time code17 BO
  • bitmp = COMPUTING a representation of a graphics image in computer memoryconsisting of rows and columns of dots, each corresponding to a pixel. Full form bitmap
  • BITNET = COMPUTING a network similar to the Internet, used to connect mainlyacademic sites. Full form Because It's Time Network
  • BIX = COMPUTING a commercial online system founded by Byte magazine. Full form ByteInformation Exchange
  • biz = ONLINE business (NOTE: The abbreviation biz is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • BJP = POLITICS the political party currently in power in India. Full form Bharatiya JanataParty
  • BJT = ELECTRICITY bipolar junction transistor
  • Bk = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS berkelium
  • bk = 1.BANKING bank 2.book
  • bks = 1.MILITARY barracks 2.books
  • BL = 1.EDUCATION Bachelor of Law 2.EDUCATION Bachelor of Letters 3.US LAW Barrister-at-Law 4.FREIGHT bill of lading 5.LIBRARIES British Library
  • bl = barrel
  • bldg = building
  • BLit = EDUCATION Bachelor of Literature
  • BLitt = Bachelor of Letters (or Literature) (NOTE: From the Latin Baccalaureus Litterarum.)
  • blk = 1.block 2.bulk
  • BLL = EDUCATION Bachelor of Laws
  • blob = COMPUTING a field in a database record that can contain a large amount ofbinary data. Full form binary large object
  • BLT = FOOD bacon, lettuce, and tomato (sandwich)
  • Blvd = ROADS Boulevard
  • BM = 1.EDUCATION Bachelor of Medicine 2.bench mark 3.ARTS British Museum
  • bm = 1.MEASUREMENTS, CONSTRUCTION a system for measuring timber volume based on theboard foot (bd ft). Full form board measure 2.PHYSIOLOGY bowel movement
  • BMA = MEDICINE British Medical Association
  • BMI = HEALTH a measure of body fat content, found by dividing a person's weight in kgs bytheir height in metres squared. Full form body mass index
  • BMJ = MEDICINE British Medical Journal
  • BMP = COMPUTING a filename extension indicating that the file contains a bitmappedgraphics image. Full form bitmap
  • BMR = BIOLOGY the rate at which an organism consumes oxygen while awake but at rest.Full form basal metabolic rate
  • BMus = EDUCATION Bachelor of Music
  • BMX = CYCLING the riding or racing of bicycles designed for use on rough terrain or opencountry. Full form bicycle motocross (NOTE: The abbreviation BMX is often used beforea noun, as in a BMX bike.)
  • Bn = 1.baron 2.MILITARY battalion
  • bn = 1.MILITARY battalion 2.billion 3.ONLINE Brunei (NOTE: The abbreviation bn is seen atthe end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • BNF = 1.COMPUTING a system of writing and expressing the syntax of a programminglanguage. Full form Backus-Naur-Form 2.PHARMACOLOGY British National Formulary
  • BNFL = INDUST British Nuclear Fuels Ltd
  • BO = 1.PHYSIOLOGY body odour 2.PERFORMING ARTS box office 3.COMMERCE branch officeb.o. 18The abbreviation BO is used as a noun with reference to the condition of people who smellunpleasant because of excessive sweating or poor personal hygiene, as in He has BO. The termwas originally coined by a deodorant advertiser in 1919.
  • bo = 1.COMMERCE branch office 2.STOCK EXCHANGE broker's order 3.STOCK EXCHANGEbuyer's option?ONLINE Bolivia (NOTE: The abbreviation bo is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • BOD = ENVIRONMENT a measure of the pollution present in water, obtained by measuringthe amount of oxygen absorbed from the water by the microorganisms present in it. Fullform biochemical oxygen demand
  • BOF = COMPUTING beginning of file
  • BOGOF = COMMERCE buy one, get one free (NOTE: The abbreviation BOGOF isused as a noun to denote such promotions, but advertisements and in-store signsusually bear the full form.)
  • BOJ = BANKING Bank of Japan
  • Bol. = 1.Bolivia 2.Bolivian
  • BOP = ECONOMICS balance of payments
  • BOSS = POLITICS a South African intelligence organization during the apartheid era.Full form Bureau of State Security
  • BOT = 1.ECONOMICS balance of trade 2.COMPUTING beginning of tape 3.COMMERCE Boardof Trade
  • BoT = COMMERCE Board of Trade
  • bot. = 1.botanical 2.botany
  • BP = 1.ARCHAEOLOGY a calendar system used in chronological dating. Full form before thepresent 2.FINANCE bills payable 3.MEDICINE blood pressure 4.PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRYBritish Pharmacopoeia (NOTE: The abbreviation BP is used on product labels to indicatecompliance with the specified quality standards.)
  • bp = 1.baptized 2.GENETICS a chemical unit linking complementary strands of DNA or RNA.Full form base pair 3.FINANCE bills payable 4.birthplace 5.CHESS bishop 6.CHEMISTRYboiling point
  • BPC = PHARMACOLOGY British Pharmaceutical Codex
  • BPH = MEDICINE benign prostatic hypertrophy
  • BPharm = EDUCATION Bachelor of Pharmacy
  • BPhil = EDUCATION Bachelor of Philosophy
  • bpi = MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING 1.bits per inch 2.bytes per inch
  • bpp = COMPUTING bits per pixel
  • BPR = BUSINESS the analysis of business practices and redesign of these to improveefficiency. Full form business process re-engineering
  • bps = MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING a measurement of data transfer speed, e.g. in modemsand serial ports. Full form bits per second
  • Bq = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS becquerel
  • BR = 1.US ONLINE bathroom (used in e-mails and text messages) 2.bedroom (used inproperty advertisements) 3.RAIL British Rail
  • Br = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS bromine
  • Br. = 1.Britain 2.British 3.RELIGION Brother
  • br = 1.FINANCE bills receivable 2.ONLINE Brazil (NOTE: The abbreviation br is seen at the endof Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • br. = 1.branch 2.METALLURGY brass 3.LAW brief 4.METALLURGY bronze 5.brother 6.brown
  • BRAD = BUSINESS British Rate and Data19 BThU
  • Braz. = 1.Brazil 2.Brazilian
  • BRCS = HEALTH British Red Cross Society
  • BRE = 1.EDUCATION Bachelor of Religious Education 2.CONSTRUCTION Building ResearchEstablishment
  • Brig. = MILITARY 1.brigade 2.Brigadier
  • Brig. Gen. = N Am MILITARY Brigadier General
  • Brit. = 1.Britain 2.British
  • bro. = brother
  • Bros. = COMMERCE brothers
  • BS = 1.US EDUCATION Bachelor of Surgery 2.COMPUTING backspace 3.COMMERCE bill of sale4.PUBLISHING British Standard (NOTE: The abbreviation BS is used as part of the numberof a BSI publication: BS EN 771–1.) 5.N Am bullshit
  • bs = 1.ACCOUNTING balance sheet 2.COMMERCE bill of sale?ONLINE Bahamas (NOTE: The abbreviation bs is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Bs/L = FREIGHT bills of lading
  • BSA = FINANCE Building Societies Association
  • BSAM = COMPUTING a method of storing and retrieving blocks of data in a continuoussequence. Full form basic sequential access method
  • BSB = MEASUREMENTS, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING British Standard brass (NOTE: The abbreviationBSB is used to identify a type of screw thread.)
  • BSc = EDUCATION Bachelor of Science
  • BSD = COMPUTING Berkeley Software Distribution
  • BSE = VETERINARY MEDICINE a disease that affects the nervous system of cattle, believed tobe caused by a prion (an abnormal transmissible protein) and related to CJD in humans.Full form bovine spongiform encephalopathyThe abbreviation BSE is used as a noun, and the full form is rarely encountered in generalusage. BSE caused major problems for the British meat industry in the late 20th century andbecame informally known as ‘mad cow disease'.
  • BSF = MEASUREMENTS, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING British Standard fine (NOTE: The abbreviationBSF is used to identify a type of screw thread.)
  • bsh. = MEASUREMENTS bushel
  • BSI = COMMERCE British Standards Institution
  • BSL = LANGUAGE British Sign Language
  • BSN = EDUCATION Bachelor of Science in Nursing
  • BSP = MEASUREMENTS, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING British Standard pipe (NOTE: The abbreviationBSP is used to identify a type of screw thread.)
  • BSS = COMMERCE British Standards Specification
  • BST = 1.AGRICULTURE a hormone in cattle that regulates growth and milk production. Fullform bovine somatotrophin 2.TIME British Summer Time
  • BSW = MEASUREMENTS, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING British Standard Whitworth (NOTE: Theabbreviation BSW is used to identify a type of screw thread.)
  • BT = TELECOMMUNICATIONS British Telecommunications plc
  • Bt = baronet
  • bt = ONLINE Bhutan (NOTE: The abbreviation bt is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • BTEC = EDUCATION Business and Technology Education Council
  • BTG = BUSINESS British Technology Group
  • BThU = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS British thermal unitBTI 20
  • BTI = FINANCE Business Times Industrial index
  • btry = MILITARY battery
  • BTU = MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY a unit for measuring electrical energy, equal to 1 kilowatthour.Full form Board of Trade Unit
  • btu = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS British thermal unit
  • BTW = ONLINE by the way (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • bty = MILITARY battery
  • bu. = MEASUREMENTS bushel
  • BUAV = British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection
  • Bucks. = Buckinghamshire
  • Bur. = 1.Burma 2.Burmese
  • bus. = business
  • bv = ACCOUNTING book value
  • BVM = CHRISTIANITY Blessed Virgin Mary
  • BW = 1.MILITARY bacteriological warfare 2.MILITARY biological warfare 3.PHOTOGRAPHY, TVblack-and-white
  • bw = ONLINE Botswana (NOTE: The abbreviation bw is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • BWG = MEASUREMENTS, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING a numerical system for specifying thediameter of metal rods. Full form Birmingham Wire Gauge
  • BWI = 1.AVIAT Baltimore-Washington International Airport 2.British West Indies
  • BWR = INDUST boiling-water reactor
  • BWV = MUSIC Bach Werke-Verzeichnis (NOTE: The abbreviation BWV, from the German,‘catalogue of Bach's works', is used before numbers identifying the works of J. S. Bach:BWV402.)
  • by = ONLINE Belarus (NOTE: The abbreviation by is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • BYAM = ONLINE between you and me (used in e-mails)
  • BYO = ANZ LEISURE a restaurant, party, or event to which guests bring their own alcoholicbeverages. Full form bring your own
  • BYOB = LEISURE bring your own bottle (NOTE: The abbreviation BOYB is used on partyinvitations to indicate that guests should bring their own alcoholic beverages.)
  • bz = ONLINE Belize (used in Internet addresses) (NOTE: The abbreviation bz is seen at the endof Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • C = 1.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING capacitance 2.MAPS cape 3.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS carbon 4.BUILDINGS castle 5.CHRISTIANITY Catholic 6.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS Celsius 7.MEASUREMENTScenti- 8.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS centigrade 9.HISTORY century 10.POLITICS Chancellor 11.PHYSICS a quantum characteristic of elementary particles. Full form charm 12.MANAGEMENT chief 13.city 14.EDUCATION college 15.MILITARY Companion 16.POLITICSCongress 17.POLITICS Conservative 18.MILITARY corps 19.MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITYcoulomb 20.court 21.BIOCHEMISTRY cytosine 22.PHYSICS heat capacity 23.ONLINE seeThe abbreviation C used after a temperature can stand for Celsius or centigrade, as both scalesare based on a range of 100 degrees between the freezing and boiling points of water.However, Celsius is now the preferred term in most contexts.
  • c = 1.cancelled 2.canine 3.MEASUREMENTS carat 4.BUSINESS carbon (paper) 5.carton 6.case7.SPORTS catcher 8.SPORTS caught by 9.MONEY cedi 10.MONEY cent 11.MONEY centavo12.MEASUREMENTS centi- 13.MONEY centime 14.MEASUREMENTS centimetre 15.centre 16.HISTORY century 17.PUBLISHING chapter 18.PHYSICS a quantum characteristic ofelementary particles. Full form charm 19.VIDEO the part of a video signal that carriescolour information. Symbol for chrominance 20.CHRISTIANITY church 21.CALENDAR circa(NOTE: The abbreviation c is chiefly used before dates that are approximate or estimated.)22.ELECTRICITY circuit 23.MATHEMATICS circumference 24.clockwise 25.METEOROLOGYcloudy 26.SCIENCE coefficient 27.cold 28.ANATOMY colon 29.colour 30.ZOOLOGY colt31.CHEMISTRY concentration 32.MATHEMATICS constant 33.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSconsul 34.MUSIC contralto 35.BUSINESS copy 36.LAW copyright (NOTE: The abbreviationc usually appears in the form of the symbol ©, before the name of the copyright-holder.)37.MILITARY corps 38.FINANCE cost 39.MEASUREMENTS cubic 40.MEASUREMENTS, NUCLEARPHYSICS curie 41.PHYSICS the speed of light in a vacuum
  • C/A = 1.FINANCE capital account 2.FINANCE credit account 3.BANKING current account
  • c/a = BANKING current account
  • C and F = FREIGHT cost and freight
  • C and G = EDUCATION a technical or craft qualification awarded by the City and GuildsInstitute. Full form City and Guilds
  • C and M = INDUSTRY the condition in which a site such as a factory, shipyard, or machineryis kept when it is ready for immediate use at any time. Full form care and maintenance
  • C and W = MUSIC country and western
  • c/d = 1.ACCOUNTING carried down 2.STOCK EXCHANGE with a right to the current dividendwhen buying a security. Full form cum dividend
  • c/f = ACCOUNTING carried forward
  • C/H = INDUST central heating
  • C & I = FREIGHT cost and insurance
  • c.i.f.c.i. = FREIGHT cost, insurance, freight, commission, and interest (NOTE: The abbreviationc.i.f.c.i.is used in quotes to indicate what is included in the price.)
  • C in C = MILITARY Commander in Chief
  • c.m. = 1.PHYSICS centre of mass 2.MILITARY court martial
  • c'mon = /k?| m?n/ come on
  • C/N = 1.MEDICINE charge nurse 2.INSURANCE cover note 3.COMMERCE credit note
  • c/o = 1.MAIL care of (NOTE: The abbreviation c/o is used in addresses, typically when theintended recipient of the item is not a permanent resident at the address.) 2.ACCOUNTINGcarried over
  • C of C = COMMERCE chamber of commerce
  • C of E = CHRISTIANITY Church of England
  • C of S = MILITARY chief of staff
  • C-SPAN = TV a US cable television channel that focuses chiefly on public affairssuch as Congressional hearings and cultural and social issues. Full form Cable SatellitePublic Affairs Network
  • C2B = E-COMMERCE consumer-to-business
  • C2C = E-COMMERCE consumer-to-consumer
  • CA = 1.MAIL California (NOTE: The abbreviation CA is part of the US sorting code on the lastline of a California address.) 2.GEOGRAPHY Central America 3.GEOGRAPHY CentralAmerican 4.E-COMMERCE an independent server or authority on the internet that issuescertificates guaranteeing the authenticity of a company. Full form certificate authority5.ACCOUNTING certified accountant 6.ACCOUNTING chartered accountant 7.ACCOUNTINGchief accountant 8.MEDICINE somebody's real age, as opposed to the age suggested bymental or physical development. Full form chronological age 9.INTERNATIONALRELATIONS consular agent 10.COMMERCE Consumers' Association
  • Ca = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS calcium
  • ca = 1.ONLINE Canada (NOTE: The abbreviation ca is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.CALENDAR circa (NOTE: The abbreviation ca (or ca.) is chiefly usedbefore dates that are approximate or estimated.)
  • CAA = AVIAT Civil Aviation Authority
  • CAAT = E-COMMERCE a web-based manager that allows a certificate authority to issuedigital certificates. Full form certificate authority administration tool
  • CAB = 1.Citizens Advice Bureau 2.AVIAT an organisation responsible for promoting andregulating the civil air transport industry. Full form Civil Aeronautics Board
  • Cab = WINE Cabernet SauvignonCAB 22
  • CABG = MEDICINE coronary artery bypass graft
  • CAC = COMMERCE Central Arbitration Committee
  • CAD = 1.COMMERCE cash against documents 2.COMPUTING computer-aided (or -assisted) design
  • CADCAM = COMPUTING computer-aided (or -assisted) design andmanufacturing (or manufacture)
  • CAE = COMPUTING computer-aided (or -assisted) engineering
  • CAF = FREIGHT cost and freight
  • CAI = COMPUTING computer-assisted (or -aided) instruction
  • CAL = 1.calendar 2.MEASUREMENTS calibre 3.COMPUTING computer-assisted (or -aided)learning
  • Cal = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS large calorie
  • Cal. = GEOGRAPHY California
  • cal = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS calorie
  • Calif. = GEOGRAPHY California
  • CAM = 1.MEDICINE complementary and alternative medicine 2.COMPUTING computer-aided(or -assisted) manufacturing (or manufacture) 3.COMPUTING a method of storing data sothat it can be searched for using part of the data, rather than an address. Full formcontent-addressable memory
  • Camb. = GEOGRAPHY Cambridge
  • Cambs. = GEOGRAPHY Cambridgeshire
  • CAMRA = BEVERAGES Campaign for Real Ale
  • Can. = GEOGRAPHY 1.Canadian 2.Canada
  • can. = 1.cancellation 2.cancelled 3.MILITARY cannon 4.MUSIC canon 5.POETRY canto
  • can't = cannot
  • canc. = 1.cancellation 2.cancelled
  • CANDU = INDUST Canada deuterium-uranium (reactor)
  • cannot = the usual way of writing ‘can not'
  • Cant. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Canterbury 2.BIBLE Canticle of Canticles
  • CAP = 1.POLITICS Common Agricultural Policy 2.COMPUTING computer-aided (or -assisted) production 3.COMPUTING computer-aided (or -assisted) publishing
  • cap. = 1.MEASUREMENTS capacity 2.capital 3.PRINTING capital letter 4.capitalize 5.ANATOMYcaput
  • CAPD = MEDICINE a type of dialysis in which the patient can manually control the flow ofdialysing fluid through their abdomen from a portable belt-attached bag. Full formcontinuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
  • CAPEX = FINANCE capital expenditure
  • CAPM = FINANCE capital asset pricing model
  • caps. = 1.PRINTING capital letters 2.PHARMACOLOGY capsule
  • Capt. = MILITARY Captain23 CC
  • car. = MEASUREMENTS carat
  • Card. = CHRISTIANITY Cardinal
  • CARE = SOCIAL WELFARE Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere
  • Carib. = GEOGRAPHY Caribbean
  • CARICOM = ECONOMICS Caribbean Community and Common Market
  • CARIFTA = ECONOMICS Caribbean Free Trade Association
  • CAS = AEROSPACE calibrated airspeed
  • CASE = COMPUTING 1.computer-aided (or -assisted) software engineering 2.computer-aided (or -assisted) systems engineering
  • CAT = 1.AVIAT clear-air turbulence 2.EDUCATION College of Advanced Technology 3.COMPUTING computer-aided (or -assisted) testing 4.STOCK EXCHANGE computer-assisted(or -aided) trading 5.COMPUTING computer-assisted (or -aided) training 6.MEDICINE aformer name for computed tomography (CT) _ CAT scan Full form computerized axialtomography 7.ECOLOGY the population density of a species at which control measuresmust be put into place before it can become a pest. Full form control action threshold
  • Cath. = 1.BUILDINGS cathedral 2.CHRISTIANITY Catholic
  • cath. = ELECTRONICS cathode
  • CATV = US TV another name for cable television. Full form community antennatelevision
  • CAV = COMPUTING a CD-ROM that spins at a constant speed. Full form constant angularvelocity
  • cav. = MILITARY cavalry
  • CB = 1.ONLINE call back (used in e-mails and text messages) 2.BUSINESS cash book 3.WINEchateau-bottled 4.RADIO radio frequencies used by the general public to talk to oneanother over short distances. Full form Citizens Band 5.MILITARY Companion of the(Order of the) Bath (NOTE: The abbreviation CB is used as a title: Major General JamesWokingham CB.) 6.METEOROLOGY cumulonimbus
  • CBC = BROADCASTING Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
  • CBD = 1.FREIGHT cash before delivery 2.BUSINESS central business district
  • cbd = FREIGHT cash before delivery
  • CBE = MILITARY Commander of the (Order of the) British Empire (NOTE: The abbreviation CBEis used as a title: Harvey Weinstein CBE.)
  • CBI = 1.COMPUTING computer-based instruction 2.INDUSTRY Confederation of BritishIndustry
  • CBOT = BUSINESS Chicago Board of Trade
  • CBR = COMPUTING constant bit rate
  • CBS = BROADCASTING Columbia Broadcasting System
  • CBT = COMPUTING computer-based training
  • CBW = MILITARY chemical and biological warfare
  • CC = 1.PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION City Council 2.BUSINESS a corporation which is owned andcontrolled by a small number of people and whose shares are not available to thegeneral public. Full form close corporation 3.PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION County Council 4.CRICKET Cricket ClubCCA 24
  • cc = 1.BUSINESS carbon copy (NOTE: The abbreviation cc also refers to a copy of an e-mailsent to a person other than the primary addressee.) 2.LITERATURE chapters 3.ONLINECocos Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation cc is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 4.MEASUREMENTS cubic capacity 5.MEASUREMENTS cubic centimetre _a 600cc motorbike (NOTE: The abbreviation cc is perhaps most frequently encounteredwith reference to the power of an internal-combustion engine.)
  • CCA = 1.E-COMMERCE cardholder certificate authority 2.ACCOUNTING current-costaccounting
  • CCAB = ACCOUNTING Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies
  • CCD = COMPUTING a semiconductor device that converts light patterns into digital signalsfor a computer, especially in digital cameras and optical scanners. Full form chargecoupleddevice
  • CCF = MILITARY Combined Cadet Force
  • CCITT = COMPUTING an international committee that defines communications protocolsand standards. Full form Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique etTélégraphique
  • CCTV = TV a television system in which cameras transmit pictures by cable to connectedmonitors, frequently used for the deterrence or detection of crime. Full form closedcircuittelevision
  • CCU = HEALTH SERVICES coronary care unit
  • CD = 1.COMPUTING a signal generated by a modem to inform the local computer that it hasdetected a remote modem. Full form carrier detect 2.BANKING certificate of deposit 3.MILITARY Civil Defence 4.RECORDING compact disc (NOTE: The abbreviation CD is used asa noun in its own right, referring both to pre-recorded audio CDs and to those used incomputing to copy or transfer data files.) 5.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Corps Diplomatique(NOTE: The abbreviation CD is often displayed on the backs of cars belonging toembassies.)
  • Cd = 1.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS cadmium 2.POLITICS command (paper) (NOTE: The abbreviationCd, followed by a serial number, identifies a government document presented toParliament, historically by royal command.)
  • cd = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS candela
  • CD-E = COMPUTING a compact disc that can have its contents erased and replaced withsomething else. Full form compact disc erasable
  • CD+G = COMPUTING a compact disc for karaoke use which contains the music to sing toand graphics that appear on a video screen at the same time. Full form compact discand graphics
  • CD-I = COMPUTING an interactive compact disc containing text, video, and audio, andaccessed using a self-contained player plugged into a television set. Full form compactdisc interactive
  • CD-R = COMPUTING a compact disc that can have its contents erased and replaced withsomething else. Full form compact disc recordable
  • CD-ROM = COMPUTING a compact disc containing a large amount of data,including text and images, that can be viewed using a computer but cannot be alteredor erased. Full form compact disc read-only memory
  • CD-ROM/XA = COMPUTING a compact disc with reduced error-detection coding allowingmore data storage space. Full form CD-ROM Extended Architecture
  • CD-RW = COMPUTING a compact disc that can have its contents erased and replaced withsomething else many times. Full form compact disc rewritable
  • CD-WO = COMPUTING a compact disc that can have its contents written only once. Fullform compact disc write once
  • cdf = STATISTICS a procedure that assigns to each possible value of a random variable theprobability that this value will be found. Full form cumulative distribution function
  • CDH = MEDICINE congenital dislocation of the hip
  • CDM = ENVIRONMENT an international agreement (part of the Kyoto Protocol) to worktowards reducing greenhouse gas emissions and to help developing countries to do thesame. Full form Clean Development Mechanism
  • cDNA = GENETICS synthetically-produced single-strand DNA. Full form complementaryDNA
  • CDR = MILITARY Commander
  • Cdr = MILITARY Commander
  • Cdre = MILITARY Commodore25 cert.
  • CDRTOS = COMPUTING an operating system used to run a CD-I hardware platform. Fullform compact disc real-time operating system
  • CDSC = FINANCE a fee that must be paid when selling an investment under certaincircumstances. Full form contingent deferred sales charge
  • CDT = EDUCATION a subject that can be studied to GCSE level. Full form Craft, Design, andTechnology
  • CDTV = COMPUTING a CD-ROM standard combining audio, graphics, and text that is mainlyintended as an interactive system for home use, with the player connected to atelevision and also able to play audio CDs. Full form Commodore Dynamic TotalVision
  • CDV = VIDEO a compact disc used to store and play back video images, or a player for suchdiscs. Full form compact disc video
  • CE = 1.CHRISTIANITY Church of England 2.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING chemical engineer 3.ENGINEERING chief engineer 4.CIVIL ENGINEERING civil engineer 5.CALENDAR Common Era(NOTE: The abbreviation CE is sometimes used after a date as a non-Christian alternativefor AD.) 6.ECOLOGY consumption efficiency 7.ONLINE creative editing (used in e-mails) 8.ECONOMICS Communaute Européenne
  • Ce = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS cerium
  • CEGEP = in Quebec, a post-secondary education institution that offers two-yearprogrammes leading to university and three-year programmes qualifying students in avariety of professions and trades. Full form Collège d'Enseignement Général etProfessionnel (NOTE: From the French, ‘College of General and ProfessionalEducation'.)
  • CEIC = COMMERCE in the United States, a corporation whose capitalization is fixed, whosecapital is invested in other companies, and whose own shares are traded by outsideinvestors. Full form closed-end investment company
  • cen. = 1.central 2.TIME century
  • CENELEC = ELECTRICITY an EU organization that controls the standard ofelectrical goods. Full form Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique(NOTE: From the French, ‘European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization'.)
  • CEng = ENGINEERING chartered engineer
  • cent. = 1.MEASUREMENTS centigrade 2.central 3.TIME century
  • CEO = MANAGEMENT chief executive officer
  • CERN = NUCLEAR PHYSICS an EU organization that carries out research into highenergyparticle physics, now called the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. Fullform Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (NOTE: From the French,‘European Organization for Nuclear Research'.)
  • CERT = ONLINE an organisation that monitors and investigates global networksecurity threats. Full form computer emergency response team
  • cert. = 1.certificate 2.certification 3.certifiedCET 26
  • CET = 1.TIME Central European Time 2.COMMERCE a tariff rate applied by members of acustoms union to exports from nonmember countries. Full form common externaltariff
  • CF = 1.MILITARY Chaplain to the Forces 2.COMPUTING a small memory module that can beremoved from the parent system. Full form Compact Flash 3.FREIGHT cost and freight4.MEDICINE cystic fibrosis
  • Cf = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS californium
  • cf = ONLINE Central African Republic (NOTE: The abbreviation cf is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • cf. = compare (NOTE: From the Latin confer.)
  • CFA = FINANCE Communauté financière africaine (NOTE: The CFA franc, from the French,‘African financial community', is a unit of currency used in several French-speakingAfrican countries.)
  • CFC = CHEMISTRY a gas containing carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine, some forms ofwhich have been found to damage the ozone layer. Their use has been almost phasedout throughout the world. _ aerosols containing CFCs Full form chlorofluorocarbon(NOTE: The abbreviation CFC is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • CFE = 1.EDUCATION College of Further Education 2.MILITARY Conventional Forces in Europe
  • cfi = FREIGHT cost, freight, and insurance
  • CFM = CHEMISTRY chlorofluoromethane
  • CFO = COMMERCE chief financial officer
  • CFP = 1.FISHERIES Common Fisheries Policy 2.FINANCE Colonies françaises du Pacifique(NOTE: The franc CFP is a unit of currency used in French overseas territories of thePacific.)
  • CFR = BUSINESS cost and freight
  • CFS = MEDICINE an illness without a known cause that is characterized by long-termexhaustion, muscle weakness, depression, and sleep disturbances. Also known asmyalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) or postviral syndrome (PVS), it may occur as a reactionto a viral infection. Full form chronic fatigue syndrome
  • cfs = MEASUREMENTS cubic feet per second
  • CFT = MEDICINE a blood test to determine the presence of antibodies to Coxiella burnetiibacteria. Full form complement fixation test
  • CG = 1.MILITARY captain general 2.PHYSICS centre of gravity 3.EMERGENCIES coastguard 4.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Consul General
  • cg = 1.MEASUREMENTS centigram 2.ONLINE Congo (NOTE: The abbreviation cg is seen at theend of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • CGA = COMPUTING an early colour video system for the pc. Full form colour graphicsadapter
  • CGBR = FINANCE Central Government Borrowing Requirement. Former name for CentralGovernment Net Cash Requirement
  • cge = 1.FREIGHT carriage 2.BANKING charge
  • CGI = COMPUTING 1.a standard that defines how a webpage can call programs or scriptsstored on an internet server to carry out functions and exchange information with theprogram. Full form common gateway interface 2.computer-generated image 3.computer-generated imagery
  • CGM = MILITARY Conspicuous Gallantry Medal27 CI
  • cgm = MEASUREMENTS centigram
  • CGNCR = FINANCE a measurement of the difference between government income andexpenditure over a given period. Full form Central Government Net CashRequirement
  • CGS = MILITARY Chief of General Staff
  • cgs = MEASUREMENTS centimetre-gram-second (NOTE: The cgs system uses the centimetre,gram, and second as the basic units for length, mass, and time, respectively. It has beenlargely replaced by the SI system in scientific contexts.)
  • CGT = FINANCE capital gains tax
  • CH = 1.BANKING clearing house 2.COMMERCE Companies House 3.MILITARY Companion ofHonour 4.BUILDINGS custom house
  • Ch. = 1.BROADCASTING channel 2.CONSTRUCTION central heating 3.GEOGRAPHY China
  • ch = ONLINE SwitzerlandThe use of ch as an abbreviation for Switzerland in this and other contexts comes from FrenchConfédération Helvétique or Latin Confederatio Helvetica, meaning ‘Swiss Confederation'. Itis seen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.
  • ch. = 1.MEASUREMENTS chain 2.LITERATURE chapter 3.BANKING charge 4.CHESS check 5.CHRISTIANITY church
  • CHAI = HEALTH SERVICES Commission for Healthcare Audit and Improvement
  • Chanc. = POLITICS 1.chancellor 2.chancery
  • chap. = 1.CHRISTIANITY chaplain 2.LITERATURE chapter
  • CHAPS = BUSINESS Clearing House Automated Payments System
  • ChB = MEDICINE Bachelor of Surgery (NOTE: From the Latin Chirurgiae Baccalaureus.)
  • CHC = HEALTH SERVICES 1.child health clinic 2.community health council
  • CHCP = COMPUTING a system command that selects which codepage to use. Full formchange codepage
  • CHD = MEDICINE coronary heart disease
  • CHDIR = COMPUTING a system command that moves you around a directory structure. Fullform change directory
  • chem. = 1.chemical 2.chemist 3.chemistry
  • Ches. = GEOGRAPHY Cheshire
  • CHESS = BANKING Clearing House Electronic Subregister System
  • chg. = 1.FINANCE change 2.BANKING charge
  • CHI = HEALTH SERVICES Commission for Health Improvement
  • CHIPS = BANKING Clearing House Interbank Payments System
  • CHKDSK = COMPUTING a system command that runs a check on the status ofa disc drive. Full form check disk
  • ChM = MEDICINE Master of Surgery (NOTE: From the Latin Chirurgiae Magister.)
  • CHP = INDUST energy systems that produce heat and power simultaneously by burning fuel.Full form combined heat and power
  • Chr. = 1.CHRISTIANITY Christ 2.CHRISTIANITY Christian 3.BIBLE Chronicles
  • Chron. = BIBLE Chronicles
  • chron. = 1.LITERATURE chronicle 2.chronological 3.HISTORY chronology
  • chronol. = 1.chronological 2.HISTORY chronology
  • CI = GEOGRAPHY 1.Cayman Islands 2.Channel IslandsCIA 28
  • Ci = 1.METEOROLOGY cirrus 2.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS curie
  • ci = ONLINE Côte d'Ivoire (NOTE: The abbreviation ci is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • CIA = a US federal bureau responsible for intelligence and counterintelligence activitiesoutside the United States. In conjunction with the FBI, it is also involved in domesticcounterintelligence. Full form Central Intelligence Agency
  • CIB = 1.BANKING Chartered Institute of Bankers 2.POLICE Criminal Investigation Branch
  • CICA = ACCOUNTING Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants
  • CID = 1.VETERINARY MEDICINE cattle identification document 2.ONLINE consider it done (usedin e-mails) 3.POLICE the detective branch of the UK police force. Full form CriminalInvestigation Department 4.ONLINE crying in disgrace (used in Internet chat roomsand text messages)
  • CIDR = COMPUTING a system of organising IP addresses that is more compact and efficient,using a prefix number to separate them into smaller groups. Full form classless interdomainrouting
  • CIF = 1.COMPUTING a linking format used to interface different video formats duringvideoconferencing. Full form common intermediate format 2.FREIGHT cost, insurance,and freight 3.BUSINESS customer identification file
  • cifci = FREIGHT cost, insurance, freight, commission, and interest (NOTE: The abbreviationc.i.f.c.i.is used in quotes to indicate what is included in the price.)
  • CIFE = EDUCATION colleges and institutes for further education
  • CII = INSURANCE Chartered Insurance Institute
  • CIM = COMPUTING 1.computer input microfilm 2.computer-integrated manufacturing
  • CIN = MEDICINE a condition in which cells on the surface of the cervix change, a possibleprecursor to cancer. Full form cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • CIO = MANAGEMENT chief information officer
  • CIPD = HUMAN RESOURCES Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development
  • CIR = COMPUTING a CPU register that stores the instruction that is currently being executed.Full form current instruction register
  • cir. = 1.CALENDAR circa (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘about'.) 2.MATHEMATICS circle 3.ELECTRICITYcircuit 4.PRESS circulation 5.MATHEMATICS circumference
  • CIRO = BUSINESS a model used in evaluating the effectiveness of training. Full formcontext, input, reaction, outcome
  • CIS = 1.POLITICS an association formed in 1991 by most of the republics of the formerSoviet Union. Full form Commonwealth of Independent States 2.COMPUTING contactimage sensor
  • CISC = COMPUTING complex instruction set computer
  • CIT = COMPUTING, TELECOMMUNICATIONS computer-integrated telephony
  • cit. = 1.cited 2.citizen
  • CITES = ECOLOGY Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (of Wild Faunaand Flora)
  • CIVC = WINE an international joint trade association for companies producing Champagnewine. Full form Comité Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne
  • CIX = E-COMMERCE commercial Internet exchange
  • CJ = LAW 1.Chief Judge 2.Chief Justice
  • CJD = MEDICINE a fatal brain disease, a form of spongiform encephalopathy, that developsslowly, causing dementia and loss of muscle control. Full form Creutzfeldt-Jakobdisease
  • ck = ONLINE Cook Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation ck is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)29 cn
  • CKD = COMMERCE used to describe goods that are sold in parts to be assembled later. Fullform completely knocked down (NOTE: The abbreviation CKD is used to describegoods that are sold in parts to be assembled later.)
  • CKO = BUSINESS Chief Knowledge Officer
  • Cl = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS chlorine
  • cl = 1.TRANSPORT carload 2.MEASUREMENTS centilitre 3.ONLINE Chile (NOTE: The abbreviationcl is seen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • cl. = 1.class 2.classification 3.RELIGION clergy 4.FURNITURE closet 5.TEXTILES cloth
  • class. = 1.ARTS classic 2.ARTS classical 3.classification 4.classified
  • cld = STOCK EXCHANGE called
  • CLI = TELECOMMUNICATIONS calling line identification
  • Cllr = PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Councillor
  • CLM = ONLINE career limiting move (used in e-mails)
  • clm = ARCHITECTURE column
  • CLNP = COMPUTING connectionless network protocol
  • CLS = COMPUTING a system command to clear the screen. Full form clear screen
  • CLV = COMPUTING a disk technology in which the disk spins at different speeds according tothe track being accessed. Full form constant linear velocity
  • CM = 1.BUSINESS a marketing strategy grouping products together into categories so thatthese can be more efficiently targeted at consumers. Full form category management2.COMPUTING central memory 3.BUSINESS compounding method
  • Cm = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS curium
  • cm = 1.PHYSICS centre of mass 2.MILITARY court martial?1.ONLINE Cameroon (NOTE: The abbreviation cm is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.MEASUREMENTS centimetre
  • CMA = MEDICINE 1.Canadian Medical Association 2.certified medical assistant
  • CMBS = FINANCE commercial mortgage-backed securities
  • Cmdr = MILITARY Commander
  • CME = BUSINESS Chicago Mercantile Exchange
  • CMEA = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
  • CMG = MILITARY Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George
  • CMI = COMPUTING computer-managed instruction
  • CMIP = COMPUTING common management information protocol
  • CML = 1.COMPUTING computer-managed learning 2.FINANCE Council of Mortgage Lenders
  • cml = commercial
  • CMO = MEDICINE Chief Medical Officer
  • CMOS = COMPUTING an integrated circuit design that uses a pair ofcomplementary p- and n-type transistors. Full form complementary metal oxidesemiconductor
  • CMV = MEDICINE a virus that causes enlargement of epithelial cells, usually resulting in mildinfections but causing more serious disorders in Aids patients and in newborn babies.Full form cytomegalovirus
  • CMYK = PRINTING the standard model for printing in which all colours are described interms of the quantity of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black they contain. Display devicesuse the RGB (red, green, blue) model. _ The letter 'K' stands for 'key', as black wastraditionally the standard colour used in printing against which others were defined Fullform cyan, magenta, yellow, black
  • cn = ONLINE China (NOTE: The abbreviation cn is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)C/N 30
  • CNAA = EDUCATION Council for National Academic Awards
  • CNAR = FINANCE compound net annual rate
  • CNC = 1.COMPUTING computer numeric control 2.ACCOUNTING the National Council forAccountancy in France. Full form Conseil National de la Comptabilité
  • CNCC = ACCOUNTING the National Audit Office of France. Full form Compagnie Nationaledes Commissaires aux Comptes
  • CND = POLITICS Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
  • CNN = US BROADCASTING an international news and information broadcast network basedin the USA. Full form Cable News Network
  • CNS = ANATOMY central nervous system
  • CO = 1.CHEMISTRY carbon monoxide 2.MAIL Colorado (NOTE: The abbreviation CO is part ofthe US sorting code on the last line of a Colorado address.) 3.MILITARY commandingofficer 4.POLITICS Commonwealth Office 5.MILITARY conscientious objector
  • Co = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS cobalt
  • Co. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Colorado 2.COMMERCE Company (NOTE: The abbreviation Co.is used inthe names of businesses.) 3.GEOGRAPHY County _ Co. Kildare (NOTE: The abbreviationCo.is used in place names, especially the names of Irish counties.)
  • co = ONLINE Colombia (NOTE: The abbreviation co is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • co.uk = ONLINE UK commercial organizationThe abbreviation co.uk is seen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot. Some ofthese websites are UK branches of businesses whose Internet addresses end in .com (althoughsome UK companies have Internet addresses ending in .com in their own right).
  • CoA = BIOCHEMISTRY a complex compound that combines with a specific protein to form anactive enzyme. Full form coenzyme A
  • COAD = MEDICINE chronic obstructive airways disease
  • COAG = GOVERNMENT Council of Australian Governments
  • COB = FINANCE an organisation overseeing the operation of the French Stock Exchange. Fullform Commission des Opérations de Bourse
  • COBOL = COMPUTING a high-level computer programming language, widelyadopted for corporate business applications. Full form common business-orientedlanguage
  • COD = 1.MAIL cash on delivery 2.BIOCHEMISTRY chemical oxygen demand
  • coef. = MATHEMATICS coefficient
  • COGS = COMMERCE cost of goods sold
  • COHSE = HUMAN RESOURCES a former trade union, now part of UNISON. Full formConfederation of Health Service Employees
  • COI = Central Office of Information
  • COL = 1.COMPUTING computer-oriented language 2.ECONOMICS cost of living
  • Col. = 1.MILITARY Colonel 2.GEOGRAPHY Colorado 3.BIBLE Colossians 4.GEOGRAPHYColumbia 5.GEOGRAPHY Columbian
  • col. = 1.EDUCATION college 2.SOCIAL SCIENCES colony 3.colour 4.PRINTING column
  • COLA = 1.SOCIAL SCIENCES cost-of-living adjustment 2.BUSINESS cost-of-livingallowance
  • coll. = 1.COMMERCE collateral 2.colleague 3.collect 4.collection 5.collector 6.EDUCATIONcollege 7.EDUCATION collegiate 8.LANGUAGE colloquial
  • colloq. = LANGUAGE colloquial31 contrib.
  • Colo. = GEOGRAPHY Colorado
  • COM = COMPUTING 1.a framework devised by Microsoft to standardise the way anapplication can access an object. Full form Component Object Model, CommonObject Model 2.the process of converting computer output directly to microfilm. Fullform computer output microfilm
  • Com. = 1.MILITARY Commander 2.MILITARY Commodore 3.POLITICS Communist
  • com = ONLINE commercial organizationThe abbreviation com is seen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot. It has givenrise to the noun dot.com, a generic name for Internet-based businesses (whether or not theirInternet address ends in .com).
  • com. = 1.ARTS comedy 2.PRESS comic 3.commerce 4.commercial 5.committee 6.SOCIALSCIENCES commune
  • comb. = 1.combination 2.combining 3.combustion
  • Comdr = MILITARY Commander
  • Comdt = MILITARY Commandant
  • Comecon = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS an organization of the former SovietUnion and satellite Communist countries that existed between 1949 and 1991 and wasaimed at encouraging economic development. Full form Council for MutualEconomic Assistance
  • COMEX = STOCK EXCHANGE (New York) Commodity Exchange
  • comm. = 1.commerce 2.commercial 3.committee 4.POLITICS commonwealth
  • comp. = 1.companion 2.GRAMMAR comparative 3.compare 4.HUMAN RESOURCEScompensation 5.COMPUTING compilation 6.COMPUTING compiled 7.complete 8.MUSICcomposer 9.composite 10.composition 11.compound 12.comprehensive 13.comprising
  • compar. = GRAMMAR comparative
  • compd = compound
  • CON = COMPUTING console
  • Con. = 1.CHRISTIANITY Conformist 2.POLITICS Conservative 3.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Consul
  • con. = 1.MUSIC concerto 2.LAW conclusion 3.TELECOMMUNICATIONS, TRANSPORT connection4.COMMERCE consolidated 5.continued 6.contra
  • conc. = 1.CHEMISTRY concentrated 2.CHEMISTRY concentration 3.concerning 4.MUSICconcerto 5.concession
  • conf. = 1.confer 2.conference 3.CHRISTIANITY confessor 4.confidential
  • confed. = POLITICS 1.confederate 2.confederation
  • Cong. = 1.CHRISTIANITY Congregational 2.POLITICS Congress 3.POLITICS Congressional
  • conj. = 1.GRAMMAR conjugation 2.ASTRONOMY, GRAMMAR conjunction 3.GRAMMARconjunctive
  • CONS = COMPUTING connection-oriented network services
  • Cons. = 1.POLITICS Conservative 2.POLICE Constable 3.POLITICS Constitution 4.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Consul
  • cons. = 1.RELIGION consecrated 2.MAIL consigned 3.MAIL consignment 4.PHONETICSconsonant 5.POLITICS constitution 6.POLITICS constitutional
  • const. = 1.MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS constant 2.POLITICS constitution
  • cont. = 1.containing 2.PUBLISHING contents 3.GEOGRAPHY continent 4.GEOGRAPHYcontinental 5.continued 6.continuous 7.GRAMMAR contraction 8.control
  • contd = continued
  • contr. = 1.GRAMMAR contraction 2.MUSIC contralto 3.control
  • contrib. = 1.contribution 2.contributorConv. 32
  • Conv. = CHRISTIANITY a member of a branch of a Franciscan order of friars who live a lessaustere life than in other branches. Full form Conventual
  • COO = BUSINESS chief operating officer
  • coop = ONLINE cooperativeThe abbreviation coop is seen in the Internet addresses of nonprofitmaking cooperatives. Inother contexts coop (or co-op) is an informal shortening used to denote any cooperativeorganization or venture.
  • COPD = MEDICINE chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Cor. = BIBLE Corinthians
  • cor. = 1.corner 2.MUSIC cornet 3.correction 4.COMMUNICATION correspondence 5.PRESScorrespondent
  • CORBA = COMPUTING a framework devised by the Object Management Group tostandardise the way an application can access an object. Full form common objectrequest broker architecture
  • CORE = US LAW Congress of Racial Equality
  • CORGI = INDUST Council for Registered Gas Installers
  • Corn. = GEOGRAPHY Cornwall
  • Corp. = 1.MILITARY Corporal 2.BUSINESS Corporation
  • corp. = BUSINESS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION corporation
  • corr. = 1.correct 2.corrected 3.correction 4.COMMUNICATION correspondence 5.PRESScorrespondent
  • COS = 1.FREIGHT cash on shipment 2.MILITARY chief of staff
  • cos = MATHEMATICS cosine
  • COSATU = /k??| s?_tu_/ HUMAN RESOURCES Congress of South African Trades Unions
  • cosec = MATHEMATICS cosecant
  • CoT = EDUCATION college of technology
  • cot = MATHEMATICS cotangent
  • cotan = MATHEMATICS cotangent
  • could've = could have
  • couldn't = could not
  • cov = STATISTICS covariance
  • Coy. = MILITARY company
  • CP = 1.PRESS Canadian Press 2.GEOGRAPHY Cape Province 3.COMPUTING card punch 4.ONLINE chat post (another term for a message board) 5.CHEMISTRY chemically pure 6.MILITARY command post 7.BUSINESS commercial paper 8.POLITICS Communist Party 9.AusPOLITICS former name for the National Party of Australia. Full form Country Party
  • cp. = compare
  • CPA = 1.ACCOUNTING certified public accountant 2.BUSINESS cost per acquisition 3.COMPUTING the definition of tasks or jobs and the time each requires in order to achievecertain goals. Full form critical path analysis 4.BUSINESS customer profitability analysis
  • CPAP = MEDICINE a condition in which the airways are constricted, a possible cause ofsnoring. Full form continuous positive airways pressure
  • cpd = compound
  • CPF = HUMAN RESOURCES a Government-run pensions scheme in Singapore. Full formCentral Provident Fund
  • CPI = ECONOMICS consumer price index
  • cpi = COMPUTING characters per inch33 CRO
  • CPIX = Can ECONOMICS a measure of the pace of inflation in Canada
  • Cpl = MILITARY Corporal
  • CPM = 1.BUSINESS cost per thousand (NOTE: The ‘M' is from Latin mille ‘thousand' and theRoman numeral for 1000.) 2.COMPUTING the use of analysis and the projection of eachcritical step in a large project to help a management team. Full form critical pathmethod
  • CPN = HEALTH SERVICES community psychiatric nurse
  • CPO = 1.MILITARY Chief Petty Officer 2.BUSINESS cost per order
  • CPP = BUSINESS the amount of goods that can be purchased at a particular time with theresources available to a person or company. Full form current purchasing power
  • CPR = 1.RAIL Canadian Pacific Railway 2.MEDICINE an emergency technique that involvesclearing the patient's airways and then alternating heart compression with mouth-tomouthrespiration. Full form cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • CPRE = ENVIRONMENT Council for the Protection of Rural England
  • CPS = LAW Crown Prosecution Service
  • cps = 1.COMPUTING characters per second 2.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS cycles per second
  • CPSA = HUMAN RESOURCES Civil and Public Services Association
  • CPSU = Aus HUMAN RESOURCES Community and Public Service Union
  • CPT = BUSINESS cost per thousand
  • Cpt. = MILITARY Captain
  • CPU = COMPUTING central processing unit
  • CQ = MILITARY charge of quarters
  • CR = 1.COMPUTING a special code, character or key that causes the cursor to move to thebeginning of a new line, named after the key or lever on a typewriter that physicallyperforms the same function by sending the carriage back and rotating the paperupward. Full form carriage return 2.RELIGION a religious group that undertakescharitable work in the UK and abroad. Full form Community of the Resurrection 3.PSYCHOLOGY conditioned reflex 4.PSYCHOLOGY conditioned response 5.GEOGRAPHY CostaRica 6.FINANCE credit 7.ECOLOGY critically endangered
  • Cr = 1.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS chromium 2.PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Councillor
  • cr = ONLINE Costa Rica (NOTE: The abbreviation cr is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • cr. = 1.FINANCE credit 2.FINANCE creditor 3.creek (used on maps)
  • CR/LF = COMPUTING a special code, character or key that causes the cursor to move downand to the beginning of a new line. Full form carriage return/line feed
  • CRB = GOVERNMENT Criminal Records Bureau
  • CRC = COMPUTING an error-detection system that checks one bit in a group of a givennumber against the original to see whether that group contains errors. Full form cyclicredundancy check
  • CRE = LAW Commission for Racial Equality
  • Cres. = ROADS Crescent (NOTE: The abbreviation Cres.is used in addresses.)
  • cresc. = MUSIC crescendo
  • CREST = FINANCE the Central Securities Depository for the UK and Ireland
  • criminol. = criminology
  • crit. = 1.ARTS critic 2.MEDICINE critical 3.ARTS criticism
  • CRM = BUSINESS 1.customer relationship management 2.customer relations management
  • CRNA = MEDICINE certified registered nurse anaesthetist
  • CRO = 1.PHYSICS cathode-ray oscilloscope 2.SOCIAL SCIENCES Community Relations Officer3.COMMERCE Companies Registration Office 4.CRIME Criminal Records OfficeCRP 34
  • CRP = S Asia POLICE Central Reserve Police
  • CRT = ELECTRONICS cathode-ray tube
  • cryst. = 1.crystalline 2.crystallography
  • CS = 1.FINANCE capital stock 2.CIVIL ENGINEERING chartered surveyor 3.MILITARY chief of staff4.COMPUTING a single line on a chip that will enable it to function when a signal ispresent. Full form chip select 5.CHRISTIANITY Christian Science 6.CHRISTIANITY ChristianScientist 7.GOVERNMENT civil service 8.LAW Court of Session
  • Cs = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS caesium
  • CS gas = CHEMISTRY a gas that causes tears, salivation, and painful breathing, used in riotcontrol and warfare (NOTE: The gas is named after the US chemists B. B. Corson and R.W. Stoughton, who invented it in 1928.)
  • CSA = SOCIAL WELFARE Child Support Agency
  • CSB = MEDICINE chemical stimulation of the brain
  • CSC = GOVERNMENT Civil Service Commission
  • csc = MATHEMATICS cosecant
  • CSE = EDUCATION a former examination primarily for 16-year-olds in England and Wales thatwas replaced (along with the Ordinary level of the General Certificate of Education) bythe General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). A high-grade CSE pass wasconsidered equivalent to a pass at GCE O level. _ His father left school with three CSEs.Full form Certificate of Secondary Education
  • CSEU = HUMAN RESOURCES Confederation of Shipbuilding and Engineering Unions
  • CSF = MEDICINE cerebrospinal fluid
  • CSIRO = TECHNOLOGY Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
  • CSLIP = ONLINE a version of the SLIP protocol that compresses data before it is transmitted,resulting in greater data transfer rate. Full form compressed serial line Internetprotocol
  • CSM = 1.COMPUTING an efficient optical character recognition system. Full form combinedsymbol matching 2.MILITARY Company Sergeant-Major
  • CSMA-CD = COMPUTING a method of controlling access to a network. Full form carriersense multiple access-collision detection
  • CSO = STATISTICS Central Statistical Office
  • CSP = E-COMMERCE commerce service provider
  • CSS = 1.COMPUTING a method of describing and storing the font, spacing and colour of thetext in a webpage so that it can reapplied to other bodies of text. Full form cascadingstyle sheet 2.SOCIAL WELFARE Certificate in Social Service
  • CST = 1.TIME Central Standard Time 2.PSYCHIATRY convulsive shock treatment
  • CSU = HUMAN RESOURCES Civil Service Union
  • CSYS = Scotland EDUCATION Certificate of Sixth Year Studies
  • CT = 1.TIME Central Time 2.MEDICINE a technique for producing images of cross-sections ofthe body, used in medical diagnosis (CT scanning). A computer processes data from Xrayspenetrating the body from many directions and projects the results on a screen. Fullform computed (or computerized) tomography 3.MAIL Connecticut (NOTE: Theabbreviation CT is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a Connecticut address.)
  • Ct = Count (NOTE: The abbreviation Ct is used in titles: Ct von Wittenberg.)
  • ct = MONEY cent
  • ct. = EDUCATION certificate
  • CTC = 1.EDUCATION City Technology College 2.CYCLING Cyclists' Touring Club35 cwt
  • CTD = MEDICINE the US name for repetitive strain injury (RSI). Full form cumulative traumadisorder
  • CTI = COMPUTING, TELECOMMUNICATIONS computer-telephony integration
  • ctn = 1.carton 2.MATHEMATICS cotangent
  • CTO = MANAGEMENT chief technical officer
  • CTR = COMPUTING the number of visitors to a website per hour who click on a banner adand are sent to the advertiser's own website. Full form clickthrough rate
  • Ctrl = COMPUTING a computer key that is held down while another other key is pressed, toperform a particular function or produce a particular character. Full form control (key)
  • CTS = COMPUTING indicating that a line or device is ready for data transmission. Full formclear to send
  • CTT = FINANCE capital transfer tax
  • CTV = TV Canadian Television Network Limited
  • CU = COMPUTING control unit
  • Cu = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS copper
  • cu = ONLINE Cuba (NOTE: The abbreviation cu is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • cu. = MEASUREMENTS cubic
  • CUL = ONLINE see you later (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • cum div. = STOCK EXCHANGE with a right to the current dividend when buying a security.Full form cum dividend
  • Cumb. = GEOGRAPHY Cumbria
  • CUTS = COMPUTING a device that adapts a computer to be able to read data from acassette. Full form Computer Users' Tape System
  • CV = 1.GEOGRAPHY Cape Verde 2.MILITARY Cross of Valour 3.HUMAN RESOURCES a summaryof a person's educational qualifications, skills, and professional history. Full formcurriculum vitaeThe abbreviation CV is one of several that are typically found in job advertisements: becauseadvertising is charged by the length of the advert, saving space is important. Other standardabbreviations you will see in job ads are a.a.e (‘according to age and experience'); c. (‘about');IRO (‘in the region of'); K (‘thousand', as in Salary 20K); p.a (‘per annum, annually'); OTE (‘ontargetearnings'); and SAE (‘self-addressed envelope').
  • cv = ONLINE Cape Verde (NOTE: The abbreviation cv is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • CVA = MEDICINE the technical name for a stroke. Full form cerebrovascular accident
  • CVE = EDUCATION Certificate of Vocational Education
  • CVO = MILITARY Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
  • CVS = 1.MEDICINE a prenatal test for birth defects carried out by examining cells from thetiny hairy outgrowths (villi) of the outer membrane (chorion) surrounding an embryo,which have the same DNA as the foetus. Full form chorionic villus sampling 2.SOCIALSCIENCES Council of Voluntary Service
  • CW = 1.MILITARY chemical warfare 2.ARMS chemical weapons 3.PHYSICS continuous wave
  • CWO = 1.COMMERCE cash with order 2.MILITARY Chief Warrant Officer 3.ONLINE chief Webofficer
  • CWP = COMPUTING communicating word processor
  • CWS = COMMERCE a former consumer-owned business that now forms part of theCooperative Group. Full form Cooperative Wholesale Society
  • cwt = MEASUREMENTS hundredweight (NOTE: The ‘c' is from Latin centum ‘hundred' and theRoman numeral for 100.)cx 36
  • cx = ONLINE Christmas Island (NOTE: The abbreviation cx is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • cXML = E-COMMERCE a feature of the XML webpage markup language that that providesa standard way of offering products for sale in an online shop. Full form commerceXML (Extensible Markup Language)
  • cy = ONLINE Cyprus (NOTE: The abbreviation cy is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • CYA = ONLINE see ya (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • CYL = ONLINE see you later (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • cyl. = 1.cylinder 2.cylindrical
  • 'd = 1.did 2.had 3.should 4.would
  • D = 1.CALENDAR December 2.Department 3.JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN Deus 4.CHEMISTRY deuterium5.MATHEMATICS diameter 6.MONEY dinar 7.OPTICS dioptre 8.MANAGEMENT Director 9.PHYSICS dispersion 10.JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN Dominus 11.a title used before a man's name inSpain and other Spanish-speaking countries. Full form Don 12.AEROSPACE drag 13.AUTOMOTIVE drive (NOTE: The abbreviation D is used on the gear lever of a car withautomatic transmission.) 14.Duchess 15.Duke
  • d = 1.ZOOLOGY the female parent of an animal. Full form dam 2.CALENDAR date 3.daughter4.TIME day 5.MEASUREMENTS deci- 6.MEASUREMENTS degree 7.TRANSPORT departs 8.depth9.PHYSICS deuteron 10.MATHEMATICS diameter 11.died 12.MONEY dollar 13.MONEYdrachma 14.MONEY penny (or pence) (NOTE: The abbreviation d was used in the old-stylesystem of UK currency, in which there were 240 pence to the pound, which wasreplaced by the decimal system in 1971.) 15.PHYSICS relative density
  • D/A = 1.COMMERCE a measure of the length of time between a client accepting somedelivery and the supplier issuing a bill for this. Full form days after acceptance 2.COMMERCE delivery on acceptance 3.BANKING deposit account 4.ELECTRONICS digital-toanalogue5.COMMERCE instructions to a bank not to release purchase documents untilthe drawer has accepted a bill of exchange from the seller. Full form documentsagainst acceptance
  • D and C = MEDICINE a surgical procedure in which the cervix is widened and some of thewomb lining is scraped out for diagnostic or treatment purposes. Full form dilatationand curettage (NOTE: The abbreviation D and C has entered the language as a noun,and the full form is rarely encountered in general usage.)
  • D and V = MEDICINE diarrhoea and vomiting
  • D & B = FINANCE a major international market research and management consultancycompany. Full form Dun and Bradstreet
  • D/D = BANKING direct debit
  • d/g = double glazing
  • D/L = BANKING demand loan
  • D/N = FINANCE debit note
  • D/O = COMMERCE 1.delivery order 2.direct order
  • D/P = COMMERCE 1.documents against payment 2.a situation in which documents are heldat a bank and a buyer must pay a balance for them in order to claim possession of goodsshipped to them. Full form documents against presentation
  • d.s. = BUSINESS 1.days after sight 2.document signed
  • d.s.p. = decessit sine prole (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘died without issue (i.e. childless)'.)
  • D/W = LAW a customhouse licence or authority. Full form dock warrant
  • DA = 1.HAIRDRESSING a man's hairstyle, popular in the 1950s, in which the hair is slickedback and drawn into a point at the back of the neck. Full form duck's arse (NOTE: Thehairstyle is said to resemble a duck's tail, hence its name.) 2.COMMERCE deed ofarrangement 3.ARMS delayed action 4.BANKING deposit account 5.COMPUTING deskaccessory 6.ELECTRONICS digital-to-analogue 7.LAW district attorney
  • da = MEASUREMENTS deca-
  • DAC = ELECTRONICS digital-to-analogue converter
  • DAH = MEDICINE disordered action of the heart
  • DAL = COMPUTING data access language
  • dal = MEASUREMENTS decalitre
  • dam = MEASUREMENTS decametre
  • DAMA = COMPUTING demand assigned multiple access
  • Dan. = 1.BIBLE Daniel 2.LANGUAGE Danish
  • DAR = BUSINESS a method of testing the performance of an advert by assessing how manypeople who were exposed to it remember the key details the following day. Full formday after recall (test)
  • DAS = COMPUTING a station that connects to both rings in an FDDI network. Full form dualattachment (or attached) stationDASD 38
  • DASD = COMPUTING direct access storage device
  • DAT = RECORDING a magnetic tape used in the digital recording of music. Full formdigital audio tape
  • DATV = TV digitally assisted television
  • DAX = STOCK EXCHANGE a share index on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Full formDeutsche Aktienindex (NOTE: From the German, ‘German share price index'.)
  • DB = ACCOUNTING daybook
  • Db = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS dubnium
  • dB = MEASUREMENTS, ACOUSTICS decibel
  • DB connector = COMPUTING a connector that facilitates serial and parallel input andoutput. Full form data bus connector
  • DBA = 1.COMPUTING database administrator 2.COMMERCE Doctor of BusinessAdministration
  • DBE = MILITARY Dame Commander of the (Order of the) British Empire (NOTE: Theabbreviation DBE is used as a title: Peter Blakeney DBE.)
  • DBMS = COMPUTING database management system
  • DBS = BROADCASTING 1.direct broadcast (or broadcasting) by satellite 2.direct broadcastingsatellite
  • DC = 1.MUSIC da capo (NOTE: The abbreviation DC, from the Italian, ‘from the head', is usedon sheet music to indicate that a passage or piece is to be played or sung again fromthe beginning.) 2.POLICE Detective Constable 3.ELECTRICITY direct current 4.PUBLICADMINISTRATION District Commissioner 5.GEOGRAPHY a federal district of the United Statesthat is coextensive with the city of Washington. Full form District of Columbia (NOTE:Washington, capital city of the United States, is known as Washington, DC orWashington, D.C.)
  • DCA = 1.GOVERNMENT Department for Constitutional Affairs 2.COMPUTING a documentformat defined by IBM that allows documents to be exchanged between computersystems. Full form document content architecture
  • DCB = MILITARY Dame Commander of the Order of the Bath
  • DCC = RECORDING digital compact cassette
  • DCD = 1.COMPUTING a signal from a modem to a computer indicating that a carrier is beingreceived. Full form data carrier detect 2.RECORDING digital compact disc
  • DCE = 1.COMPUTING data communications equipment 2.FINANCE domestic credit expansion
  • DCF = ACCOUNTING discounted cash flow
  • DCL = LAW Doctor of Civil Law
  • DCM = 1.FINANCE Development Capital Market 2.MILITARY Distinguished Conduct Medal
  • DCMG = MILITARY Dame Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George
  • DCR = MEDICINE a medical procedure to remove blockages in the tear ducts. Full formdacryocystorhinostomy
  • DCT = COMPUTING an algorithm used to encode and compress images. Full form discretecosine transform
  • DCVO = MILITARY Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
  • DD = 1.BANKING demand draft 2.BANKING direct debit 3.MILITARY dishonourable discharge4.CHRISTIANITY Doctor of Divinity 5.COMPUTING used to describe a disk that can holdtwice the amount of information that a standard disk can hold. Full form doubledensity6.COMMERCE the degree of care that a prudent person would exercise, a legallyrelevant standard for establishing liability. Full form due diligence
  • dd = COMMERCE 1.dated 2.delivered
  • DDC = COMPUTING direct digital control39 Deut.
  • DDE = COMPUTING 1.direct data entry 2.dynamic data exchange
  • DDL = COMPUTING data description language
  • DDP = COMPUTING distributed data processing
  • DDR = GEOGRAPHY the former republic of East Germany. Full form DeutscheDemokratische Republik (NOTE: From the German, ‘German Democratic Republic'.)
  • DDR SDRAM = COMPUTING RAM that is designed to increase efficiency by synchronisingoutput with a preset clock speed. Full form double data rate synchronous dynamicrandom-access memory
  • DDS = 1.LIBRARIES a system of classifying library books in ten main classes divided intocategories with three-digit numbers and subcategories with numbers after a decimalpoint. Full form Dewey Decimal System 2.DENTISTRY Doctor of Dental Science 3.DENTISTRY Doctor of Dental Surgery
  • DDSc = DENTISTRY Doctor of Dental Science
  • DDT = CHEMISTRY an insecticide effective especially against malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Ithas been banned in many countries since 1974 because of its toxicity, its persistence inthe environment, and its ability to accumulate in living tissue. Full formdichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (NOTE: The abbreviation DDT is used as a noun in itsown right, and the full form is rarely encountered.)
  • DE = MAIL Delaware (NOTE: The abbreviation DE is part of the US sorting code on the lastline of a Delaware address.)
  • de = ONLINE Germany (NOTE: The abbreviation de, from the German Deutschland, is seen atthe end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • deb. = 1.FINANCE debenture 2.BANKING debit
  • Dec. = CALENDAR December
  • dec. = 1.deceased 2.declaration 3.GRAMMAR declension 4.ASTRONOMY declination 5.decrease
  • decresc. = MUSIC decrescendo
  • DED = FUNGI Dutch elm disease
  • def. = 1.defence 2.LAW defendant 3.FINANCE deferred 4.GRAMMAR definite 5.LINGUISTICSdefinition
  • DEFRA = GOVERNMENT Department of the Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs
  • deg = MATHEMATICS, MEASUREMENTS degree
  • Del = COMPUTING delete
  • del. = 1.POLITICS delegate 2.POLITICS delegation 3.PRINTING delete
  • Dem. = POLITICS 1.Democrat 2.Democratic
  • dem. = GRAMMAR demonstrative
  • DEN = HEALTH SERVICES District Enrolled Nurse
  • denom. = RELIGION denomination
  • dent. = 1.dental 2.dentistry
  • dep. = 1.department 2.TRANSPORT departs 3.TRANSPORT departure 4.GRAMMAR used todescribe a verb that inflects like a passive verb but is active in meaning. Full formdeponent 5.LAW deposed 6.FINANCE deposit 7.TRANSPORT depot 8.deputy
  • dept = department
  • deriv. = 1.derivation 2.derivative
  • DES = 1.E-COMMERCE data encryption standard 2.PHARMACOLOGY a synthetic oestrogenused in hormone replacement therapy. Full form diethylstilboestrol
  • det. = GRAMMAR determiner
  • DETR = GOVERNMENT Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions
  • Deut. = BIBLE DeuteronomyDF 40
  • DF = 1.RELIGION a title held by English and British monarchs since 1521, when it was givenby Pope Leo X to King Henry VIII. Full form Defender of the Faith 2.COMMUNICATION adevice used to determine the direction of a transmitted radio signal. Full form directionfinder
  • DFC = MILITARY Distinguished Flying Cross
  • DfEE = GOVERNMENT Department for Education and Employment
  • DfES = GOVERNMENT Department for Education and Skills. Former name Department forEducation and Employment
  • DFID = GOVERNMENT Department for International Development
  • DFM = 1.MILITARY Distinguished Flying Medal 2.ONLINE don't flame me (NOTE: Theabbreviation DFM is used in Internet chat rooms and text messages, meaning ‘don'tcriticise or disparage me'.)
  • DfT = GOVERNMENT Department for Transport
  • DG = 1.CHRISTIANITY Deo gratias (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘thanks be to God'.) 2.MANAGEMENTdirector-general
  • dg = MEASUREMENTS decigram
  • DGO = WINE a declaration that a wine has come from a single, approved growing region.Full form Declared Geographical Origin
  • DH = 1.GOVERNMENT Department of Health 2.BASEBALL designated hitter
  • DHA = 1.HEALTH SERVICES District Health Authority 2.BIOCHEMISTRY a polyunsaturatedessential fatty acid found in cold-water fish and some algae that has been linked to thereduction of cardiovascular disease and other health benefits. Full formdocosahexaenoic acid
  • DHSS = GOVERNMENT a former UK government department, now split into the Departmentof Health (DH) and the Department of Social Security (DSS). Full form Department ofHealth and Social Security
  • DHW = UTILITIES domestic hot water
  • DI = MEDICINE a method of assisted conception using sperm from a man who is not thewoman's sexual partner. Full form donor insemination
  • DIA = COMPUTING document interchange architecture
  • dia. = MATHEMATICS diameter
  • diag. = 1.MATHEMATICS diagonal 2.diagram
  • dial. = LANGUAGE 1.dialect 2.dialectal
  • DIANE = /da?| _n/ COMPUTING direct information access network for Europe
  • DIB = COMPUTING a bus used when transferring data from section of a computer to another.Full form data input bus
  • DIC = MEDICINE a condition in which blood clotting occurs in diverse sites around the bodyother than that at a site of injury, causing inefficient wound healing and clots to form inthe blood stream. Full form disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • dict. = 1.dictation 2.POLITICS dictator 3.PUBLISHING dictionary
  • didn't = did not
  • DIF = COMPUTING data interchange format
  • diff. = 1.difference 2.different
  • DIG = SOCIAL WELFARE income support available to people with disabilities in the UK. Fullform disability income guarantee
  • DIM = 1.ONLINE do it myself (used in e-mails and text messages) 2.COMPUTING documentimage management
  • dim. = 1.dimension 2.MUSIC diminuendo 3.GRAMMAR diminutive
  • dimin. = 1.MUSIC diminuendo 2.GRAMMAR diminutive41 DLE
  • DIMM = COMPUTING a plug-in module that adds random-access memory to acomputer. Full form dual in-line memory module
  • DIN = a system of numbers used to indicate the speed of a photographic film, or asystem of standard electrical connections used in television and audio equipment. Fullform Deutsche Industrie-Norm (NOTE: From the German, ‘German industry standard'.)
  • din = MONEY dinar
  • dinky = SOCIAL SCIENCES either member of a couple who both have careers, usuallyin well-paid jobs, and who have no children. Full form dual (or double) income, nokids (yet)The acronym dinky or DINKY, one of a number coined in the late 20th century to denotevarious socioeconomic groups, has entered the language as a noun in its own right. Of theother coinages, only yuppie (young urban [or upwardly mobile] professional) has stood the testof time; those that have fallen by the wayside include pippie (person inheriting parents'property), woopy (well-off older person), yappy (young affluent parent), LOMBARD (loads ofmoney but a right dickhead), SINBAD (single income, no boyfriend, absolutely desperate),OINK (one income, no kids), and SINK (single, independent, no kids), and SWELL (singlewoman earning lots in London).
  • DIP = 1.MEDICINE distal interphalangeal (joint) (NOTE: The DIP joint is the finger joint furthestfrom the knuckle, at the fingertip.) 2.COMPUTING document image processing 3.COMPUTING dual in-line package (NOTE: A DIP switch is a switch that turns optionalsettings on or off on a computer component.)
  • dip. = EDUCATION diploma
  • DipEd = /d?p| ed/ EDUCATION Diploma in Education
  • dipl. = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1.diplomat 2.diplomatic
  • disc. = 1.COMMERCE discount 2.discovered
  • dist. = 1.distance 2.district
  • distr. = 1.distribution 2.distributor
  • div. = 1.diversion 2.MATHEMATICS divide 3.FINANCE dividend 4.MATHEMATICS division 5.SOCIAL SCIENCES divorced
  • DIY = 1.ONLINE do it yourself (NOTE: The abbreviation DIY is used in e-mails, typically inresponse to a request to do something.) 2.DOMESTIC the activity of doing repairs andalterations in the home yourself, especially as a hobby, instead of employingtradespeople to do the work. Full form do-it-yourself (NOTE: The abbreviation DIY hasentered the language as a noun in its own right, used interchangeably with the fullform.)
  • DJ = 1.CLOTHING a man's jacket without tails that is worn on formal occasions, especially inthe evening. Full form dinner jacket 2.MUSIC somebody who plays records or otherrecorded music, either for people to dance to (e.g. at a club or disco) or on a radio show.Full form disc jockey
  • dj = ONLINE Djibouti (NOTE: The abbreviation dj is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • DJIA = FINANCE Dow Jones Industrial Average
  • DK = ONLINE (I) don't know (used in e-mails)
  • dk = 1.dark 2.NAUTICAL deck 3.ONLINE Denmark (NOTE: The abbreviation dk is seen at theend of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.) 4.SHIPPING dock
  • DL = ONLINE download (used in e-mails)
  • dl = MEASUREMENTS decilitre
  • DLE = MEDICINE 1.a disease of connective tissue resulting in skin lesions on the face andnose. Full form discoid lupus erythematosus 2.a disease of connective tissue causingDLit 42inflammation, weakness and skin lesions. Full form disseminated lupuserythematosus
  • DLit = /di_| l?t/ EDUCATION Doctor of Literature
  • DLitt = /di_| l?t/ EDUCATION Doctor of Letters (or Literature) (NOTE: From the Latin DoctorLitterarum)
  • DLL = COMPUTING a library of utility programs that can be called from a main program. Fullform dynamic link library
  • DM = 1.MONEY the former unit of currency in Germany, replaced by the euro in 2002. Fullform Deutschmark 2.MARKETING direct marketing
  • dm = 1.MEASUREMENTS decimetre 2.ONLINE Dominica (NOTE: The abbreviation dm is seen atthe end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • DMA = 1.MARKETING designated market area 2.COMPUTING direct memory access
  • DMAC = TV a coding system used for broadcasting colour televisionprogrammes via satellite. Full form duobinary multiplexed analogue component
  • DMD = DENTISTRY Doctor of Dental Medicine (NOTE: From the Latin Dentariae MedicinaeDoctor.)
  • DMK = POLITICS a political party in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Full form DravidaMunnetra Kazagham
  • DML = COMPUTING data manipulation language
  • DMS = 1.COMPUTING data management system 2.MANAGEMENT Diploma in ManagementStudies
  • DMSO = a clear odourless liquid compound used as a solvent in medicine, to enable drugsto penetrate the skin. Full form dimethylsulphoxide
  • DMU = BUSINESS decision-making unit
  • DMus = MUSIC Doctor of Music
  • DMZ = MILITARY demilitarized zone
  • DNA = 1.GENETICS a nucleic acid molecule in the form of a double helix (a twisted doublestrand) that is the major component of chromosomes and carries genetic information.DNA, which is found in all living organisms except some viruses, is self-replicating andis responsible for passing on hereditary characteristics from one generation to the next.Full form deoxyribonucleic acid (NOTE: In this context, the abbreviation DNA refers toa patient who failed to attend an appointment with a doctor or at a clinic.) 2.ONLINE didnot answer (used in e-mails and text messages) 3.HEALTH SERVICES did not attend
  • DNase = BIOCHEMISTRY an enzyme that aids the breakdown of DNA intosmaller molecules. Full form deoxyribonuclease
  • DNOC = CHEMISTRY a chemical compound used as a pesticide spray on fruit trees, found tohave a poisoning effect on humans over time. Full form dinitro-ortho-cresol
  • DNR = MEDICINE do not resuscitate (NOTE: If a patient undergoing a serious medicalprocedure does not wish to be resuscitated in the event of an arrest, or if this would befutile, a DNR order is given and written on their charts.)
  • DNS = COMPUTING 1.domain name server 2.domain name system
  • DO = 1.OPHTHALMOLOGY Doctor of Optometry 2.MEDICINE Doctor of Osteopathy
  • do = ONLINE Dominican Republic (NOTE: The abbreviation do is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • DOA = 1.MEDICINE dead on arrival 2.DRUGS drug of abuse
  • DOB = date of birth
  • DOC = WINE 1.a certification for Portuguese wine that guarantees its origin. Full formDenominação de Origem Controlada (NOTE: From the Portuguese, ‘name of origin43 dptcontrolled'.) 2.a certification for Italian wine that guarantees its origin. Full formDenominazione di Origine Controllata
  • doc. = LAW document
  • DOCa = WINE a certification for Spanish wine that guarantees its origin. Full formDenominación de Origen Calificada (NOTE: From the Spanish, ‘name of origincontrolled'.)
  • DOCG = WINE a strict certification for Italian wine that guarantees its origin, awarded bythe Government. Full form Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita(NOTE: From the Italian, ‘name of origin controlled and guaranteed'.)
  • DOE = 1.US INDUST Department of Energy 2.GOVERNMENT Department of the Environment.Former name for Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions
  • DoE = US GOVERNMENT Department of Employment
  • doesn't = does not
  • dol. = MONEY dollar
  • DOM = 1.CHRISTIANITY Deo Optimo Maximo (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘to God, the best, thegreatest'.) 2.ENVIRONMENT the amount of an animal's feed that it actually absorbs and sogains nutrition from. Full form digestible organic matter 3.ENVIRONMENT the matterthat an animal eats. Full form dry organic matter (NOTE: The abbreviation DOM is usedwhen measuring the nutritional value of a foodstuff or particular diet.)
  • dom. = 1.domestic 2.MUSIC dominant
  • don't = do not
  • Dors. = GEOGRAPHY Dorset
  • DOS = COMPUTING 1.an incident in which a system is deliberately bombarded withinformation and is overwhelmed, so that authorised users cannot use it. Full formdenial-of-service 2.disk operating system
  • DOVAP = AEROSPACE a system for measuring the speed and position of objectsin flight that is based on the frequency of sound waves. Full form Doppler velocity andposition
  • doz. = dozen
  • DP = 1.COMPUTING data processing 2.PHYSICS the temperature at which the air cannot holdall the moisture in it and dew begins to form. Full form dew point 3.SOCIAL SCIENCES arefugee from war or political oppression. Full form displaced person
  • DPA = COMPUTING a technique of loading protocol stacks in memory only if they arerequired for a particular session. Full form demand protocol architecture
  • DPB = NZ SOCIAL WELFARE a state benefit payable to those with family responsibilities whohave little or no other income. Full form domestic purposes benefit
  • DPCM = COMPUTING a method of encoding an analogue signal into a digital form. Full formdifferential pulse coded modulation
  • DPhil = EDUCATION Doctor of Philosophy
  • dpi = COMPUTING, PRINTING a measure of the density of the image produced by a computerscreen or printer. Full form dots per inch
  • DPM = COMPUTING data processing manager
  • DPP = LAW Director of Public Prosecutions
  • DPS = STOCK EXCHANGE dividends per share
  • DPT = IMMUNOLOGY diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (vaccine) (NOTE: Pertussis is the technicalname for whooping cough.)
  • dpt = 1.department 2.GRAMMAR used to describe a verb that inflects like a passive verbbut is active in meaning. Full form deponentDPT 44
  • DR = 1.NAVIGATION dead reckoning 2.dining room (used in property advertisements) 3.MONEY the former unit of currency in Greece, replaced by the euro in 2002. Full formdrachma 4.CONSTRUCTION a waterless pipe that runs vertically, with connections ondifferent levels of a building to which a firefighter's hose can be attached in case of fire.Full form dry riser
  • Dr = Doctor
  • Dr. = ROADS Drive (NOTE: The abbreviation Dr.is used in addresses.)
  • dr = 1.FINANCE debit (NOTE: The use of dr as an abbreviation for ‘debit' is an extension ofits use as an abbreviation for ‘debtor'.) 2.FINANCE debtor 3.drawer
  • dr. = 1.MONEY the former unit of currency in Greece, replaced by the euro in 2002. Fullform drachma 2.MEASUREMENTS dram
  • DRAM = COMPUTING the most common type of RAM which needs constantelectronic refreshing. Full form dynamic random access memory
  • dram. = THEATRE dramatic
  • DRIP = FINANCE dividend reinvestment plan
  • DRP = COMMERCE the action of planning supply and replenishment of goods logistically inresponse to demand, including transport and stock requirements. Full formdistribution resource planning
  • DRV = HEALTH dietary reference values
  • DS = MUSIC to be played or sung again from the point marked with a sign to the pointmarked fine. Full form dal segno
  • Ds = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS darmstadtium
  • ds = BUSINESS 1.days after sight 2.document signed
  • DSC = MILITARY Distinguished Service Cross
  • DSc = EDUCATION Doctor of Science
  • DSL = TELECOMMUNICATIONS a high-speed telephone line supplying telephony, television,and Internet access. Full form digital subscriber line
  • DSM = MILITARY Distinguished Service Medal
  • DSO = 1.FINANCE days' sales outstanding 2.MILITARY Distinguished Service Order
  • DSP = COMPUTING digital signal processing
  • dsp = decessit sine prole (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘died without issue (i.e. childless)'.)
  • DSR = COMPUTING data set ready
  • DSS = 1.GOVERNMENT Department of Social Security 2.SOCIAL WELFARE Director of SocialServices
  • DST = TIME daylight-saving time
  • DSTP = COMPUTING data space transfer protocol
  • DSW = COMPUTING a data word transmitted from a device that contains information aboutits current status. Full form device status word
  • DT = TIME daylight time
  • DTC = HEALTH SERVICES diagnostic and treatment centre
  • DTE = COMPUTING data terminal equipment
  • DTF = FINANCE Derivative Trading Facility
  • DTI = GOVERNMENT Department of Trade and Industry
  • DTLGR = GOVERNMENT Department of Transport, Local Government, and the Regions
  • DTMF = COMPUTING a method of dialling in a telephone system where two tones aregenerated according to the row and column position on the keypad of the numberpressed. Full form dual tone multi frequency
  • DTP = COMPUTING desktop publishing45 dz
  • DTR = COMPUTING data terminal ready
  • DTs = MEDICINE agitation, tremors, and hallucinations caused by alcohol dependence andwithdrawal. Full form delirium tremens (NOTE: DTs (usually the DTs or the DT's) is aninformal abbreviation for this condition, used in everyday language rather than medicalterminology.)
  • DTV = BROADCASTING digital television
  • DTW = WINE Deutscher Tafelwein (NOTE: From the German, ‘German table wine'.)
  • DU = CHEMISTRY depleted uranium
  • dunno = /d_| n??/ (I) don't know
  • DV = CHRISTIANITY Deo volente (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘God willing'.)
  • DV-I = COMPUTING digital video interactive
  • DVD = COMPUTING a high-capacity optical disc that can store a large quantity of video,audio, or other information. Full form digital video disc, digital versatile disc
  • DVD-A = RECORDING digital video disc audio
  • DVD-R = COMPUTING a DVD that can have its contents erased and replaced with somethingelse. Full form digital video disc recordable
  • DVD-RAM = COMPUTING a DVD drive that allows a user to write, erase,and rewrite data on a DVD. Full form digital video disc random-access memory
  • DVD-ROM = a DVD on which data can be stored but not altered. Fullform digital video disc read-only memory
  • DVD-RW = a DVD that can have it contents erased and replaced with something elsemany times. Full form digital video disc rewritable
  • DVI = COMPUTING digital video imaging
  • DVLA = PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Driving and Vehicle Licensing Agency
  • DVM = VETERINARY MEDICINE Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
  • DVR = TV digital video recorder
  • DVT = MEDICINE a blood clot in a deep vein, particularly in the leg, that may be caused bybeing in a confined space such as an aeroplane seat for some time without moving. Fullform deep-vein thrombosis
  • DWA = SOCIAL WELFARE disability working allowance
  • DWP = GOVERNMENT Department for Work and Pensions
  • dwt = MEASUREMENTS dead weight tonnage
  • DX = TELECOMMUNICATIONS long-distance
  • Dy = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS dysprosium
  • dyn = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS dyne
  • dz = ONLINE AlgeriaThe use of dz as an abbreviation for Algeria in this and other contexts comes from the Arabicname for the country, Al Djazair. It is seen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.
  • E = 1.Earl 2.ELECTRICITY earth 3.east 4.eastern 5.PHYSICS electric field strength 6.PHYSICSelectromotive force 7.TELECOMMUNICATIONS e-mail (address) (NOTE: The abbreviation E isused to contrast with T (telephone number) and F (fax number).) 8.PHYSICS energy 9.LANGUAGE English 10.MEASUREMENTS exa- 11.PHYSICS internal energy 12.LOGIC a negativecategorical proposition
  • e = 1.PHYSICS electron 2.ONLINE electronic (NOTE: The abbreviation e is used as a prefix inwords such as e-mail, e-commerce, and e-learning, referring to electronic data transfervia the Internet.) 3.ENGINEERING engineer 4.ENGINEERING engineering
  • E. coli = MEDICINE a bacterium found in the colon of human beings and animalsthat becomes a serious contaminant when it enters the food or water supply. Full formEscherichia coli
  • e.g. = for exampleThe abbreviations e.g. and i.e. are often confused, but use e.g. (from the Latin expressionexempli gratia, ‘for example') when you want to list a few typical examples of the thingmentioned: I have the laboratory equipment, e.g. [not i.e.] beakers, thermometers, and testtubes, that we need. Use i.e., meaning ‘that is, that is to say' (from the Latin expression id est‘that is') when you want to be more precise about the thing mentioned: The tribunal, i.e. [note.g.] the industrial tribunal, is set for noon on Friday.
  • E number = FOOD INDUSTRY a code by which a given additive is identified onfood labels, consisting of the letter E followed by a number. Contrary to popular belief,E numbers can denote natural substances (e.g. lactic acid and pectin) as well as artificialadditives. (NOTE: The E stands for ‘European': such additives have been approved for usethroughout the European Union.)
  • E & O = COMMERCE errors and omissions
  • e. & o.e. = COMMERCE errors and omissions excepted
  • e.o.m. = COMMERCE end of the month
  • E & OE = COMMERCE errors and omissions excepted
  • e & oe = COMMERCE errors and omissions excepted
  • e.p. = CHESS used when a pawn that has moved two squares is captured by an enemy pawnas if it had only moved one square. Full form en passant (NOTE: From the French, ‘inpassing'.)
  • E2E = E-COMMERCE exchange
  • EA = ENVIRONMENT Environment Agency
  • ea. = each
  • EAA = ACCOUNTING European Accounting Association
  • EAC = ECONOMICS East African Community
  • EAI = E-COMMERCE enterprise application integration
  • EAN-UCC = BUSINESS a system of barcoding used on all products sold internationally,introduced in Belgium in 1977 and regulated in the US by the Uniform Code Council.Full form European Article Numbering – Uniform Code Council
  • EAP = HUMAN RESOURCES employee assistance programme
  • EAPROM = COMPUTING electrically alterable, programmable read-onlymemory
  • EAROM = COMPUTING electrically alterable read-only memory
  • EASDAQ = STOCK EXCHANGE an independent European stock market, based in Brusselsand London, trading in companies with European-wide interests. Full form EuropeanAssociation of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation
  • EAT = BUSINESS employment appeal tribunal
  • EBA = BANKING Euro Banking Association
  • EBCDIC = a binary computer character code representing 256 standardletters, numbers, symbols, and control characters by means of eight binary digits. Fullform extended binary coded decimal interchange code
  • EBIT = FINANCE earnings before interest and taxes
  • EBITDA = FINANCE earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization
  • EbN = east by north
  • EBNF = COMPUTING extended BNF
  • EBR = COMPUTING electron beam recording
  • EBRD = BANKING European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • EbS = east by south
  • EBV = MEDICINE a virus believed to cause glandular fever and associated with some cancers.Full form Epstein-Barr virus
  • EC = 1.POLITICS the executive arm of the European Union, which formulates communitypolicy and drafts community legislation. Full form European Commission 2.ECONOMICSa political and economic union of European countries that developed from the EuropeanEconomic Community (EEC) and was replaced by the European Union (EU). Full formEuropean Community
  • ec = Ecuador (NOTE: The abbreviation ec is seen at the end of Internet addresses, precededby a dot.)47 educ.
  • ECB = BANKING European Central Bank
  • ECG = MEDICINE 1.an ultrasound device used to examine the working heart and displaymoving images of its action. Full form echocardiograph 2.a visual record of the heart'selectrical activity produced by an electrocardiograph. Full form electrocardiogram 3.adevice that records the electrical activity of the heart muscle via electrodes placed on thechest. Full form electrocardiograph
  • ECGD = COMMERCE Export Credits Guarantee Department
  • ECL = COMPUTING a high-speed logic circuit design using the transistor emittors as outputconnectors. Full form emitter-coupled logic
  • ECMA = COMPUTING European Computer Manufacturers Association
  • ECML = E-COMMERCE electronic commerce modelling language
  • ecol. = 1.ecological 2.ecology
  • econ. = 1.economics 2.economist 3.economy
  • ECOWAS = ECONOMICS Economic Community of West African States
  • ECP = COMMERCE an IOU issued by a company for a short-term loan in a Euro currency. Fullform European Commercial Paper
  • ECS = TELECOMMUNICATIONS European Communications Satellite
  • ECSC = INDUSTRY European Coal and Steel Community
  • ECT = PSYCHIATRY electroconvulsive therapy
  • ECU = MONEY the official monetary unit of the European Union from 1979 to1999. Full form European Currency Unit
  • ed. = 1.PUBLISHING edited 2.PUBLISHING edition 3.PUBLISHING editor 4.education
  • EDAC = COMPUTING error detection and correction
  • EDB = ECONOMICS Economic Development Board
  • EDC = 1.E-COMMERCE electronic data capture 2.MILITARY European Defence Community
  • EDD = MEDICINE expected date of delivery
  • EDI = COMPUTING electronic data interchange
  • EDIFACT = E-COMMERCE electronic data interchange for administration, commerce, andtransport (or trade)
  • edit. = PUBLISHING 1.edited 2.edition 3.editor
  • EDLIN = COMPUTING an MS-DOS system utility that allows a user to make changes to a fileon a line-by-line basis. Full form edit line
  • EDMA = COMMERCE European Direct Marketing Association
  • EDP = COMPUTING electronic data processing
  • EDT = 1.TIME Eastern Daylight Time 2.E-COMMERCE electronic depository transfer
  • EDTA = CHEMISTRY a colourless compound that reacts with metals, used as a foodpreservative, as an anticoagulant, and in the treatment of lead poisoning. Full formethylene diamine tetra-acetate
  • edu = ONLINE US educational organization (NOTE: The abbreviation edu is used in Internetaddresses.)
  • educ. = 1.education 2.educationalee 48
  • EE = 1.LANGUAGE Early English 2.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING electrical engineer 3.ELECTRICALENGINEERING electrical engineering
  • ee = ONLINE Estonia (NOTE: The abbreviation ee is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • EEA = ECONOMICS European Economic Area
  • EEC = ECONOMICS an alliance of European countries that ultimately expanded anddeveloped into the European Union (EU). Full form European Economic Community
  • EECA = E-COMMERCE a certificate authority that issues certificates for merchants andpayment gateways. Full form end entity certificate authority
  • EEG = MEDICINE 1.an ultrasound device used to examine the structures of the brain. Fullform echoencephalograph 2.the record of the electrical activity of the brain that isproduced by an electrocardiograph. Full form electroencephalogram 3.a machinethat uses electrodes placed on the scalp to monitor the electrical activity of differentparts of the brain. Full form electroencephalograph
  • EEOC = BUSINESS Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  • EEPROM = COMPUTING electrically erasable programmable read-only memory
  • EER = MEASUREMENTS energy efficiency ratio
  • EEROM = COMPUTING electrically erasable read-only memory
  • EFA = HEALTH essential fatty acid
  • EFL = EDUCATION English taught to people who live in a non-English-speaking country. Fullform English as a foreign language
  • EFRA = E-COMMERCE electronic forms routing and approval
  • EFT = BANKING electronic funds transfer
  • EFTA = COMMERCE European Free Trade Association
  • EFTPOS = COMMERCE electronic funds transfer at a point of sale
  • EFTS = BANKING electronic funds transfer system
  • eg = for exampleThe abbreviations e.g. and i.e. are often confused, but use e.g. (from the Latin expressionexempli gratia, ‘for example') when you want to list a few typical examples of the thingmentioned: I have the laboratory equipment, e.g. [not i.e.] beakers, thermometers, and testtubes, that we need. Use i.e., meaning ‘that is, that is to say' (from the Latin expression id est‘that is') when you want to be more precise about the thing mentioned: The tribunal, i.e. [note.g.] the industrial tribunal, is set for noon on Friday.?ONLINE Egypt (NOTE: The abbreviation eg is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • EGA = COMPUTING enhanced graphics adapter
  • EGM = BUSINESS extraordinary general meeting
  • eh = ONLINE Western Sahara (NOTE: The abbreviation eh is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • EHO = HEALTH Environmental Health Officer
  • EIA = 1.COMPUTING Electronics Industry Association 2.ENVIRONMENT environmental impactassessment 3.MEDICINE exercise-induced asthma
  • EIB = BANKING European Investment Bank
  • EIL = ECOLOGY the point at which a pest species is causing such damage that it becomesworth the time and expense of controlling them. Full form economic injury level
  • EIRIS = BUSINESS Ethical Investment Research Service
  • EIS = 1.BUSINESS Enterprise Investment Scheme 2.ENVIRONMENT environmental impactstatement 3.ENVIRONMENT environmental impact study 4.COMPUTING executiveinformation system
  • EISA = COMPUTING extended industry standard architecture49 Eng.
  • EKG = MEDICINE electrocardiogram (NOTE: From Dutch or German Electrokardiogram.)
  • el. = elevation
  • ELDO = AEROSPACE European Launch Development Organization
  • elec. = 1.electric 2.electrical 3.electricity
  • elev. = elevation
  • ELF = 1.LANGUAGE English as a Lingua Franca 2.RADIO extremely low frequency
  • ELINT = MILITARY the gathering of information by electronic means, e.g. fromaircraft or ships, or the section of the military intelligence service involved in this. Fullform electronic intelligence
  • ELISA = /?| la?z?/ IMMUNOLOGY a technique for determining the presence or amount ofprotein in a biological sample, using an enzyme that bonds to an antibody or antigenand causes a colour change Full form enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  • ELT = EDUCATION the teaching of English to non-native speakers of English. Full formEnglish language teaching (NOTE: The abbreviation ELT is used as a noun in its ownright.)
  • 'em = them
  • EM = 1.PHYSICS electromagnetic 2.PHYSICS electron microscope 3.COMPUTING a code thatindicates the end of usable physical medium. Full form end of medium
  • EmA = MEDICINE igA antiendomysial antibody
  • EMAS = ENVIRONMENT a voluntary scheme of the European Union in whichcommercial and other organizations are encouraged to assess their approach toenvironmental matters against a given set of criteria. Full form Eco-Management andAudit Scheme
  • EMF = 1.PHYSICS electromotive force 2.ECONOMICS European Monetary Fund
  • emf = PHYSICS electromotive force
  • EMG = MEDICINE 1.a graphical tracing of the electrical activity in a muscle at rest or duringcontraction, used to diagnose nerve and muscle disorders. Full form electromyogram2.a machine for producing an electromyogram from electrical activity picked up viaelectrodes inserted into muscle tissue. Full form electromyograph
  • EMH = FINANCE efficient markets hypothesis
  • EMI = FINANCE European Monetary Institute
  • Emp. = 1.Emperor 2.Empire 3.Empress
  • EMS = 1.E-COMMERCE electronics manufacturing services 2.HEALTH SERVICES emergencymedical services 3.BUSINESS environmental management system 4.FINANCE EuropeanMonetary System
  • EMT = HEALTH SERVICES emergency medical technician
  • EMU = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS electromagnetic unit 2.ECONOMICS European MonetaryUnion
  • EN = 1.ECOLOGY endangered (species) 2.ECOLOGY English Nature 3.HEALTH SERVICES enrollednurse
  • EN(G) = Aus, NZ, N Am HEALTH SERVICES enrolled nurse (general)
  • EN(M) = Aus, NZ, N Am HEALTH SERVICES enrolled nurse (mental)
  • EN(MH) = Aus, NZ, N Am HEALTH SERVICES enrolled nurse (mental handicap)
  • enc. = BUSINESS 1.enclosed 2.enclosure
  • encl. = BUSINESS 1.enclosed 2.enclosure
  • ENE = east-northeast
  • ENEA = INDUST European Nuclear Energy Agency
  • ENG = BROADCASTING electronic newsgathering
  • Eng. = 1.GEOGRAPHY England 2.LANGUAGE Englishengr. 50
  • eng. = 1.engine 2.engineer 3.engineering
  • engr. = PRINTING 1.engraved 2.engraver 3.engraving
  • enl. = 1.PHOTOGRAPHY enlarged 2.MILITARY enlisted
  • ENO = MUSIC English National Opera
  • ENQ = COMPUTING enquiry
  • Ens. = MILITARY Ensign
  • ENSA = MILITARY a British organization formed to provide entertainment for Alliedforces during World War II. Full form Entertainments National Service Association
  • ENSO = OCEANOGRAPHY an environmental phenomenon whereby strong winds cause themovement of warm Pacific waters westwards into cooler water areas, disrupting theirecosystems. It happens ever 2–7 years and is usually accompanied by heavy rainstorms.Full form El Niño Southern Oscillation
  • ENT = MEDICINE ear, nose, and throat
  • EOA = COMPUTING end of address
  • EOB = COMPUTING end of block
  • EOC = LAW Equal Opportunities Commission
  • EOD = COMPUTING end of data
  • EOF = COMPUTING end of file
  • EOJ = COMPUTING end of job
  • EOL = COMPUTING end of line
  • EOM = COMPUTING end of message
  • eom = COMMERCE end of the month
  • EOQ = COMMERCE economic order quantity
  • EOR = COMPUTING end of record
  • EOT = COMPUTING 1.end of text 2.end of transmission
  • Ep. = BIBLE Epistle
  • ep = CHESS used when a pawn that has moved two squares is captured by an enemy pawnas if it had only moved one square. Full form en passant (NOTE: From the French, ‘inpassing'.)
  • EPA = 1.BIOCHEMISTRY a polyunsaturated essential fatty acid found in some fish that hasbeen linked to various health benefits. Full form eicosapentaenoic acid 2.ENVIRONMENTEnvironmental Protection Agency
  • EPAC = ECONOMICS an independent organization made up of leading politiciansand business figures that advises the Australian federal government on economic policy.Full form Economic Planning and Advisory Committee
  • Eph. = BIBLE Ephesians
  • Epis. = 1.CHRISTIANITY Episcopal 2.CHRISTIANITY Episcopalian 3.BIBLE Epistle
  • Epist. = BIBLE Epistle
  • EPNS = METALLURGY electroplated nickel silver
  • EPOS = COMMERCE electronic point of sale
  • EPROM = COMPUTING an integrated circuit that can be reprogrammed by auser to correct an error in the program or to add a function. Full form erasableprogrammableread-only memory
  • EPS = 1.FINANCE earnings per share 2.COMPUTING PostScript commands contained in a filethat can be placed within a graphics or DTP program. Full form encapsulatedPostScript
  • eps = FINANCE earnings per share51 ESDI
  • EPSF = COMPUTING encapsulated PostScript file
  • EQ = EDUCATION the ratio of educational attainment to chronological age. Full formeducational quotient
  • eq. = 1.equal 2.equation 3.equivalent
  • equiv. = equivalent
  • ER = 1.Eduardus Rex (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘King Edward'.) 2.Elizabetha Regina 3.HEALTHSERVICES the US equivalent of A & E (the accident and emergency department,traditionally known as casualty). Full form emergency room (NOTE: The abbreviation ERis used as a noun in its own right.) 4.MEDICINE an intricate system of tubular membranesin the cytoplasm of a cell. Full form endoplasmic reticulum
  • Er = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS erbium
  • er = ONLINE Eritrea (NOTE: The abbreviation er is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • ERA = 1.EDUCATION a law passed in 1988 covering the publication of information onschools, open enrolment, and grant-maintained schools. Full form Education ReformAct 2.US LAW Equal Rights Amendment
  • ERCP = MEDICINE a medical procedure to diagnose problems with the liver, bile duct andpancreas, consisting of an endoscopic procedure to inject dye followed by an x-ray. Fullform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
  • ERDF = COMMERCE European Regional Development Fund
  • ERG = OPHTHALMOLOGY a record of the electrical activity of the retina obtained viaelectrodes placed on the eye. Full form electroretinogram
  • ERID = ECOLOGY disease which can be controlled but not eradicated, whose incidence inhumans has increased and continues to do so. Full form emerging and re-emerginginfectious disease
  • ERM = ECONOMICS a system of controlling the exchange rate between some countries inthe European Union. Full form Exchange Rate Mechanism (NOTE: The ERM hasbecome redundant with the advent of the single European currency.)
  • Ernie = FINANCE in the United Kingdom, the machine used for drawing winningpremium bond numbers. Full form electronic random number indicatingequipment (NOTE: The abbreviation Ernie, which bestows a ‘human' identity on themachine, is used in preference to the full form.)
  • EROM = COMPUTING electrically alterable read-only memory
  • ERP = FINANCE extra return on an equity in preference to a bond, because of the extra riskinvolving in investing in these. Full form equity risk premium
  • ERPC = MEDICINE evacuation of retained products of conception
  • ERR = FINANCE expected rate of return
  • ES = GEOGRAPHY Eastern States
  • Es = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS einsteinium
  • es = ONLINE Spain (NOTE: The abbreviation es, from the Spanish España, is seen at the endof Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • ES-IS = COMPUTING end system to intermediate system
  • ESA = 1.ENVIRONMENT environmentally sensitive area 2.AEROSPACE European Space Agency
  • Esc = COMPUTING the key on a computer keyboard that allows a user to exit a program,cancel a command, or return to a previous menu. Full form escape (key)
  • ESCB = BANKING European System of Central Banks
  • Esd. = BIBLE Esdras
  • ESDI = COMPUTING enhanced small device interfaceESE 52
  • ESE = east-southeast
  • ESF = SOCIAL WELFARE a fund which provides support to programs in the European Unionwhich help people find employment or train in new skills. Full form European SocialFund
  • ESL = EDUCATION English taught to people who live in an English-speaking country butwhose first language is not English. Full form English as a second language
  • ESOL = EDUCATION English for speakers of other languages
  • ESOP = COMMERCE an investment plan in which employees acquire shares in thecompany they work for by making tax-deductible contributions. Full form employeeshare ownership plan
  • ESP = 1.ENVIRONMENT a device that removes small particles of smoke, dust, or oil from airby electrostatically charging them and then attracting them to an oppositely chargedcollector plate or surface. Full form electrostatic precipitator 2.COMMERCE the periodof employment that an employee's benefits from a superannuation scheme arecalculated on. Full form eligible service period 3.EDUCATION English for specialpurposes 4.PARAPSYCHOLOGY extrasensory perception
  • esp. = especially
  • Esq. = Esquire (NOTE: The abbreviation Esq.is used as a courtesy title in correspondence,placed after a man's full name.)
  • ESR = 1.PHYSICS a method of dating minerals by testing their reaction to magnetic fields.Full form electron spin resonance 2.MEDICINE an outdated method of diagnosingillness by testing the sedimentation rate of blood cells in a solution. Full formerythrocyte sedimentation rate
  • ESRC = SOCIAL SCIENCES Economic and Social Research Council
  • ESRD = MEDICINE complete failure of the kidneys, requiring substitute treatment such asdialysis. Full form end-stage renal disease
  • EST = TIME Eastern Standard Time
  • estd = established
  • Esth. = BIBLE Esther
  • esu = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS electrostatic unit
  • ET = SCIENCE FICTION extraterrestrial (NOTE: The abbreviation ET was popularized by theblockbusting 1982 film of this name and its endearing eponymous hero.)
  • et = ONLINE Ethiopia (NOTE: The abbreviation et is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • ETA = 1.TRAVEL estimated time of arrival 2.POLITICS a Basque nationalist guerrillagroup that seeks separation and independence from Spain for the Basque region. Fullform Euzkadi ta Askatsuna
  • etc. = et cetera
  • ETD = TRAVEL estimated time of departure
  • ETF = BANKING electronic transfer of funds
  • ETLLD = GOVERNMENT Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department
  • ETP = FINANCE a lump sum from a superannuation fund payable to an employee ontermination of their employment. Full form eligible termination payment
  • ETX = COMPUTING end of text
  • ety. = LINGUISTICS 1.etymological 2.etymology
  • etymol. = LINGUISTICS 1.etymological 2.etymology
  • EU = POLITICS an economic and political union of European nations. Full form EuropeanUnion53 Ezr.
  • Eu = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS europium
  • Eur. = GEOGRAPHY 1.Europe 2.European
  • EURIBOR = BANKING European Interbank Offered Rate
  • eV = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS electron volt
  • EVA = 1.COMMERCE the difference between a company's profit and the cost of its capital.Full form economic value added 2.AEROSPACE extravehicular activity
  • evan. = CHRISTIANITY 1.evangelical 2.evangelist
  • evang. = CHRISTIANITY 1.evangelical 2.evangelist
  • EW = MILITARY enlisted woman
  • EWO = EDUCATION Educational Welfare Officer
  • Ex. = BIBLE Exodus
  • Exch. = POLITICS Exchequer
  • exch. = 1.exchange 2.POLITICS exchequer
  • excl. = 1.GRAMMAR exclamation 2.exclusive
  • EXE = COMPUTING a filename extension for a program file. Full form executable
  • EXNOR = /eks| n?_/ MATHEMATICS a logical function whose output is true if all inputs are atthe same level, and false if they are not Full form exclusive NOR
  • EXOR = /eks| ?_/ MATHEMATICS a logical function whose output is true if any input is true,and false if all the inputs are the same Full form exclusive OR
  • exor = LAW executor
  • exp. = 1.experiment 2.experimental 3.expired 4.expires 5.MATHEMATICS exponentialfunction 6.COMMERCE export 7.COMMERCE exported 8.TRANSPORT express
  • ext. = 1.TELECOMMUNICATIONS extension 2.exterior 3.external 4.PHARMACOLOGY extract
  • EZ = BUSINESS enterprise zone
  • Ez. = BIBLE Ezra
  • Ezek. = BIBLE Ezekiel
  • Ezr. = BIBLE Ezra
  • F = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS Fahrenheit 2.false (NOTE: The abbreviation F is usuallycontrasted with T meaning ‘true', as possible answers to a question.) 3.MEASUREMENTS,ELECTRICITY farad 4.MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY faraday (NOTE: As an abbreviation forfaraday, F is usually italicized.) 5.MEASUREMENTS fathom 6.TELECOMMUNICATIONS fax(number) (NOTE: The abbreviation F is used to contrast with E (e-mail address) and T(telephone number).) 7.CALENDAR February 8.Fellow 9.female 10.GRAMMAR feminine11.METALLURGY with all or most impurities removed. Full form fine 12.CHEMICALELEMENTS fluorine 13.PHYSICS force 14.SPORTS foul 15.MONEY franc 16.CALENDAR Friday
  • f = 1.MEASUREMENTS femto- 2.PHOTOGRAPHY the ratio of the focal length to the effectivediameter of a camera lens. Symbol for f-number 3.PHYSICS the distance from the centreof a lens or the surface of a mirror to the point at which light passing through the lensor reflected from the mirror is focused. Symbol for focal length 4.MUSIC forte (NOTE:The abbreviation f, usually italicized, is used on sheet music at a passage that is to beplayed or sung loudly.) 5.PHYSICS frequency 6.MATHEMATICS function 7.MONEY guilder(NOTE: The guilder is also called a florin, hence the abbreviation.) 8.PUBLISHING folio (NOTE:The abbreviation F, followed by a number, is used in publishing to refer to a particularsheet of a manuscript or page of a book.) 9.following (line or page)
  • f.a.o. = BUSINESS for the attention of (NOTE: The abbreviation f.a.o.is used before the nameof the intended recipient of a letter, memorandum, or other communication.)
  • f/d = COMMERCE free delivery
  • f/h = COMMERCIAL LAW freehold
  • f.i.o. = COMMERCE for information only
  • F/Lt = MILITARY Flight Lieutenant
  • f.r. = PUBLISHING folio recto (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘on the right-hand page'.)
  • f.v. = PUBLISHING folio verso (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘on the left-hand page'.)
  • F2F = ONLINE face-to-face (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • F2T = ONLINE free to talk (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • FA = 1.MILITARY field artillery 2.FINANCE financial adviser 3.ARTS fine art 4.SOCCER FootballAssociation 5.FREIGHT freight agent
  • FAA = NAVY Fleet Air Arm
  • FAB = BEVERAGES flavoured alcoholic beverage
  • Fahr. = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS Fahrenheit
  • FAM = COMPUTING fast access memory
  • fam. = 1.familiar 2.family
  • FAO = AGRICULTURE Food and Agriculture Organization (of the United Nations)
  • fao = BUSINESS for the attention of (NOTE: The abbreviation f.a.o.is used before the nameof the intended recipient of a letter, memorandum, or other communication.)
  • FAP = MEDICINE a pre-cancerous condition resulting in the development of polyps on thecolon, caused by a genetic mutation. Full form familial adenomatous polyposis
  • FAQ = 1.SHIPPING free alongside quay 2.COMPUTING frequently askedquestion(s)
  • FAQs = COMPUTING frequently asked questions
  • FARC = POLITICS Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (NOTE: From the Spanish,‘Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia'.)
  • FAS = 1.US FINANCE Federal Accounting Standards 2.MEDICINE a condition affecting babiesborn to women who drank excessive amounts of alcohol during pregnancy,characterized by a range of effects including facial abnormalities and learningdifficulties. Full form foetal alcohol syndrome 3.SHIPPING with the cost of delivery tothe quayside included, but not the cost of loading onto a ship, as opposed to free onboard (FOB). Full form free alongside ship
  • FASB = FINANCE Financial Accounting Standards Board
  • FASIT = FINANCE Financial Asset Securitisation Investment Trust55 FE
  • Fast-SCSI = COMPUTING a development that allows data to be transferred ata higher rate than with the original SCSI specification
  • FASTER = STOCK EXCHANGE Fully Automated Screen Trading and Electronic Registration
  • FAT = COMPUTING in MS-DOS, an internal store of information about the structure offiles on a disk. Full form file allocation table
  • FBA = Fellow of the British Academy
  • FBC = INDUSTRY a technique to improve the efficiency of fuel combustion in power plantsby mixing the fuel with jets of air during the combustion process. Full form fluidizedbedcombustion
  • FBI = CRIME a bureau of the US Department of Justice that deals with matters of nationalsecurity, interstate crime, and crimes against the government. Full form Federal Bureauof Investigation
  • FBR = INDUST fast-breeder reactor
  • FC = 1.INDUSTRY fibre-concrete 2.SOCCER Football Club 3.TREES Forestry Commission
  • FCA = 1.ACCOUNTING Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants (in England andWales) 2.BUSINESS, ENVIRONMENT the practice of including the indirect costs and benefitsof a product or activity, e.g. its social and environmental effects on health and theeconomy, along with its direct costs when making business decisions. Full form full costaccounting
  • FCB = COMPUTING file control block
  • FCCA = ACCOUNTING Fellow of the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants
  • FCI = BUSINESS Finance Corporation for Industry
  • FCII = INSURANCE Fellow of the Chartered Insurance Institute
  • FCM = STOCK EXCHANGE futures commission merchant
  • FCMA = ACCOUNTING Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants
  • FCO = GOVERNMENT Foreign and Commonwealth Office
  • FCSD = GOVERNMENT Financial and Central Services Department
  • FD = 1.CHRISTIANITY Fidei Defensor. _ DF (NOTE: The abbreviation FD, from the Latin,‘Defender of the Faith', is used on British coins, after the name of the monarch.) 2.BUSINESS financial director 3.COMPUTING floppy disk 4.COMMERCE free delivery 5.COMPUTING data transmission down a channel in two directions simultaneously. Full formfull duplex
  • FDA = HEALTH the US federal agency that oversees trade in and the safety of food anddrugs. Full form Food and Drug Administration
  • FDC = COMPUTING floppy disk controller
  • FDD = COMPUTING floppy disk drive
  • FDDI = COMPUTING a standard for high-speed networks which use fibreoptic cable in a dualringtopology. Full form fibre distributed data interface
  • FDI = BUSINESS foreign direct investment
  • FDIC = BUSINESS Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
  • FDISK = COMPUTING an MS-DOS system utility that configures the partitions on ahard disk (NOTE: ‘Fixed disk' is an older term for ‘hard disk'.)
  • FDM = COMPUTING a system of assigning different signals to different frequencies so thatthey can be sent simultaneously. Full form frequency division multiplexing
  • FDR = 32nd president of the United States (1933–45). Full form Franklin DelanoRoosevelt
  • FDX = COMPUTING full duplex. _ FD
  • FE = EDUCATION further educationFeb. 56
  • Fe = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS iron (NOTE: From the Latin ferrum.)
  • Feb. = CALENDAR February
  • fec. = ARTS he or she made it (NOTE: The abbreviation fec., from the Latin fecit, follows theartist's name on a piece of work.)
  • FED = COMPUTING a method of producing thin, flat displays for laptop computers. Full formfield emission display
  • Fed. = POLITICS 1.Federal 2.Federated 3.Federation
  • fed. = POLITICS 1.federal 2.federated 3.federation
  • FEDUSA = HUMAN RESOURCES Federation of Unions of South Africa
  • fem. = 1.BIOLOGY female 2.GRAMMAR feminine
  • FEMA = US GOVERNMENT Federal Emergency Management Agency
  • FEP = COMPUTING a computer that carries out preliminary processing on data before passingit to another computer for further processing. Full form front-end processor
  • FES = SOCIAL SCIENCES Family Expenditure Survey
  • FESS = MEDICINE functional endoscopic sinus surgery
  • FET = ELECTRONICS field-effect transistor
  • FEV = MEDICINE the amount of air that can be expelled in one breath, a measure of lungcapacity and function. Full form forced expiratory volume
  • FF = 1.ELECTRONICS an electronic circuit or mechanical device that has two stable states andcan be switched between the two. Full form flip-flop 2.COMPUTING a command to starta new page on a printer. Full form form feed
  • ff = MUSIC fortissimo (NOTE: The abbreviation ff, usually italicized, is used on sheet music ata passage that is to be played or sung very loudly.)
  • ff. = 1.PUBLISHING folios (NOTE: The abbreviation ff., followed by a series or range ofnumbers, is used in publishing to refer to particular sheets of a manuscript or pages ofa book.) 2.following (lines or pages) (NOTE: The abbreviation ff.is used after a line orpage number.)
  • FGD = ENVIRONMENT flue gas desulphurization
  • FH = EMERGENCIES fire hydrant
  • FHFB = US FINANCE Federal Housing Finance Board
  • FHLBB = US BANKING Federal Home Loan Bank Board
  • FHLBS = US BANKING Federal Home Loan Bank System
  • FHLMC = US FINANCE Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation
  • fhp = MECHANICAL ENGINEERING friction horsepower
  • FHSA = HEALTH SERVICES Family Health Services Authority
  • FIBOR = BANKING Frankfurt Interbank Offered Rate
  • FID = Aus FINANCE Financial Institutions Duty
  • Fid. Def. = CHRISTIANITY Fidei Defensor. _ DF (NOTE: Formerly seen on British coins, thepreferred abbreviation now used is FD. From the Latin, ‘Defender of the Faith'.)
  • FIDE = CHESS World Chess Federation (NOTE: From the French, Fédération Internationale desÉchecs.)
  • FIF = FINANCE Foreign Investment Funds (Tax)
  • FIFA = SOCCER the governing organization of international football. Full formFédération Internationale de Football Association (NOTE: From the French,‘International Federation of Association Football'.)
  • FIFO = first in, first out
  • fig. = 1.figurative 2.figure (NOTE: The abbreviation fig.is most frequently used in thecaptions of (or textual references to) illustrations, diagrams, or tables in a book.)
  • FIM = MEDICINE a test to evaluate the amount of assistance that a person with a disabilityneeds to carry out basic activities. Full form functional independence measure57 FO
  • FIMBRA = FINANCE Financial Intermediaries, Managers, and Brokers RegulatoryAssociation
  • Fin. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Finland 2.LANGUAGE Finnish
  • fin. = 1.finance 2.financial 3.finish
  • FIO = COMMERCE for information only
  • fio = COMMERCE for information only
  • FIRB = BUSINESS Foreign Investment Review Board
  • fj = ONLINE Fiji (NOTE: The abbreviation fj is seen at the end of Internet addresses, precededby a dot.)
  • Fkr = MONEY Faroese krona
  • FL = 1.MILITARY Flight Lieutenant 2.MAIL Florida (NOTE: The abbreviation FL is part of the USsorting code on the last line of a Florida address.)
  • Fl. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Flanders 2.LANGUAGE Flemish
  • fl. = 1.floor 2.MONEY florin 3.floruit (NOTE: The abbreviation fl.is used before the name ornumber of the period in which a particular person or movement was most active,especially when the exact dates are unknown.) 4.MUSIC flute 5.MONEY guilder (NOTE: Theguilder is also called a florin, hence the abbreviation.)
  • fl oz = MEASUREMENTS fluid ounce
  • FLA = BUSINESS Finance and Leasing Association
  • flak = _ see note at Aids
  • FLOP = MATHEMATICS a mathematical operation carried out on a number expressedin floating point (standardising) notation. Full form floating-point operation
  • flops = COMPUTING floating-point operations per second (NOTE: The acronym flopsis used to indicate the speed of a computer.)
  • flor. = floruit (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘flourished'.)
  • FLQ = POLITICS a terrorist organization seeking the secession of Quebec from Canada. Fullform Front de Libération du Québec (NOTE: From the French, ‘Quebec LiberationFront'.)
  • Flt Lt = MILITARY Flight Lieutenant
  • Flt Sgt = MILITARY Flight Sergeant
  • FM = 1.ARMY field manual 2.ENGINEERING a parameter or characteristic of a machine,component, or instrument that is used as a measure of its performance. Full form figureof merit 3.RADIO frequency modulation 4.GEOGRAPHY (Federated States of) Micronesia
  • Fm = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS fermium
  • fm = 1.MEASUREMENTS fathom 2.RADIO frequency modulation 3.ONLINE (Federated Statesof) Micronesia (NOTE: The abbreviation fm is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • FMA = FINANCE Fund Managers' Association
  • FMCG = COMMERCE fast-moving consumer goods
  • fml = formal
  • FMS = 1.PSYCHOLOGY a situation in which examination, therapy, or hypnosis has elicitedapparent memories, especially of childhood abuse, that are disputed by family membersand often traumatic to the patient. Full form false memory syndrome 2.MANUFACTURING flexible manufacturing system 3.AVIAT flight management system
  • FNMA = US FINANCE Federal National Mortgage Association
  • FNQ = GEOGRAPHY Far North Queensland
  • FO = 1.FINANCE finance officer 2.GOVERNMENT Foreign Officefo. 58
  • fo = ONLINE Faroe Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation fo is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • fo. = PUBLISHING folio (NOTE: The abbreviation fo., followed by a number, is used inpublishing to refer to a particular sheet of a manuscript or page of a book.)
  • FOB = SHIPPING with the cost of delivery to a port and loading onto a ship included, asopposed to free alongside ship (FAS). Full form free on board
  • FoC = HUMAN RESOURCES a shop steward representing members of a trade union in aprinting office or publishing house. Full form father of the chapel
  • FOD = TELECOMMUNICATIONS fax-on-demand
  • FoE = ENVIRONMENT Friends of the Earth
  • FOK = FINANCE an order to either execute a transaction immediately and in full, or, if notpossible, to cancel it. Full form fill or kill
  • FOL = ANZ POLITICS Federation of Labour
  • FOR = COMMERCE with the cost of delivery to a railway station and loading onto a trainincluded. Full form free on rail
  • for. = 1.foreign 2.forestry
  • forex = FINANCE foreign exchange
  • FORTRAN = COMPUTING the earliest high-level computer programminglanguage. Full form formula translation
  • FOX = FINANCE Futures and Options Exchange
  • FPA = FINANCE Financial Planning Association of Australia
  • FPS = COMPUTER GAMES 1.first person shooter 2.a measure of the rate of screenrefreshment in a real-time computer game. Full form frames per second
  • fps = 1.MEASUREMENTS feet per second 2.MEASUREMENTS foot-pound-second (NOTE: The fpssystem uses the foot, pound, and second as the basic units for length, mass, and time,respectively. It has been largely replaced by the SI system in scientific contexts.) 3.PHOTOGRAPHY a measure of camera shutter speed. Full form frames per second
  • FPU = COMPUTING a CPU unit that can process numbers expressed in floating-point notationvery quickly. Full form floating-point unit
  • FR = BUILDINGS family room (used in property advertisements)
  • Fr = 1.CHRISTIANITY Father 2.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS francium
  • Fr. = 1.MONEY franc 2.GEOGRAPHY France 3.the German equivalent of Mrs. Full form Frau4.LANGUAGE French 5.CHRISTIANITY Friar 6.CALENDAR Friday
  • fr = PUBLISHING folio recto (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘on the right-hand page'.)?ONLINE France (NOTE: The abbreviation fr is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • fr. = 1.fragment 2.from
  • FRB = US 1.BANKING Federal Reserve Bank 2.FINANCE Federal Reserve Board
  • FRCS = SURGERY Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons
  • freq. = 1.frequency 2.GRAMMAR used to describe a verb or affix that expresses repeatedaction. Full form frequentative 3.frequently
  • FRG = GEOGRAPHY the full official name for Germany. Full form Federal Republic ofGermany
  • Fri. = CALENDAR Friday
  • Frl. = the German equivalent of Miss. Full form Fräulein
  • FRN = FINANCE loans arranged by a bank which are not at a fixed rate of interest. Full formfloating rate note
  • FROM = COMPUTING fusible read-only memory
  • FRS = SCIENCE Fellow of the Royal Society
  • FRSB = FINANCE Financial Reporting Standards Board59 FYROM
  • FRY = GEOGRAPHY the full official name for the former state of Yugoslavia (now in twoseparate states, Macedonia, and Serbia and Montenegro). Full form Federal Republicof Yugoslavia
  • FSA = 1.ARTS Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 2.FINANCE Financial Services Authority 3.FOOD INDUSTRY Food Standards Agency
  • FSAVC = PENSIONS an AVC which is run by an independent pension fund company and notby the investor's employer. Full form free-standing additional voluntarycontribution
  • FSB = BUSINESS Federation of Small Businesses
  • FSH = 1.BIOCHEMISTRY a hormone that stimulates the growth of egg follicles in the ovariesand the making of sperm in the testes. Full form follicle-stimulating hormone 2.AUTOMOTIVE full service history (NOTE: The abbreviation FSH is seen in used-caradvertisements, indicating that documentary evidence of routine maintenance on thevehicle is available.)
  • FSI = MARKETING a separate piece of advertising matter inserted into a newspaper or similarfor wide distribution. Full form free-standing insert
  • FT = PRESS Financial Times
  • ft = 1.MEASUREMENTS foot 2.MILITARY fort
  • FTC = US BUSINESS Federal Trade Commission
  • fth. = MEASUREMENTS fathom
  • FTP = COMPUTING a standard procedure that allows one computer to transfer files to andfrom another over a network such as the Internet. Full form file transfer protocol
  • FTSE = STOCK EXCHANGE Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 IndexThe abbreviation FTSE (informally called Footsie) is used for a number of share indexes,including the FTSE 100 (a measure of the 100 largest companies in Britain), the 250(concerned with medium-sized companies) and the TMT (technology, media and telecomscompanies).
  • fur. = MEASUREMENTS furlong
  • furn. = furnished (used in property advertisements)
  • fut. = 1.future 2.FINANCE futures
  • fv = PUBLISHING folio verso (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘on the left-hand page'.)
  • FWD = AUTOMOTIVE 1.four-wheel drive 2.front-wheel drive
  • fwd = forward
  • FWIW = ONLINE for what it's worth (used in e-mails)
  • FX = 1.CINEMA (special) effects (NOTE: The abbreviation FX reflects the sound, rather thanthe spelling, of the full form.) 2.FINANCE foreign exchange
  • fx = ONLINE France, Metropolitan (NOTE: The abbreviation fx is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot. The term distinguishes European France from its overseasdepartments.)
  • FY = FINANCE financial year
  • FYI = ONLINE for your information (used in e-mails and office memos)
  • FYM = AGRICULTURE farmyard manure
  • FYROM = GEOGRAPHY Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (NOTE: FYR Macedoniabecame independent from Yugoslavia in 1991.)
  • G = 1.ELECTRICITY conductance 2.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS gauss 3.SOCIAL SCIENCE gay (NOTE:The abbreviation G is used in personal advertisements.) 4.SCIENCE Gibbs free energy(NOTE: The abbreviation G is italicized in this sense.) 5.MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING giga-6.EDUCATION good (NOTE: The abbreviation G is italicized in this sense.) 7.MEASUREMENTSgram 8.PHYSICS gravitational constant (NOTE: The abbreviation G is used in markingstudents' work.) 9.ONLINE grin(ning) (used in Internet chat rooms and text messages) 10.BIOCHEMISTRY guanine 11.MONEY guilder 12.MONEY guinea 13.GEOGRAPHY Gulf
  • g = 1.PHYSICS acceleration of free fall as a result of gravity 2.gauge 3.GRAMMAR gender 4.MEASUREMENTS gram 5.MONEY guilder 6.MONEY guinea
  • G & T = BEVERAGES gin and tonic (NOTE: The abbreviation G & T is chiefly used in informalconversation.)
  • G10 = FINANCE a group of 10 major world banks linked to the Bank for InternationalSettlement (BIS). Full form Group of Ten
  • G5 = FINANCE a group of 5 leading countries that agree to cooperate on economic andmonetary issues. Full form Group of Five (NOTE: The five countries are Japan, France,Germany, the UK and the U.S.A.)
  • G7 = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS the group of the seven most industrialized nations in theworld that met to discuss and draw up global economic policies before they were joinedby Russia to form the Group of Eight (G8). The seven were Canada, France, (West)Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full form Group ofSeven
  • G8 = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS the group of the eight most industrialized nations in theworld, comprising Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom,and the United States. Representatives from these countries meet regularly to discussand draw up global economic policies. Full form Group of Eight
  • GA = 1.LAW general agent 2.General Assembly (of the United Nations) 3.SHIPPING,INSURANCE general average 4.MAIL Georgia (NOTE: The abbreviation GA is part of the USsorting code on the last line of a Georgia address.) 5.ONLINE go ahead (used in e-mails,text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • Ga = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS gallium
  • ga = ONLINE Gabon (NOTE: The abbreviation ga is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • GAAP = ACCOUNTING a summary of best practice in accountancy, with no legalstatus. Full form generally accepted accounting principles
  • GAB = FINANCE general arrangements to borrow
  • GABA = BIOCHEMISTRY gamma-aminobutyric acid
  • GAFIA = ONLINE get away from it all (used in e-mails)
  • GAL = ONLINE get a life (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • Gal. = BIBLE Galatians
  • gal. = MEASUREMENTS gallon
  • gall. = MEASUREMENTS gallon
  • galv. = 1.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING galvanic 2.galvanized
  • GAS = ACCOUNTING Government Accountancy Service
  • GATT = COMMERCE General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade61 Gdns
  • gaz. = 1.PRESS gazette 2.PUBLISHING gazetteer
  • GB = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS gilbert 2.GEOGRAPHY Great Britain
  • Gb = MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING gigabyte
  • GBE = 1.MILITARY Knight or Dame Grand Cross of the (Order of the) British Empire (NOTE:The abbreviation GBE is used as a title: Christina Massey GBE.) 2.BUSINESS GovernmentBusiness Enterprise
  • GBH = CRIME grievous bodily harmThe abbreviation GBH has entered the language as a noun in its own right. It is sometimesused figuratively to denote any serious attack, not necessarily physical, especially in the slangphrase GBH of the earhole, which denotes incessant talking, nagging, or complaining.
  • GBLT = SOCIAL SCIENCE gay, bisexual, lesbian, or transgender
  • Gbyte = MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING gigabyte
  • GC = MILITARY George Cross
  • Gc = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS gigacycle
  • GCB = MILITARY Knight or Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (NOTE: Theabbreviation GCB is used as a title: Sir William Harpole, CGB.)
  • GCE = EDUCATION an examination for secondary-school pupils in England and Wales atAdvanced level (A level) and formerly at Ordinary level (O level), set and marked byvarious independent examination boards. At Ordinary level it has been replaced by theGCSE. Full form General Certificate of Education
  • GCH = INDUST gas central heating (used in property advertisements)
  • GCHQ = GOVERNMENT Government Communications Headquarters
  • GCM = ECOLOGY general circulation model
  • GCMG = MILITARY Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St GeorgeThe honours CMG, KCMG, and GCMG, awarded in that order, are facetiously said to standfor ‘call me God', ‘kindly call me God', and ‘God calls me God'. These alternative meaningswere popularised by an episode of the series 'Yes, Minister' televised in 1981.
  • GCS = MEDICINE a system for assessing the severity of brain impairment in somebody witha brain injury using the sum of scores given for eye opening, verbal, and motorresponses. A high score of fifteen indicates no impairment and a score of eight or lessindicates severe impairment. Full form Glasgow coma scale
  • GCSE = EDUCATION an examination for 16-year-olds in England and Wales that includesassessment of work completed during the course. It replaced the General Certificate ofEducation (GCE) O level and the Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE). _ She leftschool with five GCSEs. Full form General Certificate of Secondary Education (NOTE:The abbreviation GCSE is used as a noun in its own right, referring to an examinationor qualification at this level in a single subject.)
  • GCV = PHYSICS gross calorific value
  • GCVO = MILITARY Grand Cross of the Victorian Order (NOTE: The abbreviation GCVO is usedas a title.)
  • Gd = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS gadolinium
  • gd = ONLINE Grenada (NOTE: The abbreviation gd is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • GD&RF = ONLINE grinning, ducking, and running fast (used in e-mails, text messages andInternet chat rooms)
  • GD&WVVF = ONLINE grinning, ducking, and walking very very fast (used in e-mails, textmessages and Internet chat rooms)
  • GDC = DENTISTRY General Dental Council
  • GDI = COMPUTING graphics device interface
  • Gdns = ROADS Gardens (NOTE: The abbreviation Gdns is used in addresses.)GDP 62
  • GDP = ECONOMICS the total value of all goods and services produced within a country in ayear, minus net income from investments in other countries. Full form gross domesticproduct
  • GDR = 1.GEOGRAPHY the former republic of East Germany. Full form German DemocraticRepublic 2.ONLINE grinning, ducking, and running (used in e-mails, text messages andInternet chat rooms)
  • Ge = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS germanium
  • ge = ONLINE Georgia (NOTE: The abbreviation ge is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • GEB = FINANCE an investment that guarantees not to fall below the original amountinvested. Full form Guaranteed Equity Bond
  • Gen. = 1.MILITARY General 2.BIBLE Genesis
  • gen. = 1.gender 2.general 3.GRAMMAR genitive 4.BIOLOGY genus
  • geog. = 1.geographic 2.geographical 3.geography
  • geol. = 1.geologic 2.geological 3.geology
  • geom. = 1.geometric 2.geometrical 3.geometry
  • GERD = MEDICINE a condition in which stomach acids repeatedly reflux over theoesophagus, damaging its surface. Full form gastroesophageal reflux disease (NOTE:The UK spelling is gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD).)
  • GeV = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS giga-electron volt
  • GF = ONLINE girlfriend (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • gf = ONLINE French Guiana (NOTE: The abbreviation gf is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • GFN = ONLINE gone for now (used in e-mails and Internet chat rooms)
  • GFR = 1.glomerular filtration rate 2.COMPUTING a file-removal utility designed to reclaimhard drive storage space. Full form grim file reaper
  • GG = 1.YOUTH ORG Girl Guides 2.ONLINE got game (used in Internet chat rooms and textmessages) 3.ONLINE gotta go (used in Internet chat rooms and text messages) 4.POLITICSGovernor General
  • gg = ONLINE Guernsey (NOTE: The abbreviation gg is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • gge = BUILDINGS garage (used in property advertisements)
  • GH = BIOCHEMISTRY growth hormone
  • gh = ONLINE Ghana (NOTE: The abbreviation gh is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • GHB = DRUGS a chemical compound that occurs naturally in animals, used for treatinganxiety and as an anaesthetic. Full form gammahydroxybutyrate
  • GHI = MARKETING the number of viewers that a television advertising spot is guaranteed bythe seller of the airtime to reach. Full form guaranteed homes impressions
  • GHQ = MILITARY the headquarters of an organization, especially a military headquarterscommanded by a general. Full form general headquarters
  • GHR = MARKETING guaranteed homes ratings. _ GHI
  • GHz = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS gigahertz
  • GI = 1.METALLURGY galvanized iron 2.ANATOMY gastrointestinalThe abbreviation GI, stamped on various items of US military equipment made of galvanizediron and subsequently reinterpreted as an abbreviation of ‘government issue', gave rise to thenickname GI for a soldier in the US armed forces.
  • gi = ONLINE Gibraltar (NOTE: The abbreviation gi is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • GIB = FINANCE Guaranteed Income Bond63 gonna
  • GIFT = MEDICINE a method of assisted conception in which eggs are removed from awoman's ovary, mixed with sperm, and placed in one of her fallopian tubes. Full formgamete intrafallopian transfer
  • GIGO = COMPUTING the principle that a computer program or process is only asgood as the ideas or data put into it. Full form garbage in, garbage out
  • gimme = give me
  • GINO = COMPUTING graphical input/output
  • GIS = GEOGRAPHY geographic information system
  • GIV = LAW a gift made by one living person to another, as opposed to money or propertyleft in a will. Full form gift inter vivos (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘(gift) between livingpeople'.)
  • GLA = BIOCHEMISTRY an essential fatty acid required to form prostaglandins, found in highconcentrations in evening primrose oil and borage oil. It can be taken as a dietarysupplement for menstrual disorders and for the pain of arthritis. Full form gammalinolenic acid
  • GLBT = gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender
  • GLC = 1.CHEMISTRY gas-liquid chromatography 2.PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION the localgovernment administrative body for Greater London between 1965 and 1986. Full formGreater London Council (NOTE: The Greater London Authority currently administersthe region.)
  • Glos. = Gloucestershire
  • GM = 1.MANAGEMENT general manager 2.GENETICS genetically modified 3.GENETICS geneticmodification 4.MILITARY George Medal 5.CHESS grand master 6.EDUCATION grantmaintained7.COMMERCE gross margin 8.ARMS guided missile
  • gm = 1.ONLINE Gambia (NOTE: The abbreviation gm is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.GENETICS genetically modified 3.MEASUREMENTS gram
  • GmbH = COMMERCE Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung (NOTE: From the German,‘company with restricted liability'.)
  • GMC = MEDICINE General Medical Council
  • GMO = GENETICS genetically modified organism
  • GMP = PENSIONS guaranteed minimum pension
  • GMS = EDUCATION grant-maintained status
  • GMT = TIME Greenwich Mean Time
  • GMTA = ONLINE great minds think alike (used in e-mails)
  • GMW = CHEMISTRY gram-molecular weight
  • gn = ONLINE Guinea (NOTE: The abbreviation gn is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • GND = ELECTRICITY the US equivalent of earth (an electrical connection intended to carrycurrent safely away from a circuit in the event of a fault). Full form ground
  • GNMA = FINANCE government national mortgage association
  • GNP = ECONOMICS the total value of all goods and services produced within a country in ayear, including net income from investments in other countries. Full form grossnational product
  • GNVQ = EDUCATION a qualification designed to provide vocationally oriented skills andknowledge for progression from school to employment or university. Full form GeneralNational Vocational Qualification (NOTE: The abbreviation GNVQ is used as a nounin its own right.)
  • GOC = OPHTHALMOLOGY General Optical Council
  • gonna = going toGOQ 64
  • GOQ = BUSINESS circumstances under which a person could be lawfully employed ordismissed on the grounds of their gender, age or similar, i.e. that being of the correctgender or age is a GOQ of the position. For example, a man could be lawfully deniedemployment on a chat line which advertises its employees as female. Full form genuineoccupational qualification
  • GORD = MEDICINE a condition in which stomach acids repeatedly reflux over theoesophagus, damaging its surface. Full form gastro-oesophageal reflux disease(NOTE: The US spelling is gastresophageal reflux disease (GERD).)
  • GOSUB = COMPUTING a programming command that executes a routine thenreturns to the following instruction. Full form go to subroutine
  • GOTO = COMPUTING a programming command that instructs a jump to anotherpoint or routine in the program (NOTE: GOTO is not an abbreviation, it simply means ‘goto'.)
  • GOTS = MARKETING the total number of people exposed to a particular advert or insert. Fullform gross opportunity to see
  • gov = ONLINE government organization (NOTE: The abbreviation gov is seen at the end ofInternet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • gov. = 1.government 2.governor
  • govt = government
  • GP = 1.MUSIC general pause 2.HEALTH SERVICES general practice 3.HEALTH SERVICES a doctorwho deals with patients' general medical problems, either at a surgery or (sometimes)at their homes. Full form general practitioner (NOTE: The abbreviation GP is used as anoun in its own right in this sense and has largely replaced the full form in everydayusage.) 4.SPORTS Grand Prix
  • gp = ONLINE Guadeloupe (NOTE: The abbreviation gp is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • GPI = MEDICINE a condition that occurs in the late stages of syphilis and is characterized bydementia, speech difficulty, and inability to move. Full form general paralysis of theinsane
  • GPIA = COMPUTING general purpose interface adapter
  • GPIB = COMPUTING general purpose interface bus
  • GPM = FINANCE graduated payment mortgage
  • GPMU = HUMAN RESOURCES Graphical, Paper, and Media Union
  • GPO = MAIL the former name for the organization now know as the post office (PO) in theUnited Kingdom. Full form General Post Office
  • GPP = ECOLOGY gross primary productivity
  • GPRS = ONLINE a system that provides immediate and continuous access to the Internetfrom wireless devices such as mobile phones. Full form general packet radio service
  • GPS = 1.NAVIGATION a worldwide navigation system that uses information received fromorbiting satellites. Full form Global Positioning System (NOTE: The abbreviation GPS isused as a noun to refer to the system itself or to a navigational device using this system.)2.Aus EDUCATION Great Public Schools
  • gps = MEASUREMENTS gallons per second
  • GPU = POLITICS the Soviet secret police, from 1922 to 1923. Full form Gosudarstvennoepoliticheskoe upravlenie (NOTE: From the Russian, ‘State Political Directorate'.)
  • gq = ONLINE Equatorial Guinea (NOTE: The abbreviation gq is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • Gr. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Greece 2.LANGUAGE Greek
  • gr = 1.MEASUREMENTS grain 2.ONLINE Greece (NOTE: The abbreviation gr is seen at the endof Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • gr. = 1.grade 2.MEASUREMENTS grain 3.MEASUREMENTS gram 4.MEASUREMENTS gross65 GWh
  • gr. wt = COMMERCE gross weight
  • GR8 = ONLINE great (NOTE: The abbreviation GR8, used in e-mails and text messages, is oneof many that use the number 8 to represent its sound.)
  • grad. = 1.gradient 2.graduated
  • gram. = 1.grammar 2.grammatical
  • GRP = 1.INDUSTRY glass-reinforced plastic 2.MARKETING a measure of the total number ofexposures to advertising during a particular media schedule. Full form gross ratingpoint
  • GS = 1.POLITICS General Secretary 2.MILITARY general staff
  • gs = ONLINE South Georgia (NOTE: The abbreviation gs is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • GSA = US POLITICS General Services Administration
  • GSM = TELECOMMUNICATIONS an international wireless communications network for mobilephones. Full form Global System for Mobile Communications
  • GSOH = good sense of humour (NOTE: The abbreviation GSOH is used in personaladvertisements.)
  • GSP = BUSINESS legislation allowing industrialised countries to charge preferential importtariffs to selected other countries in order to encourage their industrialisation. Full formGeneralized System of Preferences
  • GSR = 1.PHYSIOLOGY a change in the electrical conductivity of the skin caused by sweatingand increased blood flow and linked to a strong emotion such as fear. Full formgalvanic skin response 2.ASTRONOMY global solar radiation
  • GST = FINANCE in Canada and New Zealand, a value-added tax charged on all goods andservices. Full form goods and services tax
  • GSTT = FINANCE generation-skipping transfer tax
  • GT = AUTOMOTIVE Gran Turismo (NOTE: The abbreviation GT, from the Italian, ‘grandtouring', is used as part of the name of a high-performance car.)
  • gt = ONLINE Guatemala (NOTE: The abbreviation gt is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • GTC = BUSINESS good till cancelled
  • GTG = ONLINE got to go (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • GTi = AUTOMOTIVE Gran Turismo injection (NOTE: The abbreviation GTi, from the Italian,‘grand touring (injection)', is used as part of the name of a high-performance car.)
  • gTLD = ONLINE the portion of an Internet address that identifies it as belonging to a specificgeneric domain class (e.g. com, edu, or gov). Full form generic top-level domain
  • GTT = MEDICINE glucose tolerance test
  • GU = 1.MEDICINE gastric ulcer 2.PHYSIOLOGY genitourinary 3.GEOGRAPHY Guam
  • gu = ONLINE Guam (NOTE: The abbreviation gu is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • GUI = COMPUTING a user interface on a computer that relies on icons, menus, and amouse rather than typed commands. Full form graphical user interface
  • GUM = MEDICINE genitourinary medicine
  • GUT = PHYSICS the theory that all known processes in the universe are caused by thesame original energetic force. Full form Grand Unified Theory
  • GVW = MEASUREMENTS, AUTOMOTIVE gross vehicle weight
  • GW = 1.E-COMMERCE (payment) gateway 2.MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY gigawatt
  • gw = ONLINE Guinea-Bissau (NOTE: The abbreviation gw is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • GWh = MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY gigawatt-hourGWI 66
  • GWI = MILITARY the war of 1991 following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Full form GulfWar I
  • GWII = MILITARY the war fought in the spring of 2003 against Iraq by a coalition of US,British, Spanish and other forces. Full form Gulf War II
  • Gy = MEASUREMENTS, NUCLEAR PHYSICS gray
  • gy = ONLINE Guyana (NOTE: The abbreviation gy is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Gy Sgt = MILITARY Gunnery Sergeant
  • gynaecol. = 1.gynaecological 2.gynaecologist 3.gynaecology
  • H = 1.PHYSICS enthalpy 2.harbour 3.hard (NOTE: The abbreviation H, when used on pencils,indicates that the lead is hard.) 4.hardness 5.MATHEMATICS Hamiltonian function 6.height 7.MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY henry 8.high 9.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS hydrogen
  • h = 1.harbour 2.hard 3.hardness 4.MEASUREMENTS hecto- 5.height 6.high 7.BASEBALL hit8.horizontal 9.MUSIC horn 10.HEALTH SERVICES hospital 11.hot 12.MEASUREMENTS, TIMEhour 13.hundred 14.husband 15.PHYSICS Planck's constant
  • h & c = hot and cold (water)
  • h.w. = CRICKET hit wicket
  • H2 = ONLINE how to (used in e-mails)
  • HA = HEALTH SERVICES health authority
  • Ha. = GEOGRAPHY 1.Haiti 2.Haitian 3.Hawaiian
  • ha = MEASUREMENTS hectare
  • Hab. = BIBLE Habakkuk
  • hadn't = had not
  • Hag. = BIBLE Haggai
  • HAI = MEDICINE hospital acquired infection
  • HAND = ONLINE have a nice day (used in e-mails)
  • Hants. = GEOGRAPHY Hampshire (NOTE: The abbreviation Hants.is derived from the OldEnglish Hantum + Scir meaning ‘-shire'.)
  • hasn't = has not
  • HAV = MEDICINE hepatitis A virus
  • haven't = have not
  • HAZ = MEDICINE health action zone
  • HAZMAT = INDUSTRY hazardous material
  • HB = 1.hard black (NOTE: The abbreviation HB, when used on pencils, indicates that thelead is midway between hard (H) and soft (B).) 2.ONLINE hurry back (used in e-mails, textmessages and Internet chat rooms)
  • Hb = BIOCHEMISTRY haemoglobin
  • HBM = 1.Her Britannic Majesty 2.His Britannic Majesty
  • HBV = MEDICINE hepatitis B virus
  • HC = GOVERNMENT House of Commons
  • HCF = MATHEMATICS highest common factor
  • HCFC = a gas containing carbon, chlorine, fluorine, and hydrogen that has been identifiedas being less damaging to the ozone layer than CFCs. Full formhydrochlorofluorocarbon
  • hCG = BIOCHEMISTRY a hormone that helps to maintain a pregnancy. Full form humanchorionic gonadotrophin
  • HCHS = HEALTH SERVICES Health and Community Health Services
  • HCI = COMPUTING 1.a piece of software enabling different external modules to accessBluetooth hardware in the same uniform way. Full form host controller interface 2.human-computer interaction
  • HCl = CHEMISTRY hydrochloric acid
  • HCN = CHEMISTRY hydrocyanic acid
  • HD = 1.COMPUTING half duplex 2.COMPUTING hard disk 3.COMPUTING hard drive 4.INDUSTRYheavy-duty 5.high-density
  • hd = 1.hand 2.headHD 68
  • HDD = COMPUTING hard disk drive
  • HDL = BIOCHEMISTRY an aggregate of fat and protein that transports cholesterol away fromthe arteries. Full form high-density lipoprotein
  • HDLC = COMPUTING high-level data link control
  • HDSL = TELECOMMUNICATIONS high-bit-rate (or high-data-rate) digital subscriber line
  • HDTV = TV high definition television
  • HDX = COMPUTING half duplex
  • HE = 1.Her Excellency 2.CHRISTIANITY His Eminence 3.His Excellency
  • He = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS helium
  • he'd = 1.he had 2.he would
  • he'll = 1.he shall 2.he will
  • he's = 1.he has 2.he is
  • Heb. = 1.LANGUAGE Hebrew 2.BIBLE Hebrews
  • Hebr. = 1.LANGUAGE Hebrew 2.BIBLE Hebrews
  • HECS = Aus EDUCATION Higher Education Contribution Scheme
  • her. = 1.heraldic 2.heraldry
  • Herts. = GEOGRAPHY Hertfordshire
  • HEX = STOCK EXCHANGE Helsinki Stock Exchange
  • hex = COMPUTING hexadecimal
  • hex. = 1.hexagon 2.hexagonal
  • HF = high frequency
  • Hf = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS hafnium
  • HFC = CHEMISTRY hydrofluorocarbon
  • HFEA = HEALTH SERVICES Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority
  • HFS = COMPUTING hierarchical filing system
  • HG = 1.Her Grace 2.His Grace
  • Hg = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS mercury
  • hg = 1.BIOCHEMISTRY haemoglobin 2.MEASUREMENTS hectogram
  • HGH = BIOCHEMISTRY human growth hormone
  • HGPRT = MEDICINE an enzyme that is responsible for controlling the level of uric acid in thebody. Full form hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (NOTE: Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome, a rare genetic disorder causing involuntary convulsive movements andimpaired kidney function, is caused by a deficiency in HGPRT.)
  • HGV = VEHICLES heavy goods vehicle (NOTE: Although such a vehicle is now officially knownas a large goods vehicle (LGV), the abbreviation HGV is still in everyday use as a nounin its own right.)
  • HH = 1.double hard (NOTE: The abbreviation HH, when used on pencils, indicates that thelead is very hard.) 2.Her Highness 3.LAW Her Honour 4.His Highness 5.CHRISTIANITY HisHoliness 6.LAW His Honour
  • hh = MEASUREMENTS hands (NOTE: The abbreviation hh is used in measuring a horse's height.)
  • HI = 1.MAIL Hawaii (NOTE: The abbreviation HI is part of the US sorting code on the last lineof a Hawaii address.) 2.MEDICINE hearing-impaired
  • Hib = MICROBIOLOGY a bacterium that causes meningitis. Full form Haemophilusinfluenzae type B (NOTE: The Hib vaccine, usually given in the first year of life, protectsagainst the form of meningitis that is caused by this bacterium.)
  • HIH = 1.Her Imperial Highness 2.His Imperial Highness
  • HIM = 1.Her Imperial Majesty 2.His Imperial Majesty69 Hn
  • Hind. = 1.LANGUAGE Hindi 2.RELIGION Hindu 3.GEOGRAPHY Hindustan 4.LANGUAGEHindustani
  • HIS = HEALTH SERVICES Health Information Service
  • hist. = 1.MEDICINE histology 2.historic 3.historical 4.history
  • HIV = MICROBIOLOGY either of two strains of a retrovirus, HIV-1 or HIV-2, that destroys theimmune system's helper T cells, the loss of which causes Aids. Full form humanimmunodeficiency virusThe abbreviation HIV is used as a noun in its own right, and the full form is rarely encounteredin general usage. A test for antibodies to HIV in the bloodstream can reveal whether a personis infected with the virus (HIV-positive).
  • HK = 1.GOVERNMENT the lower house of the legislature of the Isle of Man. Full form Houseof Keys 2.ONLINE hugs and kisses (used in e-mails)
  • hk = ONLINE Hong Kong (NOTE: The abbreviation hk is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • HL = GOVERNMENT House of Lords
  • hl = MEASUREMENTS hectolitre
  • HLA = IMMUNOLOGY the major antigen compatibility complex in humans that is geneticallydetermined and is involved in cell self-identification and histocompatibility (compatibilityof donor tissues and blood with the body's own in transplant and transfusionprocedures). Full form human leucocyte (or lymphocyte) antigen
  • HLDLC = COMPUTING high-level data link control
  • HLL = COMPUTING high-level language
  • HLS = COMPUTING a method of defining and describing colour in computer displays. Fullform hue, lightness, saturation
  • HM = 1.EDUCATION headmaster 2.EDUCATION headmistress 3.MUSIC heavy metal 4.HerMajesty 5.His Majesty
  • hm = 1.MEASUREMENTS hectometre 2.ONLINE Heard & McDonald Islands (NOTE: Theabbreviation hm is seen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • HMA = COMPUTING high memory area
  • HMAS = NAVY 1.Her Majesty's Australian Ship 2.His Majesty's Australian Ship
  • HMCE = GOVERNMENT 1.Her Majesty's Customs and Excise 2.His Majesty's Customs andExcise
  • HMCS = NAVY 1.Her Majesty's Canadian Ship 2.His Majesty's Canadian Ship
  • HMF = MILITARY 1.Her Majesty's Forces 2.His Majesty's Forces
  • HMG = GOVERNMENT 1.Her Majesty's Government 2.His Majesty's Government
  • HMI = 1.EDUCATION Her Majesty's Inspector (of Schools) 2.EDUCATION His Majesty'sInspector (of Schools) 3.COMPUTING human-machine interface
  • HMIP = ENVIRONMENT 1.Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution 2.His Majesty'sInspectorate of Pollution
  • HMO = 1.HEALTH SERVICES Health Maintenance Organization 2.SOCIAL SCIENCES a house inwhich two or more households share basic facilities. Full form house in multipleoccupation
  • HMS = 1.Her Majesty's Service 2.NAVY Her Majesty's Ship 3.His Majesty's Service 4.NAVYHis Majesty's Ship
  • HMSO = PUBLISHING 1.Her Majesty's Stationery Office 2.His Majesty's Stationery Office
  • HMT = FINANCE 1.Her Majesty's Treasury 2.His Majesty's Treasury
  • Hn = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS hahniumHNC 70
  • hn = ONLINE Honduras (NOTE: The abbreviation hn is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • HNC = EDUCATION a UK qualification in a technical subject that is recognized by manyprofessional and technical establishments. Full form Higher National Certificate(NOTE: The abbreviation HNC is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • HND = EDUCATION a UK post-school vocational award that requires the equivalent of twoyears' full-time study and is generally regarded as roughly equivalent to a university passdegree. Full form Higher National Diploma (NOTE: The abbreviation HND is used as anoun in its own right.)
  • Ho = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS holmium
  • HOAS = ONLINE hold on a second (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • HOF = 1.ONLINE hall of fame (NOTE: The abbreviation HOF is used in IP addresses to denotepages featuring a hall of fame: ‘www.baseballplayers.com/hof'.) 2.COMPUTING head ofform
  • Hon. = 1.Honorary 2.used as a courtesy title for the children of some members of thearistocracy. Full form Honourable
  • hon. = 1.honorary 2.honourable
  • Hon. Sec. = Honorary Secretary
  • Hons = EDUCATION Honours (NOTE: The abbreviation Hons is used to denote an honoursdegree, as in BA Hons.)
  • HOQ = BUSINESS a matrix form assessing customer needs against production requirementsfor ensuring quality when designing a new service or product. Full form house ofquality
  • hor. = 1.horizon 2.horizontal 3.horology
  • horol. = 1.horological 2.horology
  • hort. = PLANTS 1.horticultural 2.horticulture
  • Hos. = BIBLE Hosea
  • HOV = VEHICLES high-occupancy vehicle
  • howe'er = /h??| e?/ however
  • HP = 1.PLANTS hardy perennial 2.high pressure 3.COMMERCE hire purchase 4.ONLINE homepage 5.MEASUREMENTS horsepower 6.GOVERNMENT Houses of Parliament
  • hp = MEASUREMENTS horsepower
  • HP-PCL = COMPUTING Hewlett Packard printer control language
  • HPGL = COMPUTING Hewlett Packard graphics language
  • HPIB = COMPUTING Hewlett Packard interface bus
  • HPV = MEDICINE a virus that causes warts in the genital area. Full form human papillomavirus
  • HQ = headquarters (NOTE: The abbreviation HQ is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • HR = 1.POLITICS Home Rule 2.GOVERNMENT House of Representatives 3.COMMERCE the fieldof business concerned with recruiting and managing employees. Full form humanresources
  • hr = 1.ONLINE Croatia (NOTE: The abbreviation hr, from the Croatian, Hrvatska, is seen at theend of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.MEASUREMENTS, TIME hour
  • HRA = HEALTH health risk assessment
  • HRE = 1.Holy Roman Emperor 2.Holy Roman Empire
  • HREOC = LAW Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission
  • HRH = 1.Her Royal Highness 2.His Royal Highness
  • HRIS = COMMERCE human resource information system
  • HRM = COMMERCE human resources management
  • HRP = COMMERCE human resource planning
  • hrs = MEASUREMENTS, TIME hours
  • HRT = MEDICINE hormone replacement therapy71 HWM
  • HS = 1.EDUCATION high school 2.GOVERNMENT Home Secretary
  • Hs = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS hassium
  • HSB = COMPUTING a method of defining and describing colour in computer displays. Fullform hue, saturation, brightness
  • HSC = 1.GOVERNMENT Health and Safety Commission 2.Aus EDUCATION a qualificationtaken by most students when they reach the end of secondary education (agedapproximately 16). Full form Higher School Certificate
  • HSE = GOVERNMENT Health and Safety Executive
  • HSH = 1.Her Serene Highness 2.His Serene Highness
  • HSI = COMPUTING a method of defining and describing colour in computer displays. Fullform hue, saturation, intensity
  • HSRC = SCIENCE Human Sciences Research Council
  • HST = 1.FINANCE in some Canadian provinces, a tax combining the goods and services tax(GST) and the provincial sales tax (PST). Full form harmonized sales tax 2.RAIL highspeedtrain 3.ASTRONOMY Hubble Space Telescope 4.TRANSPORT hypersonic transport
  • HSV = COMPUTING a method of defining and describing colour in computer displays. Fullform hue, saturation, value
  • HT = 1.SPORTS half-time 2.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING high tension 3.OCEANOGRAPHY high tide
  • ht = 1.ONLINE Haiti (NOTE: The abbreviation ht is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.heat 3.height
  • HTH = ONLINE (used in e-mails) 1.happy to help 2.hope this helps
  • HTLV = MICROBIOLOGY human T-cell lymphotropic virus
  • HTLV-I = MICROBIOLOGY a virus associated with cancers of the lymphatic system. Full formhuman T-cell lymphotropic virus I
  • HTLV-II = MICROBIOLOGY a virus associated with leukaemia. Full form human T-celllymphotropic virus II
  • HTML = ONLINE the markup language (i.e. language with coding added for layout andstyle) used for creating documents on the World Wide Web. Full form HyperTextMarkup Language
  • Hts = GEOGRAPHY Heights (used on maps)
  • HTTP = ONLINE the client/server protocol that defines how messages are formatted andtransmitted on the World Wide Web. Full form HyperText Transfer Protocol
  • hu = ONLINE Hungary (NOTE: The abbreviation hu is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • HUD = COMPUTING a display of instrument data projected onto a screen at eye levelso that a pilot or driver does not have to look down to see it. Full form head-up display
  • humint = intelligence information acquired from people in enemy territory.Full form human intelligence
  • Hung. = 1.LANGUAGE Hungarian 2.GEOGRAPHY Hungary
  • HUT = MARKETING a measure of potential audience used in advertising, referring to thenumber of households estimated to be watching television at a given time in a particulararea. Full form households using television
  • HV = 1.HEALTH SERVICES health visitor 2.PHYSICS high velocity 3.ELECTRICITY high voltage
  • hv = PHYSICS high velocity
  • HVAC = CIVIL ENGINEERING heating, ventilation (or ventilating), and air conditioning
  • HW = 1.ONLINE hardware 2.ENVIRONMENT hazardous waste 3.the highest level reached bya stretch of water, e.g. the sea at high tide or a river during a flood. Full form highwater 4.CRICKET hit wicket 5.hot water
  • hw = CRICKET hit wicket
  • HWM = high-water markHWR 72
  • HWR = INDUST heavy water reactor
  • hwy = ROADS highway
  • HYCOSY = MEDICINE a procedure examining for blockage of the fallopian tubes, used infertility testing. Full form hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography
  • hyp. = 1.MATHEMATICS hypotenuse 2.hypothesis 3.hypothetical
  • hypoth. = 1.hypothesis 2.hypothetical
  • HYV = AGRICULTURE high-yielding variety
  • Hz = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS Hertz
  • I = 1.ELECTRICITY electric current 2.Imperial 3.PRINTING (single column) inch (used inadvertisements) 4.incumbent 5.independence 6.Independent 7.Inspector 8.Institute9.instructor 10.intelligence 11.International 12.interpreter 13.CHEMICAL ELEMENTSiodine 14.CHEMISTRY ionization potential 15.GEOGRAPHY Island 16.GEOGRAPHY Isle 17.QUANTUM PHYSICS isospin 18.issue 19.PHYSICS moment of inertia 20.LOGIC a particularaffirmative categorical statement 21.MATHEMATICS unit matrix
  • i = 1.DENTISTRY incisor 2.BANKING interest 3.GRAMMAR intransitive 4.GEOGRAPHY island 5.GEOGRAPHY isle 6.MATHEMATICS the imaginary number ?-1
  • i/c = 1.in charge 2.in command
  • I'd = 1.I had 2.I would or I should
  • i.e. = that is (NOTE: From the Latin id est.)
  • I'll = I will or I shall
  • I'm = I am
  • I/O = COMPUTING input/output
  • I/P = COMPUTING input
  • I've = I have
  • IA = MAIL Iowa (NOTE: The abbreviation IA is part of the US sorting code on the last line ofan Iowa address.)
  • IAA = 1.BIOCHEMISTRY a plant hormone that stimulates growth and root formation incuttings. Full form indoleacetic acid 2.MARKETING International Advertising Association
  • IAAF = ATHLETICS International Amateur Athletic Federation
  • IAB = 1.INDUSTRY Industrial Advisory Board 2.INDUSTRY Industrial Arbitration Board 3.ONLINEInternet Activities Board
  • IAC = ONLINE in any case (used in e-mails)
  • IAE = ONLINE in any event (used in e-mails)
  • IAEA = INDUST International Atomic Energy Agency
  • IAF = AIR FORCE Indian Air Force
  • IAM = 1.MANAGEMENT Institute of Administrative Management 2.AUTOMOTIVE Institute ofAdvanced Motorists 3.COMPUTING intermediate-access memory 4.ANATOMY apassageway through which the auditory nerve carrying sound and balance signals to thebrain passes. Full form internal auditory meatus
  • IANA = ONLINE formerly, the US organisation that oversaw the assignation of Internetprotocol numbers to Internet service providers. Full form Internet Assigned NumbersAuthority (NOTE: The work is now undertaken by the global organisation ICANN.)
  • IAP = ONLINE Internet access provider
  • IAR = COMPUTING a CPU register which contains the address of the next instruction to beprocessed. Full form instruction address register
  • IARC = MEDICINE International Agency for Research on Cancer
  • IAS = 1.COMPUTING image analysis system 2.COMPUTING immediate-access store 3.POLITICSIndian Administrative Service 4.AVIAT indicated air speed 5.FINANCE a form issued by theAustralian Taxation Office on which businesses report income and calculate relatedincome tax payments. Full form instalment activity statement
  • IASC = ACCOUNTING International Accounting Standards Committee
  • IATA = /i_| ?_t?/ AVIAT International Air Transport Association
  • IAU = 1.EDUCATION International Association of Universities 2.ASTRONOMY InternationalAstronomical Union
  • IAW = ONLINE in accordance with (used in e-mails)
  • IB = 1.COMMERCE in bond 2.ARMS incendiary bomb 3.COMMERCE industrial business 4.EDUCATION an examination in several subjects, taken by students in various countries,that is approximately equivalent to GCE A level and is accepted as a qualification foruniversity entrance. Full form International Baccalaureate 5.BANKING investmentbank 6.COMMERCE invoice bookib. 74
  • ib. = ibidem (NOTE: The abbreviation ib., from the Latin, ‘in the same place', is used beforea textual reference to a publication, chapter, or page already cited.)
  • IBA = 1.BROADCASTING Independent Broadcasting Authority 2.CHEMISTRY a synthetic planthormone that stimulates growth in stems. Full form indolebutyric acid 3.LAWInternational Bar Association 4.BANKING Investment Bankers' Association
  • IBD = 1.MEDICINE inflammatory bowel disease 2.ENGINEERING a method of depositingprotective thin film coatings on magnetic elements such as compact disks. Full form ionbeamdeposition
  • IBF = BOXING International Boxing Federation
  • IBG = COMPUTING a blank section of magnetic tape inserted between one block of data andthe next. Full form interblock gap
  • ibid. = ibidem (NOTE: The abbreviation ibid., from the Latin, ‘in the same place', is usedbefore a textual reference to a publication, chapter, or page already cited.)
  • IBO = BUSINESS an incident in which a business is bought wholesale by an outside investor,often without involving the current management. Full form institutional buyout
  • IBR = BANKING Inter Bank Rate
  • IBRD = BANKING the official name for the World Bank, a specialized agency of the UnitedNations that guarantees loans to member nations for the purpose of reconstruction anddevelopment. Full form International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • IBS = MEDICINE irritable bowel syndrome
  • IC = ELECTRONICS a tiny complex of electronic components contained on a thin chip or waferof semiconducting material. Full form integrated circuit
  • ICA = 1.ACCOUNTING Institute of Chartered Accountants 2.ARTS Institute of ContemporaryArts 3.COMMERCE International Coffee Agreement 4.COMMERCE InternationalCommodity Agreement 5.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS International CooperationAdministration
  • ICAC = Aus POLICE in New South Wales, a body set up to investigate corruption inthe police force. Full form Independent Commission Against Corruption
  • ICAEW = ACCOUNTING Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales
  • ICAI = ACCOUNTING Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland
  • ICANZ = ACCOUNTING Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand
  • ICAO = AVIAT International Civil Aviation Organization
  • ICAS = ACCOUNTING Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland
  • ICBM = ARMS intercontinental ballistic missile
  • ICC = 1.COMMERCE International Chamber of Commerce 2.INTERNATIONAL LAW InternationalCriminal Court 3.COMMERCE Interstate Commerce Commission
  • ICCH = COMMERCE International Commodities Clearing House
  • ICE = 1.MEDICINE ice, compress, elevation (NOTE: The acronym ICE refers to first-aidtreatment of injuries and bruises.) 2.CIVIL ENGINEERING Institution of Civil Engineers 3.ENGINEERING internal-combustion engine 4.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS International CulturalExchange
  • ICFC = FINANCE Industrial and Commercial Finance Corporation
  • ICFTU = HUMAN RESOURCES International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
  • IChemE = CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Institution of Chemical Engineers
  • ICJ = INTERNATIONAL LAW International Court of Justice
  • ICM = 1.FINANCE Institute of Credit Management 2.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSIntergovernmental Committee for Migrations (NOTE: The ICM is part of the UnitedNations.) 3.HEALTH SERVICES International Confederation of Midwives
  • ICN = HEALTH SERVICES 1.infection control nurse 2.International Council of Nurses75 IEN
  • ICP = MEDICINE intracranial pressure
  • ICQ = ONLINE a computer program that makes contact with a user who is chatting online(NOTE: The abbreviation ICQ, representing ‘I seek you', comes from the company nameICQ Inc.)
  • ICR = 1.MEDICINE Institute for Cancer Research 2.COMPUTING intelligent characterrecognition
  • ICRC = MEDICINE International Committee of the Red Cross
  • ICRP = ECOLOGY International Commission on Radiological Protection
  • ICS = 1.FINANCE instalment credit selling 2.SHIPPING Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers 3.SHIPPING International Chamber of Shipping 4.FINANCE investors' compensation scheme
  • ICSH = BIOCHEMISTRY another name for luteinizing hormone (LH), a pituitary hormone thatcauses the ovary to produce one or more eggs, to secrete progesterone, and to form thecorpus luteum, and that causes the testes to secrete male sex hormones. Full forminterstitial-cell-stimulating hormone
  • ICSI = MEDICINE a method of assisted conception in which a single sperm is injected directlyinto the egg. Full form intracytoplasmic sperm injection
  • ICSID = FINANCE International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
  • ICT = COMPUTING information and communications technologies
  • ICU = HEALTH SERVICES intensive care unit
  • ID = 1.MAIL Idaho (NOTE: The abbreviation ID is part of the US sorting code on the last lineof an Idaho address.) 2.identification 3.MEDICINE infectious disease(s) 4.MEASUREMENTSinner diameter 5.MEASUREMENTS inside diameter 6.MEASUREMENTS internal diameter 7.MEDICINE intradermalThe abbreviation ID is used as a noun in its own right in a wide variety of contexts, frompersonal proof of identity (as in Do you have any ID?) to computing. It is also used informallyas a verb, meaning ‘to identify somebody or check somebody's identity' (as in ID the suspect).
  • id. = a book, article, or chapter previously referred to. Full form idem (NOTE: From the Latin,‘same'.)
  • IDA = 1.COMPUTING Infocomm Development Authority 2.BANKING a specialized agency ofthe United Nations that provides credit to nations on easier terms than the World Bank.Full form International Development Association
  • IDB = BANKING Industrial Development Bank
  • IDC = BUSINESS industrial development certificate
  • IDD = 1.MEDICINE insulin-dependent diabetes 2.TELECOMMUNICATIONS international directdialling
  • IDE = COMPUTING integrated drive electronics
  • IDK = 1.ONLINE I don't know (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms) 2.MEDICINE internal derangement of the knee
  • IDP = 1.COMPUTING integrated data processing 2.CHEMISTRY iodine diphosphate
  • IDR = BANKING International Depository Receipt
  • IDTS = ONLINE I don't think so (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • IDTT = ONLINE I'll drink to that (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • ie = that is (NOTE: From the Latin id est.)?ONLINE Ireland (NOTE: The abbreviation ie is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • IEE = ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Institution of Electrical Engineers
  • IEEE = ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
  • IEN = ONLINE a series of reports pertinent to the internet. Full form Internet experimentnoteIESG 76
  • IESG = ONLINE Internet Engineering Steering Group
  • IETF = ONLINE Internet Engineering Task Force
  • IF = ELECTRONICS intermediate frequency
  • IFA = 1.FINANCE independent financial adviser 2.ACCOUNTING Institute of FinancialAccountants
  • IFC = FINANCE a specialized agency of the United Nations that is affiliated with the WorldBank and promotes private enterprise in developing nations by providing risk capital. Fullform International Finance Corporation
  • IFOR = MILITARY a NATO-led multinational force sent to maintain peace in theformer Yugoslavia after the signing of the Dayton Accords by the presidents of Bosnia,Croatia, and Serbia in 1995. Full form Implementation Force
  • IFR = AVIAT instrument flying regulations
  • Ig = IMMUNOLOGY immunoglobulin
  • IgA = IMMUNOLOGY a class of antibodies, found in respiratory and alimentary secretions,saliva, and tears, that help the body to neutralize harmful bacteria and viral antigens.Full form immunoglobulin A
  • IgD = IMMUNOLOGY a class of antibodies, present on most cell surfaces and predominant inB-cells, that help the body to resist antigens. Full form immunoglobulin D
  • IgE = IMMUNOLOGY a class of antibodies, abundant in tissues, that help the body to expelintestinal parasites and cause allergic reactions in response to antigens. Full formimmunoglobulin E
  • IgG = IMMUNOLOGY a class of antibodies, predominant in serum, that pass through theplacental wall into foetal circulation and help to prepare the immune system for theperiod of infancy. Full form immunoglobulin G
  • IGM = CHESS International Grandmaster
  • IgM = IMMUNOLOGY a class of antibodies, circulating in the blood and secretions, that helpthe body to resist viruses. Full form immunoglobulin M
  • ign. = 1.ignites 2.ignition 3.unknown
  • IGP = COMPUTING interior gateway protocol
  • IGT = WINE a classification of the place of origin of Italian. Full form IndicazioneGeografica Tipica (NOTE: From the Italian, ‘indication of typical geographical origin'.)
  • IH = COMPUTING a piece of software that accepts interrupt signals and acts on them. Fullform interrupt handler
  • IHD = MEDICINE ischaemic heart disease
  • ihp = MECHANICAL ENGINEERING indicated horsepower
  • IHS = CHRISTIANITY JesusIHS, a transliteration of the first three letters of the name of Jesus in Greek, is also taken as anabbreviation of Latin Iesus hominum salvator ‘Jesus saviour of humankind', in hoc signo ‘in this sign(you shall conquer)', in hac salus ‘in this (cross) is salvation', and other religious phrases.
  • IHT = FINANCE inheritance tax
  • iid = STATISTICS independent identically distributed
  • IIL = COMPUTING a type of circuit design able to produce very small, low-power components.Full form integrated injection logic
  • IINM = ONLINE if I'm not mistaken (used in e-mails)
  • IIRC = ONLINE if I remember (or recall) correctly (used in e-mails)
  • IJWTK = ONLINE I just want to know (used in e-mails)
  • IJWTS = ONLINE I just want to say (used in e-mails)
  • IKBS = COMPUTING intelligent knowledge-based system
  • IKWUM = ONLINE I know what you mean (used in Internet chat rooms and text messages)77 IMRT
  • IL = MAIL Illinois (NOTE: The abbreviation IL is part of the US sorting code on the last line ofan Illinois address.)
  • il = ONLINE Israel (NOTE: The abbreviation il is seen at the end of Internet addresses, precededby a dot.)
  • IL-1 = BIOCHEMISTRY a protein factor produced by white blood cells that stimulates theproduction of other factors that activate the immune system. Full form interleukin-1
  • IL-2 = BIOCHEMISTRY a protein factor produced by white blood cells that stimulates T-cells tofight infection. Full form interleukin-2
  • ILG = FINANCE index-linked gilt
  • ill. = PUBLISHING 1.illustrated 2.illustration 3.illustrator
  • illus. = PUBLISHING 1.illustrated 2.illustration 3.illustrator
  • ILM = HUMAN RESOURCES internal labour market
  • ILO = HUMAN RESOURCES International Labour Organization
  • ILS = 1.AEROSPACE instrument landing system 2.CHEMISTRY ionization-loss spectroscopy
  • IM = 1.CHESS International Master 2.ONLINE instant messaging 3.MEDICINE intramuscular
  • im = ONLINE Isle of Man (NOTE: The abbreviation im is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • IMA = 1.ONLINE I might add (used in e-mails) 2.COMPUTING Interactive MultimediaAssociation 3.COMPUTING International MIDI Association 4.FINANCE InvestmentManagement Agreement 5.FINANCE Investment Management Association
  • IMarE = ENGINEERING Institute of Marine Engineers
  • IMCO = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization
  • IME = ONLINE in my experience (used in e-mails)
  • IMechE = MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Institution of Mechanical Engineers
  • IMF = ECONOMICS International Monetary Fund
  • IMHO = ONLINE in my humble opinion (used in e-mails)
  • IMinE = MINERAL EXTRACT Institution of Mining Engineers
  • imit. = 1.imitation 2.imitative (NOTE: The abbreviation imit.is sometimes used indictionaries to indicate that a word is of onomatopoeic origin (i.e. it imitates the soundassociated with the meaning of the word).)
  • IMM = 1.SHIPPING International Mercantile Marine 2.FINANCE International MonetaryMarket
  • IMMA = FINANCE insured money market account
  • immun. = 1.immunity 2.immunization 3.immunology
  • IMO = 1.ONLINE in my opinion (used in e-mails) 2.METEOROLOGY InternationalMeteorological Organization 3.MINERAL EXTRACT International Miners' Organization
  • IMP = 1.imperial 2.COMPUTING interface message processor 3.BRIDGE International MatchPoint
  • Imp. = 1.Emperor (NOTE: From the Latin Imperator.) 2.Empress
  • imp. = 1.GRAMMAR imperative 2.imperfect 3.imperial 4.GRAMMAR impersonal 5.COMMERCE import 6.important 7.COMMERCE imported 8.COMMERCE importer 9.PUBLISHING an authorization allowing a book or other work to be published. Full formimprimatur
  • imperf. = 1.imperfect 2.lacking a normal opening or perforations. Full formimperforate
  • IMRO = FINANCE Investment Management Regulatory Organization
  • IMRT = MEDICINE intensity modulated radiation therapyIMS 78
  • IMS = 1.HEALTH SERVICES Indian Medical Service 2.INFORMATION SCIENCE informationmanagement systems 3.MANAGEMENT Institute of Management Services
  • IN = MAIL Indiana (NOTE: The abbreviation IN is part of the US sorting code on the last lineof an Indiana address.)
  • In = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS indium
  • in = ONLINE India (NOTE: The abbreviation in is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • in. = MEASUREMENTS inch
  • INAO = WINE a regulatory body in France that oversees wine production. Full form InstitutNationale des Appellations d'Origine (NOTE: From the French, ‘National Institute ofOrigin Appelations'.)
  • Inc. = BUSINESS Incorporated (NOTE: The abbreviation Inc.is used after the name of a UScompany or group of companies. The British equivalent is ‘Ltd'.)
  • inc. = 1.included 2.including 3.inclusive 4.income 5.incomplete 6.BUSINESS incorporated7.increase
  • incl. = 1.including 2.inclusive
  • incr. = 1.increase 2.increased 3.increasing 4.increment
  • IND = in God's name (NOTE: From the Latin in nomine Dei.)
  • Ind. = 1.Independent 2.GEOGRAPHY India 3.GEOGRAPHY Indian 4.GEOGRAPHY Indies
  • ind. = 1.independence 2.independent 3.index 4.GRAMMAR indicative 5.GRAMMAR indirect6.industrial 7.industry
  • indef. = GRAMMAR indefinite
  • indic. = 1.indicating 2.GRAMMAR indicative 3.indicator
  • INDO = WINE a regulatory body in Spain that supervises the quality and origin of variousfood products such as wine and olive oil. Full form Instituto Nacional deDenominaciones de Origen
  • indus. = 1.industrial 2.industry
  • INF = MILITARY intermediate-range nuclear forces
  • infl. = 1.inflammable 2.BOTANY inflorescence 3.influence 4.influenced
  • info = ONLINE information (NOTE: The abbreviation info is seen in Internet addresses andmeans that the site is for general use.)
  • INH = PHARMACOLOGY a drug used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Full form isoniazid(NOTE: The full name of the chemical compound is isonicotinic acid hydrazide, hence theabbreviation.)
  • inj. = MEDICINE 1.injection 2.injury
  • INLA = POLITICS Irish National Liberation Army
  • INN = PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY international nonproprietary name
  • innit = 1.isn't it 2.an all-purpose, question-forming word, corresponding not onlyto ‘isn't it?' but to more or less all other similar phrases (informal) _ Arsenal are playingSpurs tonight, innit?
  • INPO = ONLINE in no particular order (used in e-mails)
  • INRI = CHRISTIANITY Jesus of Nazareth, king of the Jews (NOTE: The abbreviation INRI, fromthe Latin Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum, is seen in art as an inscription over the headof the crucified Jesus Christ.)
  • ins. = 1.inscription 2.inspector 3.insulation 4.insurance
  • INSEAD = COMMERCE a leading European business school in Fontainebleau,France. Full form Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires (NOTE: From theFrench, ‘European Institute of Business Administration'.)
  • INSET = EDUCATION in-service education and training79 IOUThe acronym INSET refers to extra training given to teachers during term time (on INSET days).It can also be short for ‘in-service education of teachers' or simply ‘in-service training'.
  • insp. = 1.inspected 2.inspector
  • Inst. = 1.Institute 2.Institution
  • inst. = 1.instant (NOTE: The abbreviation inst.was formerly used in businesscorrespondence, where ‘instant' referred to the current month, as in your letter of the13th inst.) 2.instantaneous 3.institute 4.institution 5.institutional
  • instr. = 1.instruction 2.instructor 3.instrument 4.instrumental
  • Int. = International
  • int = ONLINE international organization (NOTE: The abbreviation int is seen at the end ofInternet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • int. = 1.MILITARY intelligence 2.intercept 3.FINANCE interest 4.interim 5.interior 6.GRAMMAR interjection 7.intermediate 8.internal 9.international 10.interpreter 11.MATHEMATICS intersection 12.interval 13.interview 14.GRAMMAR intransitive
  • Intelsat = TELECOMMUNICATIONS an international organization that owns thecommunications satellites orbiting the Earth and whose members include thetelecommunications agencies of most countries. Full form InternationalTelecommunication Satellite Organization (NOTE: The abbreviation Intelsat is alsoused as a noun to denote a telecommunications satellite launched by this organization.)
  • intens. = 1.GRAMMAR intensifier 2.intensify 3.intensive
  • interj. = GRAMMAR interjection
  • Interpol = an association of national police forces that promotes cooperationand mutual assistance in apprehending international criminals and criminals who fleeabroad to avoid justice. The headquarters of Interpol is in Paris. Full form InternationalCriminal Police Organization (NOTE: The abbreviation Interpol is used as a noun in itsown right, and the full form is rarely encountered in general usage.)
  • interrog. = 1.interrogate 2.interrogation 3.GRAMMAR interrogative
  • intl = international
  • intro. = 1.introduction (NOTE: When intro is used informally as a noun in this sense(especially with reference to the opening bars of a piece of popular music), it is writtenwithout a full stop.) 2.introductory
  • introd. = 1.introduction 2.introductory
  • INTUC = HUMAN RESOURCES Indian National Trade Union Congress
  • inv. = 1.invariable 2.invented 3.invention 4.inventor 5.COMMERCE invoice
  • io = ONLINE British Indian Ocean Territory (NOTE: The abbreviation io is seen at the end ofInternet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • IOC = SPORTS International Olympic Committee
  • IOD = BUSINESS Institute of Directors
  • IOL = OPHTHALMOLOGY an artificial lens implanted in the eye to replace the natural lens afterthe surgical removal of a cataract. Full form intraocular lens
  • IOM = GEOGRAPHY Isle of Man
  • IOP = COMPUTING input/output processor
  • IORQ = COMPUTING input/output request
  • IOSCO = FINANCE International Organization of Securities Commissions
  • IOU = FINANCE a written acknowledgment of a debt between the writer and somebody else_ If you lend him any money, make sure he gives you an IOU.The abbreviation IOU, representing the sound of the phrase ‘I owe you', is used as a noun inits own right. Dating from the 18th century, it is an early example of the style of phoneticshorthand now much used in Internet communications.IOUS 80
  • IOUS = MEDICINE intraoperative ultrasound
  • IOW = 1.ONLINE in other words (used in e-mails) 2.GEOGRAPHY Isle of Wight
  • IP = 1.COMPUTING image processing 2.COMPUTING information provider 3.ONLINE thestandard that controls the routing and structure of transmitted data. Full form Internetprotocol
  • IPA = 1.MARKETING Institute of Practitioners in Advertising 2.PHONETICS a system of lettersand marks used internationally to represent speech sounds, e.g. in dictionaries. Full formInternational Phonetic Alphabet
  • IPCC = ENVIRONMENT Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • IPE = FINANCE International Petroleum Exchange
  • IPL = COMPUTING 1.initial program load 2.initial program loader
  • IPM = 1.AGRICULTURE integrated pest management 2.HUMAN RESOURCES Institute ofPersonnel Management (NOTE: In the United Kingdom, the IPM has now been replacedby the CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development).)
  • IPO = STOCK EXCHANGE a first-time sale of company securities on a stock exchange to publicinvestors. Full form initial public offering
  • IPPV = MEDICINE a method of simulating normal breathing patterns in patients with chronicrespiratory failure, either manually or using a mechanical ventilator. Full formintermittent positive pressure ventilation
  • IPR = 1.WINE a mark indicating area of origin for lower-quality wines in Portugal. Full formIndicação de Proveniencia Regulamentada (NOTE: From the Portuguese, ‘regulatedmark of area of origin'.) 2.LAW legal rights regarding the protection of original creativework, e.g. by means of a patent, trademark, or copyright. Full form intellectualproperty rights
  • ips = MEASUREMENTS inches per second
  • IPSE = COMPUTING integrated project support environment
  • IQ = PSYCHOLOGY a measure of a person's intelligence, obtained through a series of aptitudetests concentrating on different aspects of intellectual functioning. Full formintelligence quotientThe abbreviation IQ is used as a noun in its own right (as in a child with a high IQ). IQ tests donot measure general knowledge, so the same test can theoretically be used for people of allages and backgrounds. An IQ score of 100 represents ‘average' intelligence.
  • iq = ONLINE Iraq (NOTE: The abbreviation iq is seen at the end of Internet addresses, precededby a dot.)
  • IR = 1.COMPUTING a computer address register that is added to a reference address toprovide a location to be accessed. Full form index register 2.COMPUTING informationretrieval 3.PHYSICS infrared (radiation) 4.FINANCE Inland Revenue 5.COMPUTINGinstruction register
  • Ir = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS iridium
  • Ir. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Ireland 2.LANGUAGE Irish
  • ir = ONLINE Iran (NOTE: The abbreviation ir is seen at the end of Internet addresses, precededby a dot.)
  • IRA = 1.PENSIONS in the United States, a pension plan that permits working peopleto invest money for retirement and pay no tax on the amount invested either at the timeof investment or after retirement. Full form Individual Retirement Account 2.POLITICSan organization of Irish nationalists originally set up to strive for an independent Irelandby force of arms and still dedicated to achieving the unity of the island of Ireland. Fullform Irish Republican Army
  • IRBM = ARMS intermediate-range ballistic missile81 ISR
  • IRC = ONLINE an Internet facility that enables two or more people to participate in real-timeonline discussions. Full form Internet relay chat
  • IRCA = HUMAN RESOURCES Industrial Relations Court of Australia
  • IRD = NZ FINANCE Inland Revenue Department
  • IRDS = MEDICINE infant respiratory distress syndrome
  • IRL = ONLINE in real life (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • IRO = 1.FINANCE Inland Revenue Office 2.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS a former agency of theUnited Nations. Full form International Refugee Organization 3.INTERNATIONALRELATIONS International Relief Organization
  • IRQ = COMPUTING interrupt request
  • IRR = BUSINESS internal rate of return
  • IRS = FINANCE the US equivalent of the Inland Revenue. Full form Internal RevenueService
  • IRSG = ONLINE Internet research steering group
  • IRTF = ONLINE Internet research task force
  • IS = 1.SOCIAL WELFARE income support 2.COMPUTING information services
  • Is. = 1.BIBLE Isaiah 2.GEOGRAPHY Island 3.GEOGRAPHY Isle
  • is = ONLINE Iceland (NOTE: The abbreviation is is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot, and comes from the Icelandic name for the country ‘Íslandi'.)
  • is. = GEOGRAPHY 1.island 2.isle
  • IS-IS = COMPUTING intermediate system to intermediate system
  • ISA = 1.FINANCE a savings account with tax-free interest, introduced in 1999. Aperson can invest up to £7,000 in each tax year. Full form individual savings account(NOTE: The abbreviation ISA is used as a noun in its own right.) 2.COMPUTING a standardused for the 16-bit expansion bus in an IBM PC or compatible. Full form IndustryStandard Architecture 3.AEROSPACE a hypothetical standard distribution of air pressureand temperature at various heights, internationally agreed as standard for aviationpurposes. Full form International Standard Atmosphere
  • Isa. = BIBLE Isaiah
  • ISAM = COMPUTING indexed sequential access method
  • ISBN = PUBLISHING International Standard Book Number
  • ISC = 1.MEDICINE intermittent self-catheterization 2.FINANCE Insurance and SuperannuationCommission
  • ISD = TELECOMMUNICATIONS international subscriber dialling
  • ISDA = FINANCE International Swaps and Derivatives Association
  • ISDN = ONLINE a digital telephone network that can transmit both voice and datamessages. Full form Integrated Services Digital Network
  • ISE = STOCK EXCHANGE International Stock Exchange
  • ISIC = COMMERCE International Standard Industrial Classification
  • isl. = GEOGRAPHY 1.island 2.isle
  • ISMA = STOCK EXCHANGE International Securities Market Association
  • isn't = is not
  • ISO = 1.MILITARY Imperial Service Order 2.COMMERCE International Organization forStandardizationPopularly thought to be short for ‘International Standards Organization' in English-speakingcountries, the abbreviation ISO was chosen by the International Organization forStandardization as a multilingual name, from Greek isos.
  • ISP = ONLINE Internet service provider
  • ISR = COMPUTING information storage and retrievalISS 82
  • ISS = 1.ONLINE I said so (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms) 2.MEDICINEinjury scoring system 3.AEROSPACE International Space Station
  • ISSN = PUBLISHING International Standard Serial Number
  • Isth. = GEOGRAPHY isthmus
  • ISWIM = ONLINE if (you) see what I mean (used in e-mails)
  • IT = 1.FINANCE income tax 2.COMPUTING information technology
  • it = ONLINE Italy (NOTE: The abbreviation it is seen at the end of Internet addresses, precededby a dot.)
  • it'd = 1.it had 2.it would
  • it'll = it will
  • it's = 1.it has 2.it is
  • ITA = 1.TV formerly, an organisation regulating the ITV and Channel 4 television channels,a duty now undertaken by Ofcom. Full form Independent Television Authority 2.EDUCATION an alphabet of 44 symbols, each representing a single sound in English,devised in the early 1960s for the purpose of teaching children to read. Full form InitialTeaching Alphabet
  • Ital. = 1.LANGUAGE Italian 2.GEOGRAPHY Italy
  • ital. = PUBLISHING 1.italic 2.italics
  • ITC = TV Independent Television Commission
  • ITCZ = GEOGRAPHY intertropical convergence zone
  • ITM = ONLINE in the money (used in e-mails)
  • ITRW = ONLINE in the real world (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • ITS = COMPUTING a special character transmitted to indicate to a device that the hostcomputer is ready to receive messages. Full form invitation to send
  • ITU = 1.HEALTH SERVICES intensive therapy unit 2.TELECOMMUNICATIONS InternationalTelecommunication Union
  • ITV = TV Independent Television
  • IU = MEASUREMENTS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY the amount of a hormone or vitamin requiredto produce a specific response. Full form international unit
  • IUCD = MEDICINE a plastic or metal device that is inserted into the cavity of the womb inorder to prevent pregnancy. Full form intrauterine contraceptive device
  • IUCN = ECOLOGY International Union for the Conservation of Nature (NOTE: The IUCN isnow called the World Conservation Union.)
  • IUD = MEDICINE intrauterine device. _ IUCD
  • IUS = MEDICINE a plastic or metal device that functions like an IUCD, with an additionalrelease of hormones to further ensure against pregnancy. Full form intrauterinesystem
  • IV = MEDICINE 1.intravenous 2.intravenously
  • IVF = MEDICINE the fertilization of an ovum by sperm outside the body, a techniquedeveloped in the 1970s as a means of assisted conception. Full form in vitrofertilizationThe Latin phrase in vitro literally means ‘in glass' and refers to the test tube or other artificialenvironment in which such fertilization takes place, hence the informal name test-tube babyfor children conceived in this way.
  • IVP = MEDICINE a procedure to determine whether the kidneys are functioning properly, byinjecting a contrast dye into the bloodstream and monitoring its progress through theurinary system. Full form intravenous pyelogram83 IYSS
  • IVR = TELECOMMUNICATIONS a term for computer-controlled pre-recorded telephone systemsin which the caller can control the transaction through speech or dialled instructions.Full form interactive voice response
  • IVU = MEDICINE intravenous urography. Same as IVP
  • IWC = ECOLOGY International Whaling Commission
  • IWIK = ONLINE I wish I knew (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • IWUTK = ONLINE I want you to know (used in e-mails)
  • IWW = INDUSTRY Industrial Workers of the World
  • IYKWIM = ONLINE if you know what I mean (used in e-mails)
  • IYSS = ONLINE if you say so (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)
  • J = 1.CARD GAMES jack 2.PRESS Journal 3.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS joule 4.LAW Judge 5.LAWJustice
  • j = 1.ELECTRICITY electric current density 2.MATHEMATICS the imaginary number ?-1
  • Jam. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Jamaica 2.BIBLE James
  • Jan. = CALENDAR January
  • JANET = COMPUTING an Internet-linked computer network used by academicsand researchers. Full form Joint Academic Network
  • Jas. = James
  • JATO = AVIAT an auxiliary jet or rocket designed to aid the combined thrust ofaircraft jet engines during takeoff. Full form jet-assisted takeoff
  • Jav. = LANGUAGE Javanese
  • jav. = ATHLETICS javelin
  • JC = 1.CHRISTIANITY Jesus Christ 2.ANCIENT HIST Julius Caesar 3.LAW jurisconsult 4.LAWJustice Clerk
  • JCL = COMPUTING a powerful computer language for writing a script used to control theexecution of programs in batch processing systems. Full form job control language
  • JCR = EDUCATION in some colleges and universities, a room provided for general use bystudents, as distinct from the senior common room (SCR), reserved for staff. Full formjunior common room
  • JCS = MILITARY Joint Chiefs of Staff
  • JD = 1.PRESS Diploma in Journalism 2.COMPUTING in computer programming, a dateexpressed as the number of days since 1 January of the current year. Full form Juliandate 3.US LAW Juris Doctor (NOTE: The UK equivalent is LLD.) 4.CRIME juveniledelinquent
  • JDBC = COMPUTING Java database connectivity
  • je = ONLINE Jersey (NOTE: The abbreviation je is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • JEPI = E-COMMERCE joint electronic payment initiative
  • Jer. = 1.BIBLE Jeremiah 2.GEOGRAPHY Jersey 3.GEOGRAPHY Jerusalem
  • JET = 1.INDUST an international research project into the possibility of generatingpower from nuclear fusion, based in Culham, UK. Full form Joint European Torus 2.TRANSPORT Joint European Transport
  • JFF = ONLINE just for fun (used in e-mails)
  • JFK = 35th president of the United States (1961–63) _ We landed at JFK six hours later.Full form John Fitzgerald Kennedy (NOTE: The abbreviation JFK is also used to denotethe US international airport named after President Kennedy.)
  • JHVH = JUDAISM an alternative transliteration of the Tetragrammaton, the four lettersrepresenting the Hebrew name of God in the Bible, usually transliterated as YHWH. Thename Jehovah is an expansion of JHVH.
  • JIC = ONLINE just in case (used in e-mails)
  • JICRAR = RADIO Joint Industry Committee for Radio Audience Research
  • JICTAR = TV Joint Industry Committee for Television Advertising Research
  • JIT = MANUFACTURING a manufacturing and stock-control system in which goods areproduced and delivered as they are required. Full form just-in-time85 Jy
  • JJ = 1.BIBLE Judges 2.LAW Justices
  • Jl = 1.BIBLE Joel 2.PUBLISHING Journal
  • Jl. = CALENDAR July
  • jm = ONLINE Jamaica (NOTE: The abbreviation jm is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Jn = BIBLE John
  • Jn. = CALENDAR June
  • jnd = PSYCHOLOGY the amount by which something must be changed for that difference tobe perceptible. Full form just noticeable difference
  • Jnr = Junior
  • jnr = junior
  • jo = ONLINE Jordan (NOTE: The abbreviation jo is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Jon. = BIBLE Jonah
  • Josh. = BIBLE Joshua
  • jour. = 1.journal 2.PRESS journalist 3.journeyman
  • JP = LAW a person appointed to judge minor criminal cases, perform marriages, administeroaths, and refer cases to higher courts. Full form justice of the peace (NOTE: Theabbreviation JP is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • jp = ONLINE Japan (NOTE: The abbreviation jp is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • JPEG = COMPUTING a format for encoding high-resolution graphic images ascomputer files for storage and transmission. Full form Joint Photographic ExpertsGroup (NOTE: The abbreviation JPEG is also used as a noun to denote a file containingan image in this format.)
  • Jpn = GEOGRAPHY Japan
  • Jpn. = LANGUAGE Japanese
  • JPO = E-COMMERCE Japanese payment option
  • Jr = Junior
  • Jr. = BIBLE Jeremiah
  • jr = junior
  • JSA = SOCIAL WELFARE Jobseeker's Allowance
  • JSD = LAW Doctor of Juristic Science (NOTE: From the Latin Juris Scientiae Doctor.)
  • JSYK = ONLINE just so you know (used in e-mails)
  • JTLYK = ONLINE just to let you know (used in e-mails)
  • Jud. = BIBLE 1.Judges 2.Judith
  • Judg. = BIBLE Judges
  • Jul. = CALENDAR July
  • Jun. = CALENDAR June
  • jun. = junior
  • junr = junior
  • JV = COMMERCE joint venture
  • Jy = MEASUREMENTS, ASTRONOMY jansky
  • K = 1.PHYSICS kaon 2.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS kelvin 3.MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING kilobyte 4.MEASUREMENTS kilometre 5.PHYSICS kinetic energy 6.CARD GAMES, CHESS king 7.MILITARYKnight 8.MUSIC Köchel (NOTE: The abbreviation K, followed by a number, is used inKöchel's catalogue of Mozart's works.) 9.MONEY kopek 10.MONEY krona 11.MONEYkrone 12.MONEY kwacha 13.MONEY kyat 14.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS potassium (NOTE: FromModern Latin ‘kalium'.) 15.thousandThe abbreviation K, from the prefix kilo-, is often used for large sums of money but is alsofound in other contexts (as in a dissertation of 80K words). In informal speech it means‘thousand pounds (or dollars)', as in She must be earning at least 200K.
  • k = 1.MEASUREMENTS kilo- 2.HANDICRAFT knit (NOTE: The abbreviation k is used in knittingpatterns as an instruction to make a knit stitch as opposed to a purl stitch (p).) 3.MEASUREMENTS knot
  • KAM = COMMERCE key account management
  • KB = 1.MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING kilobyte 2.LAW King's Bench 3.CHESS king's bishop 4.MILITARY Knight Bachelor
  • Kb = MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING kilobit
  • KBE = MILITARY Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
  • Kbit = COMPUTING kilobit
  • KBP = CHESS king's bishop's pawn
  • Kbps = COMPUTING kilobits per second
  • Kbyte = COMPUTING kilobyte
  • KC = 1.Kennel Club 2.LAW a senior barrister (when the reigning monarch is male). Fullform King's Counsel 3.CHRISTIANITY a member of a benevolent and fraternalorganization of Roman Catholic men, founded in the United States in 1882. Full formKnight of Columbus
  • kc = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS kilocycle
  • kcal = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS kilocalorie
  • KCB = MILITARY Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
  • KCMG = MILITARY Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George
  • KCVO = MILITARY Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
  • KD = BUSINESS knockdown (NOTE: The abbreviation kd is used to refer to furniture or otherstructures that can be assembled and disassembled easily by the customer.)
  • ke = ONLINE Kenya (NOTE: The abbreviation ke is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • keV = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS kilo-electron volt
  • KG = MILITARY Knight of the (Order of the) Garter
  • kg = 1.MEASUREMENTS kilogram 2.ONLINE Kyrgyzstan (NOTE: The abbreviation kg is seen atthe end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • KGB = POLICE the secret police of the former Soviet Union. Full form KomitetGosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti (NOTE: From the Russian, ‘Committee of StateSecurity'.)
  • kgf = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS kilogram-force
  • kh = ONLINE Cambodia (NOTE: The abbreviation kh, from ‘Khmer', is seen at the end ofInternet addresses, preceded by a dot.)87 kV
  • KHYF = ONLINE know how you feel (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • kHz = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS kilohertz
  • ki = ONLINE Kiribati (NOTE: The abbreviation ki is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • KIA = ONLINE know-it-all (used in e-mails)
  • Kild. = GEOGRAPHY Kildare
  • kinda = kind of
  • KIPS = COMPUTING kilo (= thousand) instructions per second
  • KISS = keep it short and simpleThe acronym KISS is used in various contexts to encourage conciseness and intelligibility, e.g.in training manuals and sales presentations. Its more familiar interpretation, ‘keep it simple,stupid', has a wider range of usage.
  • kJ = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS kilojoule
  • KKK = POLITICS Ku Klux Klan
  • KKt = CHESS king's knight
  • KKtP = CHESS king's knight's pawn
  • KL = GEOGRAPHY Kuala Lumpur
  • km = 1.MEASUREMENTS kilometre 2.ONLINE Comoros (NOTE: The abbreviation km is seen atthe end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • km/h = MEASUREMENTS kilometres per hour
  • KN = CHESS king's knight
  • kn = 1.MEASUREMENTS knot 2.MONEY krona 3.MONEY krone 4.ONLINE St Kitts and Nevis(NOTE: The abbreviation kn is seen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • KNP = CHESS king's knight's pawn
  • Knt = CHESS knight
  • KO = BOXING knockout _ The defending champion was KO'd in the first round. (NOTE: Theabbreviation KO is used informally as a noun in its own right. It is also used as a verb,meaning ‘knock out'.)
  • Kor. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Korea 2.LANGUAGE Korean
  • KP = 1.CHESS king's pawn 2.Knight of (the Order of) St Patrick
  • kp = ONLINE North Korea (NOTE: The abbreviation kp reflects the official name of the country,the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. It is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • kpc = MEASUREMENTS, ASTRONOMY kiloparsec
  • kph = MEASUREMENTS kilometres per hour
  • KR = CHESS king's rook
  • Kr = 1.MONEY krona 2.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS krypton
  • kr = ONLINE South Korea (NOTE: The abbreviation kr reflects the official name of the country,the Republic of Korea. It is seen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • kr. = MONEY 1.krona 2.króna 3.krone
  • KRL = COMPUTING knowledge representation language
  • KRP = CHESS king's rook's pawn
  • KS = MAIL Kansas (NOTE: The abbreviation KS is part of the US sorting code on the last lineof a Kansas address.)
  • KSAM = COMPUTING keyed sequential access method
  • KSJ = RELIGION Knight of (the Order of) St John
  • KT = 1.Knight of the (Order of the) Thistle 2.HISTORY, CHRISTIANITY Knight Templar
  • Kt = CHESS knight
  • kt = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS kiloton 2.MEASUREMENTS knot
  • kV = MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY kilovoltkw 88
  • KW = COMPUTING kiloword
  • kW = MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY kilowatt
  • kw = ONLINE Kuwait (NOTE: The abbreviation kw is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • kWh = MEASUREMENTS kilowatt-hour
  • KWIC = COMPUTING a library indexing system that uses keywords from the title oftext of a book as an indexed entry followed by the text it relates to. Full form key wordin context
  • KWIM = ONLINE know what I mean (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • KWOC = COMPUTING a library indexing system that indexes books or documentsunder any relevant keywords. Full form key word out of context
  • KY = MAIL Kentucky (NOTE: The abbreviation KY is part of the US sorting code on the lastline of a Kentucky address.)
  • ky = ONLINE Cayman Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation ky, from ‘Kayman Islands', as thecountry is called by its own people, is seen at the end of Internet addresses, precededby a dot.)
  • KYFC = ONLINE keep your fingers crossed (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • kz = ONLINE Kazakhstan (NOTE: The abbreviation kz is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • L = 1.PHYSICS angular momentum 2.PHYSICS inductance 3.MAPS Lake 4.large 5.PHYSICSlatent heat 6.LANGUAGE Latin 7.SPORTS League 8.AUTOMOTIVE learner 9.POLITICS Liberal10.Licentiate 11.MEASUREMENTS litre 12.PHYSICS luminance 13.ASTRONOMY luminosityAn L-plate, a small square sign bearing a red L on a white background, must be attached toany vehicle driven by an L-driver (i.e. somebody who has not yet passed the driving test).
  • l = 1.GEOGRAPHY latitude 2.law 3.left 4.length 5.AVIAT lift 6.line (NOTE: The abbreviationl, followed by a number, is often used in references to a particular line of printed text.)7.MONEY lira 8.MEASUREMENTS litre 9.ELECTRICITY live
  • L/C = BANKING a letter from a bank, usually for presentation to another branch or bank,authorizing it to issue credit or money to the person named. Full form letter of credit
  • L/Cpl = MILITARY Lance Corporal
  • l/h = COMMERCIAL LAW leasehold
  • L8R = ONLINE later (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • LA = 1.POLITICS legislative assembly 2.LIBRARIES Library Association 3.COMMERCE local agent4.GEOGRAPHY Los Angeles _ His sister lives in LA. (NOTE: The abbreviation LA is frequentlyused in speech and writing in place of the full name of the city.) 5.MAIL Louisiana (NOTE:The abbreviation LA is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a Louisianaaddress.)
  • La = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS lanthanum
  • la = ONLINE Laos (NOTE: The abbreviation la is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Lab. = 1.POLITICS Labour 2.GEOGRAPHY Labrador
  • LAC = MILITARY Leading Aircraftman
  • LACW = MILITARY Leading Aircraftwoman
  • LAFTA = COMMERCE Latin American Free Trade Association
  • LAI = BUSINESS a measure in vineyard management of the density of leaf cover on the vinesand therefore the optimum spacing. Full form leaf area index
  • LAMDA = PERFORMING ARTS London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art
  • LAN = COMPUTING a network of personal computers and peripheral devices linked bycable and able to share resources. Full form local area network
  • Lancs. = GEOGRAPHY Lancashire
  • laser = _ see note at Aids
  • Lat. = 1.LANGUAGE Latin 2.GEOGRAPHY Latvia 3.LANGUAGE Latvian
  • lat. = GEOGRAPHY latitude
  • LAUTRO = FINANCE Life Assurance and Unit Trust Regulatory Organization
  • lb = 1.ONLINE Lebanon (NOTE: The abbreviation lb is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.CRICKET a run scored after the ball hits some part of the batsman'sbody other than the hand, without touching the bat. Full form leg bye 3.MEASUREMENTSpound (weight)
  • LBD = CLOTHING little black dress
  • LBJ = 36th president of the United States (1963–69). Full form Lyndon Baines Johnson
  • LBO = COMMERCE a takeover strategy in which a controlling proportion of a company'sshares is bought using borrowed money, the collateral for which is assets belonging tothe purchased company. Full form leveraged buyout
  • LBV = WINE late bottled vintage (NOTE: The abbreviation LBV refers to port that is six yearsold.)
  • lbw = CRICKET leg before wicket (NOTE: The abbreviation lbw refers to the dismissal of abatsman hit on the leg by a ball that would otherwise have hit the wicket.)lc 90
  • LC = 1.MILITARY Lance Corporal 2.NAVY landing craft 3.ECOLOGY lethal concentration (NOTE:LC50 or LC50 is the concentration of a harmful substance that kills 50% of organisms inexperimental conditions.) 4.LIBRARIES Library of Congress
  • lc = 1.THEATRE left centre (of the stage) 2.BANKING a letter from a bank, usually forpresentation to another branch or bank, authorizing it to issue credit or money to theperson named. Full form letter of credit 3.loco citato (NOTE: The abbreviation lc is usedin textual references to a passage that has already been cited.) 4.PRINTING lower case 5.ONLINE St Lucia (NOTE: The abbreviation lc is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • LCD = 1.COMPUTING liquid-crystal display 2.MATHEMATICS lowest common denominator
  • LCE = STOCK EXCHANGE London Commodity Exchange
  • LCH = BANKING London Clearing House
  • LCM = 1.NAVY landing craft, mechanized 2.FINANCE an accounting policy valuing assets ateither market value or historical cost, whichever is the lower. Full form lower of costor market 3.MATHEMATICS lowest common multiple
  • LCP = COMPUTING rules defining the transmission of data over a channel. Full form linkcontrol procedure
  • LD = 1.EDUCATION learning disability (or difficulty) 2.EDUCATION learning-disabled 3.PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY lethal dose (NOTE: In toxological testing, LD50 or LD50 is thedose that kills 50% of a group of test animals.)
  • Ld = 1.COMMERCE limited (company) (NOTE: The abbreviation Ld is a less frequent variant ofLtd.) 2.Lord
  • ld = 1.PRINTING lead 2.load
  • LDC = ECONOMICS 1.a country with weak human resources and a low GDP by globalstandards. Full form least-developed country 2.a country defined by the UN as beingat the lowest end of the global scale of development, based on criteria such as lifeexpectancy, calorie intake and per capita GDP. Full form less-developed country
  • Ldg = MILITARY Leading
  • ldg = 1.landing 2.loading
  • LDL = BIOCHEMISTRY a complex of lipids and proteins that carries cholesterol to cells andtissue. Full form low-density lipoprotein
  • LDR = ONLINE long-distance relationship (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • LDS = 1.RELIGION Latter-Day Saints 2.DENTISTRY Licentiate in Dental Surgery 3.CHRISTIANITYpraise be to God forever
  • LDT = COMMERCE licensed deposit-taker
  • LEA = EDUCATION Local Education Authority
  • lea. = 1.MEASUREMENTS league 2.leather
  • lect. = EDUCATION 1.lecture 2.lecturer
  • LED = ELECTRONICS a semiconductor that emits light when a current passes through it. LEDsof various colours are used as indicator lights on electronic equipment. Full form lightemittingdiode
  • leg. = 1.LAW legal 2.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS legate 3.MUSIC legato 4.POLITICS legislation 5.POLITICS legislative 6.POLITICS legislature
  • legis. = POLITICS 1.legislation 2.legislative 3.legislature
  • Leics. = GEOGRAPHY Leicestershire
  • LEM = AEROSPACE lunar excursion module
  • lemme = let me91 litho.
  • let's = let us
  • LEV = AUTOMOTIVE low emission vehicle
  • Lev. = BIBLE Leviticus
  • lexicog. = 1.lexicographic 2.lexicography
  • LF = COMPUTING a control on a computer or printer that moves the cursor or printhead downby one line. Full form line feed
  • LFS = BUSINESS labour force survey
  • LGBT = lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender
  • LGV = 1.VEHICLES large goods vehicle 2.MEDICINE a sexually transmitted disease caused bya bacterial infection, in which there is swelling of the genital lymph nodes and, especiallyin men, a genital ulcer. Full form lymphogranuloma venereum
  • LH = 1.left hand 2.BIOCHEMISTRY a pituitary hormone that causes the ovary to produce oneor more eggs, to secrete progesterone, and to form the corpus luteum, and that causesthe testes to secrete male sex hormones. Full form luteinizing hormone
  • lh = left hand
  • LH-RH = BIOCHEMISTRY a hormone released by the hypothalamus that triggers the secretionof luteinizing hormone. Full form luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone
  • lhd = AUTOMOTIVE left-hand drive
  • Li = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS lithium
  • li = ONLINE Liechtenstein (NOTE: The abbreviation li is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Lib. = POLITICS Liberal
  • lib. = 1.librarian 2.library
  • Lib Dem = POLITICS Liberal Democrat
  • LIBID = BANKING London Interbank Bid Rate
  • LIBOR = BANKING London Interbank Offered Rate
  • Lieut. = MILITARY Lieutenant
  • LIFFE = FINANCE London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange
  • LIFO = last in, first outThe acronym LIFO is used in various contexts. It is probably most widely known as an informalreference to the system of selecting personnel for redundancy on the basis of their length ofservice. It also denotes a method of accounting in which it is assumed that the most recentlypurchased items in an inventory are the first to be sold, and a queue system in computing thatreads the last item stored first.
  • LILO = COMPUTING a data storage method in which data stored last is retrieved last.Full form last in, last out
  • LIMEAN = BANKING London Interbank Mean Rate
  • lin. = 1.lineal 2.linear
  • Lincs. = GEOGRAPHY Lincolnshire
  • liq. = 1.liquid 2.liquor
  • LISP = COMPUTING a high-level computer programming language, used in artificialintelligence, that converts data into lists. Full form list processing
  • lit. = 1.MEASUREMENTS litre 2.literal 3.literally 4.literary 5.literature
  • LitB = EDUCATION Bachelor of Letters (or Literature) (NOTE: From the Latin LitterarumBaccalaureus.)
  • LitD = EDUCATION Doctor of Letters (or Literature) (NOTE: From the Latin Litterarum Doctor.)
  • Lith. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Lithuania 2.LANGUAGE Lithuanian
  • lith. = PRINTING 1.lithograph 2.lithography
  • litho. = PRINTING 1.lithograph 2.lithographylithog. 92
  • lithog. = PRINTING 1.lithograph 2.lithography
  • LittB = EDUCATION Bachelor of Letters (or Literature) (NOTE: From the Latin LitterarumBaccalaureus.)
  • LittD = EDUCATION Doctor of Letters (or Literature) (NOTE: From the Latin Litterarum Doctor.)
  • LJ = LAW Lord Justice
  • lk = ONLINE Sri Lanka (NOTE: The abbreviation lk is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • 'll = 1.shall 2.will
  • LL = 1.LANGUAGE late Latin 2.LAW Lord Lieutenant
  • ll = lines
  • LLB = EDUCATION Bachelor of Laws (NOTE: From the Latin Legum Baccalaureus.)
  • LLC = COMPUTING logical link control
  • LLD = EDUCATION Doctor of Laws (NOTE: From the Latin Legum Doctor.)
  • LLL = COMPUTING low-level language
  • LLM = EDUCATION Master of Laws (NOTE: From the Latin Legum Magister.)
  • lm = PHYSICS lumen
  • LMC = 1.HEALTH SERVICES local medical committee 2.ONLINE lost my connection (used inInternet chat rooms)
  • LMDS = TELECOMMUNICATIONS Local Multipoint Distribution Service
  • LME = FINANCE London Metal Exchange
  • LMK = ONLINE let me know (used in e-mails)
  • LMKOWOTO = ONLINE let me know one way or the other (used in e-mails)
  • ln = MATHEMATICS natural logarithm
  • LNG = INDUST liquefied natural gas
  • loadsa = loads of
  • loc. cit. = loco citato (NOTE: The abbreviation loc.cit., from the Latin, ‘in the place cited',is used in textual references to a passage that has already been cited.)
  • LOGO = COMPUTING a high-level programming language used mainly foreducational purposes, with graphical commands that are easy to use
  • LOL = ONLINE laughing out loud (used in e-mails and Internet chat rooms)
  • LOMBARD = SOCIAL SCIENCES _ see note at dinky
  • long. = GEOGRAPHY longitude
  • LOS = line of sight
  • lotta = lot of
  • LP = 1.MUSIC long-playing (record) (NOTE: The abbreviation LP is used as a noun in its ownright.) 2.PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Lord Provost 3.low pressure
  • LPG = INDUST liquefied petroleum gas
  • LPM = MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING a measure of printing speed. Full form lines per minute
  • LPN = HEALTH SERVICES licensed practical nurse
  • LPS = 1.MICROBIOLOGY a complex of lipid and polysaccharide that forms the outer layer ofsome bacteria. Full form lipopolysaccharide 2.POLITICS Lord Privy Seal
  • LQ = COMPUTING of a high quality comparable to conventional printing. Full form letterquality
  • LR = 1.BUILDINGS living room (used in property advertisements) 2.INSURANCE Lloyd's Register(of Shipping)
  • Lr = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS lawrencium
  • lr = ONLINE Liberia (NOTE: The abbreviation lr is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • LRCP = MEDICINE Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians93 LWR
  • LRP = INDUST lead replacement petrol
  • LRU = COMPUTING least recently used (algorithm)
  • LRV = RAIL light rail vehicle
  • ls = ONLINE Lesotho (NOTE: The abbreviation ls is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • LSA = HEALTH SERVICES Local Supervising Authority
  • LSB = COMPUTING least significant bit
  • LSD = 1.COMPUTING least significant digit 2.DRUGS lysergic acid diethylamide (NOTE: Theabbreviation LSD is used as a noun in its own right.) 3.MONEY pounds, shillings, pence(NOTE: The abbreviation LSD refers to the old-style system of UK currency that wasreplaced by the decimal system in 1971. The pound sign (£) is a stylized form of theletter ‘L'.)
  • LSE = 1.EDUCATION London School of Economics 2.STOCK EXCHANGE London StockExchange
  • LSI = ELECTRONICS the process of integrating a large number of circuits, often severalthousand, on a silicon chip. Full form large-scale integration
  • LSO = MUSIC London Symphony Orchestra
  • LSZ = NZ ROADS limited speed zone
  • lt = ONLINE Lithuania (NOTE: The abbreviation lt is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Lt Cdr = MILITARY Lieutenant Commander
  • Lt Col. = MILITARY Lieutenant Colonel
  • Lt Gen. = MILITARY Lieutenant General
  • LTA = TENNIS Lawn Tennis Association
  • LTC = COMPUTING a time signal that is integrated into an audio tape recording as a trackrunning lengthways along the tape. Full form longitudinal time code
  • Ltd = COMMERCE limited (company) (NOTE: The abbreviation Ltd after a company nameindicates that the shareholders' liability for any debts or losses is restricted.)
  • LTOM = STOCK EXCHANGE London Traded Options Market
  • LTR = ONLINE long-term relationship (NOTE: The abbreviation LTR is used in e-mails, textmessages, and personal advertisements.)
  • LTV = BUSINESS the amount of a mortgage or other loan relative to the value of the propertybought with it, including resale value and penalties on the loan. Full form loan to value
  • LU = COMPUTING logical unit
  • Lu = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS lutetium
  • lu = ONLINE Luxembourg (NOTE: The abbreviation lu is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • LUT = COMPUTING look-up table
  • LV = COMPUTING a recording and playback system similar to modern CDs, using a laser toscan information stored on the pitted surface of a disc, but in analogue rather thandigital format. Full form LaserVision (NOTE: The system essentially died out in the early1980s and is now used only rarely by industry and schools as an information librarysystem.)
  • lv = ONLINE Latvia (NOTE: The abbreviation lv is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • LV-ROM = COMPUTING a 12-inch diameter optical disc, developed by Philips,that can store both analog video and digital data
  • LW = 1.RADIO long wave 2.OCEANOGRAPHY low water
  • LWM = low water mark
  • LWR = INDUST light-water reactorlx 94
  • lx = PHYSICS lux
  • LY = 1.ECOLOGY an aggressive disease of coconut palms, characterised by the dropping ofunripe fruit and the yellowing of fronds until the top of the tree drops away, leaving abare trunk. Full form lethal yellowing 2.ONLINE love you (used in e-mails and textmessages)
  • ly = ONLINE Libya (NOTE: The abbreviation ly is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • M = 1.PRINTING em dash 2.Majesty 3.male 4.GEOGRAPHY Manitoba 5.CHEMISTRY mass 6.EDUCATION Master (NOTE: The abbreviation M is used in degree titles, as in MSc.) 7.medieval 8.CLOTHING medium (NOTE: The abbreviation M is used as a size of clothing.)9.MEASUREMENTS mega- 10.Member 11.middle 12.LOGIC a term that appears in bothpremises of a syllogism but not in the conclusion. Full form middle term 13.million 14.CHEMISTRY molar 15.CALENDAR Monday 16.the French equivalent of Mr. Full formMonsieur 17.ROADS motorway 18.GEOGRAPHY mountain
  • m = 1.PRINTING em dash 2.PHYSICS magnetic moment 3.CRICKET maiden (over) 4.male 5.married 6.GRAMMAR masculine 7.PHYSICS mass 8.medium 9.MEASUREMENTS metre 10.MEASUREMENTS mile 11.MEASUREMENTS milli- 12.million 13.MEASUREMENTS, TIME minute14.CALENDAR month 15.PHYSICS mutual inductance
  • M & A = BUSINESS mergers and acquisitionsmanuf. 96
  • m/d = COMMERCE months after date
  • M/F = male or female (NOTE: The abbreviation M/F is used in advertisements foraccommodation, jobs and personal connections.)
  • M-L = WINE a process in wine fermentation in which malic acid is converted into lactic acidby bacteria, making the wine less fruity and crisp. Full form malolactic (fermentation)
  • m.o. = 1.COMMERCE mail order 2.modus operandi 3.FINANCE money order
  • m.o.m. = COMMERCE middle of the month
  • m/s = MEASUREMENTS metres per second
  • M8 = ONLINE mate (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • MA = 1.MAIL Massachusetts (NOTE: The abbreviation MA is part of the US sorting code onthe last line of a Massachusetts address.) 2.EDUCATION Master of Arts 3.SOCIAL WELFAREmaternity allowance 4.PSYCHOLOGY mental age 5.MILITARY Military Academy
  • mA = MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY milliampere
  • MAAG = HEALTH SERVICES medical audit advisory group
  • MAB = ENVIRONMENT Man and the Biosphere (programme)
  • MAC = 1.ENVIRONMENT maximum allowable concentration 2.COMPUTING media accesscontrol 3.TV a system for transmitting pictures to colour televisions usingsatellites. Full form multiplexed analogue component
  • Mac. = BIBLE Maccabees
  • Macc. = BIBLE Maccabees
  • MAD = 1.PSYCHIATRY major affective disorder 2.MILITARY the enormous reciprocaldamage that the superpowers and their allies would inflict on each other in the eventof a nuclear war. Full form mutual assured destruction
  • MAFF = GOVERNMENT a former government department whose responsibilities havenow been transferred to the Department of the Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs(DEFRA). Full form Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food
  • mag. = 1.magazine (NOTE: When mag is used informally as a noun in this sense (withreference to a periodical publication), it is written without a full stop.) 2.CHEMISTRYmagnesium 3.PHYSICS magnet 4.magnetic (NOTE: When mag is used informally as anadjective in this sense (as in mag tape), it is written without a full stop.) 5.PHYSICSmagnetism 6.magnitude 7.magnum
  • Maj. = MILITARY Major
  • maj. = MUSIC major
  • Maj. Gen. = MILITARY Major General
  • Mal. = 1.BIBLE Malachi 2.LANGUAGE Malay 3.GEOGRAPHY Malayan 4.GEOGRAPHY Malaysia5.GEOGRAPHY Malaysian
  • MAN = COMPUTING a network extending over a limited geographical area, usually acity. Full form metropolitan area network
  • Man. = 1.PAPER Manila (paper) 2.GEOGRAPHY Manitoba
  • man. = manual
  • manuf. = 1.manufacture 2.manufactured 3.manufacturer 4.manufacturing
  • MAO = BIOCHEMISTRY an enzyme that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters (e.g.adrenaline and serotonin). Full form monoamine oxidase
  • MAOI = PHARMACOLOGY an antidepressant drug that blocks the action of monoamineoxidase in the brain. Full form monoamine oxidase inhibitor
  • MAR = COMPUTING memory address register
  • Mar. = March
  • mar. = 1.maritime 2.married
  • MArch = ARCHITECTURE Master of Architecture
  • March. = Marchioness
  • marg. = 1.margin 2.marginal
  • Marq. = 1.Marquess 2.Marquis
  • masc. = GRAMMAR masculine
  • MASH = MILITARY mobile army surgical hospitalThe acronym MASH was popularized in the wider world during the 1970s and 1980s by thefilm and long-running television series M*A*S*H, a black comedy set in a US mobile armysurgical hospital during the Korean War.
  • masint = MILITARY intelligence data acquired, typically by electronic means,about possible attacks using weapons of mass destruction. Full form materialsintelligence
  • mat. = THEATRE matinée
  • math. = 1.mathematical 2.mathematically 3.mathematician 4.mathematics
  • MATV = TV master antenna television
  • MAU = COMPUTING multistation access unit
  • max. = maximum
  • may've = may have
  • MB = 1.MEDICINE Bachelor of Medicine (NOTE: From the Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus.) 2.MILITARY Medal of Bravery 3.MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING megabyte 4.ONLINE anothername for the bulletin board system (BBS). Full form message board
  • Mb = MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING megabit
  • mb = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS millibar
  • MBA = BUSINESS Master of Business Administration
  • MBE = MILITARY Member of the Order of the British Empire
  • MBI = COMMERCE the acquisition of a subsidiary company by outside directors. Full formmanagement buyin
  • MBO = 1.COMMERCE the takeover of a company by its own employees, usually seniormanagement. Full form management buyout 2.MANAGEMENT management byobjectives
  • MBps = MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING 1.megabits per second 2.megabytes per second
  • MBR = COMPUTING memory buffer register
  • MBWA = MANAGEMENT management by walking around
  • Mbyte = MEASUREMENTS, COMPUTING megabyte
  • MC = 1.master of ceremonies (NOTE: The abbreviation MC is used informally as a noun inits own right, sometimes written emcee. The latter form is also used as a verb, meaning‘to act as master of ceremonies'.) 2.MILITARY Medical Corps 3.ASTROLOGY the point onthe apparent annual path of the Sun in the celestial sphere where the meridian iscrossed, or the sign of the zodiac that contains it. Full form Midheaven 4.MILITARYMilitary Cross97 Medit.
  • mc = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS millicurie 2.ONLINE Monaco (NOTE: The abbreviation mc isseen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • MCA = 1.COMPUTING media control architecture 2.E-COMMERCE merchant certificateauthority
  • MCC = CRICKET Marylebone Cricket Club
  • MCG = CRICKET Melbourne Cricket Ground
  • MCh = SURGERY Master of Surgery (NOTE: From the Latin Magister Chirurgiae.)
  • MCom = COMMERCE Master of Commerce
  • MCP = 1.male chauvinist pig 2.COMPUTING master control program
  • MCPP = AGRICULTURE a pesticide used for weed control. Full form mecoprop
  • MCT = BUSINESS mainstream corporation tax
  • MCU = MEDICINE a procedure to determine urinary tract health and function, by passing acontrast dye through the system which can then be x-rayed. Full form micturatingcysto-urethrogram
  • MCUG = MEDICINE micturating cysto-urethrogram
  • MD = 1.MEDICINE Doctor of Medicine (NOTE: From the Latin Medicinae Doctor.) 2.ONLINEmailed (used in e-mails and text messages) 3.MANAGEMENT managing director 4.MAILMaryland (NOTE: The abbreviation MD is part of the US sorting code on the last line ofa Maryland address.) 5.BANKING memorandum of deposit 6.HOUSEHOLD minidisc 7.MEDICINE muscular dystrophy 8.MUSIC musical director
  • Md = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS mendelevium
  • md = ONLINE Moldova (NOTE: The abbreviation md is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • MDA = COMPUTING monochrome display adapter
  • MDF = INDUSTRY a type of hardboard suitable for indoor construction use. Full formmedium density fibreboard (NOTE: The abbreviation MDF is used as a noun in its ownright.)
  • MDiv = RELIGION Master of Divinity
  • MDMA = DRUGS the technical name for the drug ecstasy. Full formmethylenedioxymethamphetamine
  • MDR = COMPUTING memory data register
  • MDS = DENTISTRY Master of Dental Surgery
  • mdse = COMMERCE merchandise
  • ME = 1.MAIL Maine (NOTE: The abbreviation ME is part of the US sorting code on the lastline of a Maine address.) 2.MECHANICAL ENGINEERING mechanical engineer 3.CHRISTIANITYMethodist Episcopal 4.LANGUAGE Middle English 5.MINERAL EXTRACT mining engineer 6.Most Excellent 7.MEDICINE an illness without a known cause that is characterized bylong-term exhaustion, muscle weakness, depression, and sleep disturbances. Alsoknown as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or postviral syndrome (PVS), it may occur as areaction to a viral infection. Full form myalgic encephalomyelitis (NOTE: Theabbreviation ME is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • Me = CHEMISTRY methyl
  • meas. = 1.measure 2.measurement
  • MEC = BUSINESS the discount that, if applied to the returns from a particular investment orasset, would make its present value equal to its original supply price. Full form marginalefficiency of capital
  • mech. = 1.mechanical 2.mechanics 3.mechanism
  • MEcon = ECONOMICS Master of Economics
  • MEd = EDUCATION Master of Education
  • med. = 1.medical 2.medicine 3.medieval 4.medium
  • Medit. = Mediterraneanmem. 98
  • mem. = 1.member 2.LITERATURE memoir 3.COMMERCE memorandum 4.memorial
  • MEMS = ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING micro-electromechanical system
  • Mencap = EDUCATION a UK charity for people with learning disabilitiesThe name Mencap is a contraction of mental handicap or mentally handicapped. The charity,now officially called the Royal Mencap Society, was formerly known as the Royal Society forMentally Handicapped Children and Adults.
  • MEng = ENGINEERING Master of Engineering
  • MEP = 1.ENGINEERING Master of Engineering Physics 2.POLITICS Member of the EuropeanParliament
  • mer. = GEOGRAPHY meridian
  • MES = BUSINESS minimum efficient scale
  • Met = 1.METEOROLOGY Meteorological (Office) 2.MUSIC Metropolitan Opera House(in New York) 3.POLICE Metropolitan Police
  • met. = 1.metallurgy 2.LANGUAGE metaphor 3.PHILOSOPHY metaphysics 4.meteorological5.meteorology 6.metropolitan
  • metal. = 1.metallurgical 2.metallurgy
  • metall. = 1.metallurgical 2.metallurgy
  • meteor. = meteorology
  • meteorol. = meteorology
  • Meth. = CHRISTIANITY Methodist
  • MeV = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS million electron volts
  • Mex. = GEOGRAPHY 1.Mexican 2.Mexico
  • MEY = AGRICULTURE maximum economic yield
  • MF = 1.RADIO medium frequency 2.LANGUAGE Middle French
  • mF = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS millifarad
  • mf = MUSIC mezzo forte (NOTE: The abbreviation mf, usually italicized, is used on sheetmusic at a passage that is to be played or sung moderately loudly.)
  • MFA = ARTS Master of Fine Arts
  • mfd = manufactured
  • mfg = manufacturing
  • MFM = RADIO modified frequency modulation
  • MFN = COMMERCE a nation accorded the most favourable trading terms by another nation.Full form most favoured nation
  • mfr = MANUFACTURING manufacturer
  • mfr. = MANUFACTURING manufacture
  • MFS = COMPUTING Macintosh filing system
  • MG = 1.ARMS machine gun 2.MILITARY Major General
  • Mg = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS magnesium
  • mg = 1.ONLINE Madagascar (NOTE: The abbreviation mg is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.MEASUREMENTS milligram
  • MGB = POLICE the secret police of the former Soviet Union from 1946 to 1954. Full formMinisterstvo Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti (NOTE: From the Russian, ‘Ministry ofState Security'.)
  • mgmt = management
  • Mgr = 1.a title for certain dignitaries, e.g. bishops and princes, in France and other Frenchspeakingcountries. Full form Monseigneur 2.CHRISTIANITY a title for certain clerics ofthe Roman Catholic Church. Full form Monsignor99 MIME
  • mgr = manager
  • mgt = management
  • MH = 1.MAIL Marshall Islands 2.PSYCHOLOGY mental health
  • mH = MEASUREMENTS millihenry
  • mh = ONLINE Marshall Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation mh is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • MHA = Aus, Can GOVERNMENT Member of the House of Assembly
  • MHC = GENETICS a group of genes in mammals that serve to make cells separate anddistinguishable from those of other organisms. Full form major histocompatibilitycomplex
  • MHD = PHYSICS magnetohydrodynamics
  • MHG = LANGUAGE Middle High German
  • MHL = EDUCATION Master of Hebrew Literature
  • MHz = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS megahertz
  • MI = 1.MAIL Michigan (NOTE: The abbreviation MI is part of the US sorting code on the lastline of a Michigan address.) 2.MILITARY Military Intelligence (NOTE: MI5 is the Britishsecurity and counterintelligence service, and MI6 is the British secret intelligence andespionage service.) 3.MEDICINE a condition in which the heart's mitral valve does notform a complete seal on closing, allowing blood to reflux into the left atrium. Full formmitral incompetence 4.MEDICINE the death of a segment of heart muscle, caused by ablood clot in the coronary artery interrupting blood supply. Full form myocardialinfarction
  • mi. = MEASUREMENTS mile
  • MI-SET = E-COMMERCE merchant-initiated secure electronic transactions
  • MIA = MILITARY missing in action (NOTE: The abbreviation MIA is used in US English as anoun to denote a soldier reported missing during military action.)
  • MIC = CHEMISTRY a toxic liquid used in the manufacture of herbicides. Full form methylisocyanate
  • Mic. = BIBLE Micah
  • Mich. = CALENDAR Michaelmas
  • Mid. = MILITARY Midshipman
  • mid. = middle
  • Middx = GEOGRAPHY Middlesex
  • MIDI = COMPUTING the interface between an electronic musical instrument and acomputer, used in composing and editing music. Full form musical instrument digitalinterface
  • MIG = 1.BUSINESS formerly, a means-tested scheme to top up state pensions falling belowa minimum amount. Full form Minimum Income Guarantee (NOTE: The MIG wasreplaced in 2003 by the Pensions Credit scheme.) 2.FINANCE mortgage indemnityguarantee
  • MiG = AIR FORCE a high-speed high-altitude fighter aircraft built in Russia (NOTE: Thename of the aircraft is an acronym derived from the surnames of its designers, A. I.Mikoyan and M. I. Gurevich.)
  • MIGA = FINANCE Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
  • might've = might have
  • mightn't = might not
  • mil = ONLINE military organization (NOTE: The abbreviation mil is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • mil. = 1.military 2.militia
  • milit. = military
  • MIME = ONLINE a set of Internet standards for handling multimedia and non-ASCIImaterial. Full form Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensionsmin. 100
  • Min. = GOVERNMENT 1.Minister 2.Ministry
  • min. = 1.mineralogical 2.mineralogy 3.MEASUREMENTS minim 4.minimum 5.MINERALEXTRACT mining 6.minister 7.MUSIC minor 8.MEASUREMENTS, TIME minute
  • MING = ONLINE mailing (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • MIP = 1.INSURANCE marine insurance policy 2.FINANCE monthly investment plan
  • MIPS = 1.ONLINE meaningless information per second (NOTE: Mips in this sense is ahumorous corruption of the original meaning ‘million instructions per second', coinedby computer hackers.) 2.COMPUTING million instructions per second
  • MIRAS = FINANCE a former tax relief system on mortgages, whereby tax wasdeducted from the amount before repayment instead of being paid and then reclaimed.Full form mortgage interest relief at source
  • MIRV = MILITARY part of a ballistic missile containing more than one nuclearweapon, each capable of being independently steered and aimed at a different target.Full form multiple independently targeted re-entry vehicle
  • MIS = COMPUTING 1.management information service 2.management information system
  • misc. = 1.miscellaneous 2.miscellany
  • Miss. = 1.Mission 2.RELIGION Missionary
  • MIT = 1.FINANCE an order to sell or purchase a commodity as soon as a particular price isreached. Full form market if touched 2.EDUCATION Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology
  • MIU = HEALTH SERVICES minor injuries unit
  • MJPEG = COMPUTING a version of the JPEG image compression system thatsupports video. Full form motion JPEG
  • Mk = 1.BIBLE Mark 2.AUTOMOTIVE mark (NOTE: The abbreviation Mk, followed by a number,is used to denote one of a series of car designs or models, as in Ford Escort Mk I.)
  • mk = 1.ONLINE Macedonia (NOTE: The abbreviation mk is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.MONEY mark 3.MONEY markka
  • MKDIR = COMPUTING a DOS command used to create a new directory on a disc. Full formmake directory
  • mks = MEASUREMENTS metre-kilogram-second (NOTE: The mks units form the basis of themetric system of measurement that has the metre, kilogram, and second as its basicunits of length, mass, and time, respectively.)
  • mksA = MEASUREMENTS metre-kilogram-second-ampere (NOTE: The mksA system wasintroduced in the 1930s in an effort to standardise international units of measurements.It now forms a subset of the SI system.)
  • mkt = COMMERCE market
  • mktg = marketing
  • ML = ONLINE more later (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • mL = MEASUREMENTS millilambert
  • ml = 1.ONLINE Mali (NOTE: The abbreviation ml is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.MEASUREMENTS mile 3.MEASUREMENTS millilitre
  • MLA = 1.EDUCATION Master of Landscape Architecture 2.Aus, Can GOVERNMENT Memberof the Legislative Assembly 3.LANGUAGE Modern Language Association
  • MLD = MEDICINE minimum lethal dose
  • MLF = MILITARY multilateral (nuclear) force
  • MLG = LANGUAGE Middle Low German
  • MLitt = /em| l?t/ EDUCATION Master of Letters (NOTE: From the Latin Magister Litterarum)101 MoD
  • Mlle = the French equivalent of Miss. Full form Mademoiselle
  • Mlles = the plural of Mademoiselle (Mlle). Full form Mesdemoiselles
  • MLR = 1.BANKING minimum lending rate 2.MILITARY multiple-launch rockets
  • MLSO = HEALTH SERVICES medical laboratory scientific officer
  • MM = 1.the plural of Monsieur (M). Full form Messieurs (NOTE: Messrs, an alternativeabbreviation of Messieurs, is used as the plural of the English title Mr.) 2.MILITARY MilitaryMedal
  • mm = 1.MEASUREMENTS millimetre 2.ONLINE Myanmar (NOTE: The abbreviation mm is seenat the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • MMC = BUSINESS Monopolies and Mergers Commission
  • MMDA = FINANCE money market deposit account
  • MMDS = RADIO multipoint microwave distribution system
  • Mme = the French equivalent of Mrs. Full form Madame
  • Mmes = the plural of Madame (Mme). Full form Mesdames
  • mmf = 1.PHYSICS magnetomotive force 2.ONLINE make money fast (used in e-mails and textmessages)
  • mmHg = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS a unit for measuring atmospheric pressure. Full formmillimetre of mercury
  • MMI = COMPUTING man-machine interface
  • MMM = MILITARY Member of the Order of Military Merit
  • mmol = MEASUREMENTS, CHEMISTRY millimole
  • MMP = NZ POLITICS an electoral system in which half of the governmental seats areawarded by proportional representation, and half by majoritarian (first-past-the-post)election. Full form Mixed Member Proportional
  • MMPI = PSYCHOLOGY Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  • MMR = IMMUNOLOGY measles, mumps, rubella (vaccine) (NOTE: Rubella is the technicalname for German measles.)
  • MMS = a system that enables sounds, images, or animations to be incorporated into textmessages sent (usually) from mobile phones. Full form multimedia messaging service
  • MMU = COMPUTING memory management unit
  • MMus = MUSIC Master of Music
  • MN = 1.NAVIGATION magnetic north 2.NAVY Merchant Navy 3.MAIL Minnesota (NOTE: Theabbreviation MN is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a Minnesota address.)
  • Mn = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS manganese
  • mn = ONLINE Mongolia (NOTE: The abbreviation mn is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • MNA = GOVERNMENT Member of the National Assembly (of Quebec)
  • MNC = 1.ONLINE Mother Nature calls (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chatrooms) 2.COMMERCE multinational company (or corporation)
  • MND = MEDICINE motor neurone disease
  • MNE = COMMERCE multinational enterprise
  • mngr = manager
  • MO = 1.COMPUTING magneto-optical 2.COMMERCE mail order 3.MEDICINE medical officer 4.MAIL Missouri (NOTE: The abbreviation MO is part of the US sorting code on the last lineof a Missouri address.) 5.modus operandi 6.FINANCE money order
  • Mo = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS molybdenum
  • mo = 1.COMMERCE mail order 2.modus operandi 3.FINANCE money order
  • mo. = TIME month
  • MOD = BUSINESS the remainder after the division of one number by another. Fullform modulus
  • MoD = GOVERNMENT Ministry of DefenceMOD 102
  • mod. = 1.moderate 2.MUSIC moderato 3.modern
  • modif. = 1.modification 2.GRAMMAR modifier
  • MODS = MEDICINE multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
  • MOF = 1.male or female (NOTE: The abbreviation MOF is used in e-mails, text messages,Internet chat rooms, and personal advertisements.) 2.MEDICINE multi-organ failure
  • MOH = HEALTH SERVICES Medical Officer of Health
  • MOI = GOVERNMENT a government department set up during World War 2 to gather anddisseminate information to help the war effort. In 1946 it was replaced by the non-Ministerial Central Office of Information. Full form Ministry of Information
  • mol = CHEMISTRY mole
  • mol. = CHEMISTRY 1.molecular 2.molecule
  • mol. wt = CHEMISTRY molecular weight
  • mom = COMMERCE middle of the month
  • MOMI = Museum of the Moving Image
  • Mon. = 1.CALENDAR Monday 2.CHRISTIANITY a title for certain clerics of the Roman CatholicChurch. Full form Monsignor
  • mon. = 1.CHRISTIANITY monastery 2.FINANCE monetary
  • MONEP = FINANCE Marché des Options Négociables de Paris (NOTE: From the French, ‘Paristraded options market'.)
  • MOO = ONLINE a virtual online space in which several participants can meet at a giventime to discuss a given topic. Full form multi-user domain, object-oriented
  • MOP = FINANCE a person who has assets such as shares that are nominally worth a millionpounds (or dollars) but that may never be realizable in cash. Full form millionaire onpaper
  • MOPP = MILITARY the correct amount and type of protective clothing that should beworn in case of a chemical attack when carrying out a military mission, bearing in mindthe precise threat and the type of mission. Full form Mission Oriented ProtectivePosture
  • MOR = MUSIC middle-of-the-road (NOTE: The abbreviation MOR is used especially in radioprogramming.)
  • Mor. = GEOGRAPHY 1.Moroccan 2.Morocco
  • mor. = INDUSTRY morocco (leather)
  • MORF = ONLINE male or female (NOTE: The abbreviation MORF is used in e-mails, textmessages, Internet chat rooms, and personal advertisements.)
  • MORI = MARKETING Market and Opinion Research Institute
  • morph. = BIOLOGY, LINGUISTICS 1.morphological 2.morphology
  • morphol. = BIOLOGY, LINGUISTICS 1.morphological 2.morphology
  • MOS = COMPUTING metal oxide semiconductor
  • mos. = TIME months
  • MOSFET = COMPUTING metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor
  • MOT = Ministry of Transport _ I have to get my car MOT'd next week.Although the Ministry of Transport no longer exists under this name (it is now the Departmentfor Transport, or DfT), the abbreviation MOT is still used as a noun to denote the annualinspection of a vehicle to test its roadworthiness (a legal requirement in the United Kingdom)and the certificate awarded to vehicles that pass. It is also used as a verb, meaning ‘to carryout an MOT test on a vehicle'.
  • MOTAS = ONLINE member of the appropriate sex (used in Internet bulletin boards)103 MRBM
  • MOTD = ONLINE message of the day (NOTE: The abbreviation MOTAS is used in e-mails, textmessages, Internet chat rooms, and personal advertisements.)
  • MOTOS = ONLINE member of the opposite sex (NOTE: The abbreviation MOTOS is used ine-mails, text messages, Internet chat rooms, and personal advertisements.)
  • MOTSS = ONLINE member of the same sex (NOTE: The abbreviation MOTSS is used in emails,text messages, Internet chat rooms, and personal advertisements.)
  • mouse = MILITARY minimum orbital unmanned satellite of the Earth
  • MOW = GOVERNMENT Ministry of Works
  • MOX = INDUST a reactor fuel made from plutonium that has been separated fromspent nuclear fuel by chemical reprocessing and mixed with natural or depleted uranium
  • Moz. = GEOGRAPHY Mozambique
  • MP = 1.GOVERNMENT Member of Parliament (NOTE: The abbreviation MP is used as a nounin its own right in this sense.) 2.POLICE Metropolitan Police 3.MILITARY military police 4.POLICE mounted police
  • mp = 1.CHEMISTRY melting point 2.MUSIC mezzo piano (NOTE: The abbreviation mp is seenat the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.) 3.ONLINE Northern Mariana Islands(NOTE: The abbreviation mp, usually italicized, is used on sheet music at a passage thatis to be played or sung moderately softly.)
  • MP3 = ONLINE a computer file standard for downloading compressed music from theInternet, playable on a multimedia computer with appropriate software. Full formMoving Picture Experts Group, Audio Layer 3
  • MPA = PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Master of Public Administration
  • MPC = 1.ECONOMICS marginal propensity to consume 2.BUSINESS Monetary PolicyCommittee
  • MPD = PSYCHIATRY multiple personality disorder
  • MPEG = COMPUTING a computer file standard for compressing, storing, andtransmitting digital video and audio. Full form Moving Picture Experts Group (NOTE:The abbreviation MPEG is also used as a noun to denote a file containing digital videoand audio in this format.)
  • MPG = EDUCATION the basic salary scale for a teacher in Britain. Full form mainprofessional grade
  • mpg = MEASUREMENTS, AUTOMOTIVE miles per gallon
  • mph = MEASUREMENTS miles per hour
  • MPhil = /em| f?l/ EDUCATION Master of Philosophy
  • MPM = ECONOMICS marginal propensity to import
  • MPP = BUSINESS maternity pay period
  • MPS = 1.ECONOMICS marginal propensity to save 2.PHARMACOLOGY Member of thePharmaceutical Society 3.COMPUTING microprocessor system
  • MPT = ECONOMICS marginal propensity to tax
  • MPU = COMPUTING microprocessor unit
  • MPV = AUTOMOBILES a large car that can carry more than five people, typically seven peoplein three rows of seats. Full form multipurpose vehicle (NOTE: The abbreviation MPV isused as a noun in its own right. The full form is rarely encountered, but such a vehicleis often called a people carrier.)
  • mq = ONLINE Martinique (NOTE: The abbreviation mq is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • MR = LAW Master of the Rolls
  • mr = ONLINE Mauritania (NOTE: The abbreviation mr is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • MRBM = ARMS medium-range ballistic missileMRC 104
  • MRC = MEDICINE Medical Research Council
  • MRCA = AIR FORCE multirole combat aircraft
  • MRCGP = MEDICINE Member of the Royal College of General Practitioners
  • MRCP = MEDICINE Member of the Royal College of Physicians
  • MRCS = SURGERY Member of the Royal College of Surgeons
  • MRCVS = VETERINARY MEDICINE Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons
  • MRE = MILITARY meal, ready to eat
  • MRI = MEDICINE an imaging technique that uses electromagnetic radiation to obtain imagesof the body's soft tissues, e.g. the brain and spinal cord _ MRI scanning Full formmagnetic resonance imaging
  • MRIA = Member of the Royal Irish Academy
  • MRL = ENVIRONMENT maximum residue level
  • mRNA = GENETICS a form of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is transcribed from a strand of DNAand translated into a protein sequence at a cell ribosome. Full form messenger RNA
  • MRP = COMMERCE manufacturer's recommended price
  • MRS = BUSINESS the point at which a consumer is willing to give up one good for anotherand is equally satisfied with either. Full form marginal rate of substitution
  • MRSA = MICROBIOLOGY a strain of a common pathogenic bacterium that has becomeresistant to treatment by the antibiotic methicillin and is therefore a hazard in placessuch as hospitals. Full form methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • MRSC = CHEMISTRY Member of the Royal Society of Chemistry
  • MS = 1.PUBLISHING manuscript 2.SURGERY Master of Surgery 3.MAIL Mississippi (NOTE: Theabbreviation MS is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a Mississippi address.)4.MEDICINE the narrowing of the heart's mitral valve (the one-way valve between theupper and lower chambers, on the left side) as the result of disease. Full form mitralstenosis 5.ONLINE more (of the) same (used in e-mails and text messages) 6.BOAT motorship 7.MEDICINE multiple sclerosis 8.sacred to the memory of (NOTE: The abbreviationMS is seen on gravestones.)
  • ms = 1.MEASUREMENTS millisecond 2.ONLINE Montserrat (NOTE: The abbreviation ms is seenat the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • MS-DOS = COMPUTING a trademark for a widely used computer operatingsystem. Full form Microsoft Disk Operating System
  • MSB = 1.COMPUTING most significant bit 2.BANKING mutual savings bank
  • MSc = SCIENCE Master of Science
  • msec = MEASUREMENTS millisecond
  • MSF = HUMAN RESOURCES Manufacturing, Science, Finance (Union)
  • MSG = CHEMISTRY monosodium glutamate
  • msg. = message
  • Msgr = 1.a title for certain dignitaries, e.g. bishops and princes, in France and otherFrench-speaking countries. Full form Monseigneur 2.CHRISTIANITY a title for certainclerics of the Roman Catholic Church. Full form Monsignor
  • MSH = BIOCHEMISTRY melanocyte-stimulating hormone
  • MSI = COMPUTING medium scale integration
  • MSP = GOVERNMENT Member of the Scottish Parliament
  • MSS = PUBLISHING manuscripts
  • MST = TIME Mountain Standard Time
  • MSU = MEDICINE midstream specimen of urine
  • mSv = MEASUREMENTS, SCIENCE millisievert105 MVD
  • MSX = COMPUTING a hardware and software standard for home computers that can useinterchangeable software. Full form Microsoft Extended
  • MSY = AGRICULTURE maximum sustainable yield
  • MT = 1.MEASUREMENTS megaton 2.MEASUREMENTS metric ton 3.MAIL Montana (NOTE: Theabbreviation MT is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a Montana address.)4.TIME Mountain Time
  • Mt = 1.BIBLE Matthew 2.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS meitnerium 3.GEOGRAPHY Mount 4.GEOGRAPHYMountain
  • mt = 1.ONLINE Malta (NOTE: The abbreviation mt is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.GEOGRAPHY mount
  • mt. = 1.MEASUREMENTS megaton 2.GEOGRAPHY mountain
  • Mt Rev. = CHRISTIANITY Most Reverend
  • MTA = COMPUTING mail transfer agent
  • MTB = NAVY motor torpedo boat
  • MTBE = CHEMISTRY a lead-free antiknock petrol additive. Full form methyl tertiary-butylethyl
  • MTBF = COMPUTING mean time between failures
  • MTCE = MEASUREMENTS million tonnes of coal equivalent
  • MTech = EDUCATION Master of Technology
  • MTF = COMPUTING mean time to failure
  • MTFS = BUSINESS Medium-Term Financial Strategy
  • mtg = meeting
  • mtg. = FINANCE mortgage
  • MTM = MANAGEMENT methods-time measurement
  • mtn = GEOGRAPHY mountain
  • mts = GEOGRAPHY 1.mountains 2.mounts
  • MTTR = MANUFACTURING mean time to repair
  • MU = 1.Mothers' Union 2.ONLINE multiuser (online space) 3.MUSIC Musicians' Union
  • mu = ONLINE Mauritius (NOTE: The abbreviation mu is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • MUA = COMPUTING mail user agent
  • MUD = ONLINE a virtual online space in which several participants can contribute toa communal project such as a collaboratively written story or a game for several players.Full form multiuser domain
  • mus. = 1.museum 2.music 3.musical 4.musician
  • MusB = MUSIC Bachelor of Music (NOTE: From the Latin Musicae Baccalaureus.)
  • MusD = MUSIC Doctor of Music (NOTE: From the Latin Musicae Doctor.)
  • MusM = MUSIC Master of Music (NOTE: From the Latin Musicae Magister.)
  • mustn't = must not
  • MUX = COMPUTING multiplexer
  • MV = 1.COMMERCE market value 2.STATISTICS mean variation 3.MEASUREMENTS megavolt 4.SHIPPING merchant vessel 5.BOAT motor vessel 6.ARMS muzzle velocity
  • mV = MEASUREMENTS millivolt
  • mv = 1.ONLINE Maldives (NOTE: The abbreviation mv is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.MUSIC a musical direction indicating that a passage isto be sung or played with moderate volume from the voice or instrument. Full formmezza voce
  • MVA = COMMERCE 1.market value added 2.market value adjuster
  • MVD = POLICE the Ministry for Internal Affairs of the former Soviet Union from 1946 to1960, which acted as its secret police. Full form Ministerstvo vnutrennikh dyelMVO 106
  • MVO = MILITARY Member of the Royal Victorian Order
  • MVP = 1.ECOLOGY minimum viable population 2.N Am SPORTS most valuable player(award)
  • MVS = VETERINARY MEDICINE Master of Veterinary Surgery
  • MVSc = VETERINARY MEDICINE Master of Veterinary Science
  • MW = 1.WINE Master of Wine 2.RADIO medium wave 3.MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITYmegawatt 4.CHEMISTRY molecular weight
  • mW = MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY milliwatt
  • mw = ONLINE Malawi (NOTE: The abbreviation mw is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • MWCA = FINANCE Monetary Working Capital Adjustment
  • MX = 1.COMPUTING mail exchange (record) 2.MOTOR SPORTS motocross
  • Mx = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS maxwell
  • mx = ONLINE Mexico (NOTE: The abbreviation mx is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • mxd = mixed
  • MY = BOAT motor yacht
  • my = 1.ONLINE Malaysia (NOTE: The abbreviation my is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.MEASUREMENTS, TIME million years
  • MYOB = ONLINE mind your own business (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • myth. = 1.mythological 2.mythology
  • mythol. = 1.mythological 2.mythology
  • mz = ONLINE Mozambique (NOTE: The abbreviation mz is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • N = 1.PHYSICS Avogadro's number 2.PRINTING en dash 3.CHESS knight (NOTE: Theabbreviation N, representing the initial sound (rather than the initial letter) of the word,is used to distinguish the knight from the king (K).) 4.MONEY naira 5.AUTOMOTIVE neutral6.GEOGRAPHY New (NOTE: The abbreviation N is used in placenames.) 7.MEASUREMENTS,PHYSICS newton 8.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS nitrogen 9.LANGUAGE Norse 10.north 11.northern12.CALENDAR November
  • n = 1.PHYSICS amount of substance 2.PRINTING en dash 3.MEASUREMENTS nano- 4.COMMERCEnet 5.GRAMMAR neuter 6.PHYSICS neutron 7.GRAMMAR nominative 8.TIME noon 9.MUSICnote 10.GRAMMAR noun 11.number 12.PHYSICS refractive index
  • n/a = 1.not applicable 2.not available
  • N Am. = GEOGRAPHY 1.North America 2.North AmericanNAND 108
  • n/c = COMMERCE no charge
  • N Ire. = Northern Ireland
  • n.o. = CRICKET not out
  • n.o.s. = not otherwise specified
  • N/S = 1.nonsmoker 2.nonsmoking
  • n.s. = 1.nearside 2.new series 3.not specified
  • n/s = BANKING not sufficient (funds)
  • N/V = BANKING no value
  • n.wt = MEASUREMENTS net weight
  • N Zeal. = New Zealand
  • NA = GEOGRAPHY North America
  • Na = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS sodium (NOTE: From the modern Latin natrium.)
  • na = ONLINE Namibia (NOTE: The abbreviation na is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • NAACP = LAW National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  • NAAFI = MILITARY an organization that provides canteens and shops for people whowork in the armed forces. Full form Navy, Army, and Air Force Institutes (NOTE: Theacronym NAAFI is used as a noun denoting a canteen or shop provided by thisorganization.)
  • NAC = DOMESTIC National Advisory Council
  • NACODS = HUMAN RESOURCES National Association of Colliery Overmen,Deputies, and Shotfirers
  • NACRO = CRIME National Association for the Care and Resettlement ofOffenders
  • NAD = BIOCHEMISTRY a coenzyme that plays a role in the electron transport chain, where itis vital in the production of energy. Full form nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  • NADH = BIOCHEMISTRY the reduced form of NAD. Full form NAD hydrogen
  • NADP = BIOCHEMISTRY a coenzyme involved in anabolism, consisting of NAD with an extraphosphate group. Full form nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • NADPH = BIOCHEMISTRY the reduced form of NADP. Full form NADP hydrogen
  • NAFTA = a free trade agreement signed between the United States and Canadain 1989, and extended to include Mexico in 1994. Full form North American FreeTrade Agreement
  • Nah. = BIBLE Nahum
  • NAHT = EDUCATION National Association of Headteachers
  • NAI = LAW nonaccidental injury
  • NAIRU = ECONOMICS nonaccelerating inflation rate of unemployment
  • NAK = COMPUTING an ASCII control code used to indicate to the sender that atransmitted message has not been properly received. Full form negativeacknowledgment
  • NALGO = HUMAN RESOURCES a former trade union, now part of UNISON. Fullform National Association of Local Government Officers
  • NAND = COMPUTING a logic operator used in computing that produces an outputsignal only if at least one of its inputs has no signal, thus being the inverse of an ANDoperator. Full form not and
  • NAO = FINANCE National Audit Office
  • NAPO = HUMAN RESOURCES National Association of Prison Officers
  • NAS = NAVY naval air station
  • NAS/UWT = HUMAN RESOURCES National Association of Schoolmasters/Union of WomenTeachers
  • NASA = AEROSPACE the US government agency responsible for nonmilitaryprogrammes in the exploration and scientific study of space. Full form NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NOTE: The acronym NASA is used as a nounin its own right.)
  • NASD = FINANCE National Association of Securities Dealers
  • NASDAQ = FINANCE in the United States, an electronic communications systemthat links all over-the-counter securities dealers to form a single market
  • nat. = 1.national 2.native 3.natural
  • NATFHE = HUMAN RESOURCES National Association of Teachers in Further andHigher Education
  • natl = national
  • NATO = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS an international organization established in1949 to promote mutual defence and collective security. Full form North AtlanticTreaty Organization (NOTE: The acronym NATO is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • NATSOPA = /n_t| s??p?/ HUMAN RESOURCES National Society of Operative Printers,Graphical and Media Personnel (NOTE: The organization was formerly called the NationalSociety of Printers and Assistants, hence the acronym)
  • naut. = nautical
  • NAV = FINANCE net asset value
  • nav. = 1.naval 2.navigable 3.navigation
  • NAVSAT = navigation satellite
  • NB = 1.GEOGRAPHY New Brunswick 2.used to draw attention to something particularlyimportant, usually an addition to or qualification of a previous statement. Full form notabene (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘mark well'.)
  • Nb = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS niobium
  • nb = CRICKET no ball
  • NBA = 1.BASKETBALL National Basketball Association 2.BOXING National Boxing Association3.PUBLISHING a former agreement in the British book trade that prevented booksellersfrom selling books at prices lower than those fixed by the publishers. Full form NetBook Agreement
  • NBC = 1.US BROADCASTING National Broadcasting Company 2.MILITARY nuclear, biological,and chemical (weapons or warfare)
  • NBCD = COMPUTING natural binary coded decimal
  • NBD = ONLINE no big deal (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • NbE = north by east
  • NBER = ECONOMICS National Bureau of Economic Research
  • NBFI = FINANCE nonbank financial institution
  • NBG = no bloody good
  • NBL = PUBLISHING National Book League
  • NBTD = ONLINE nothing better to do (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • NBV = ACCOUNTING net book value
  • NbW = north by west109 NEDC
  • NC = 1.EDUCATION a UK qualification in a vocational subject that is roughly equivalent to aGCSE. Full form National Certificate 2.EDUCATION National Curriculum 3.COMPUTINGnetwork computer 4.COMMERCE no charge 5.MAIL North Carolina (NOTE: Theabbreviation NC is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a North Carolinaaddress.) 6.COMPUTING numerical control
  • nc = ONLINE New Caledonia (NOTE: The abbreviation nc is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • NCB = BANKING national central bank
  • NCC = 1.DOMESTIC National Consumer Council 2.EDUCATION National Curriculum Council3.ENVIRONMENT Nature Conservancy Council
  • NCO = MILITARY noncommissioned officer (NOTE: The abbreviation NCO is used as a nounin its own right.)
  • NCSA = COMPUTING National Center for Supercomputing Applications
  • NCT = MEDICINE National Childbirth Trust
  • NCU = HUMAN RESOURCES National Communications Union
  • NCUA = FINANCE National Credit Union Administration
  • ND = 1.EDUCATION a UK vocational qualification that is roughly equivalent to two A levels.Full form National Diploma 2.no date (NOTE: The abbreviation nd is used when citinga source that has no date, after the author's name in parentheses.) 3.MAIL North Dakota(NOTE: The abbreviation ND is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a NorthDakota address.)
  • Nd = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS neodymium
  • NDA = BUSINESS 1.nondisclosure agreement 2.nondisparagement agreement
  • NDE = PARANORMAL a sensation that people on the brink of death have described as leavingtheir own bodies and observing them as though they were bystanders. Full form neardeathexperience
  • NDIP = FINANCE nondeposit investment product
  • NDP = ECONOMICS net domestic product
  • NDPB = GOVERNMENT a public body, often statutory, that is able to act independently of thegovernment that creates and finances it. The Arts Council and industrial tribunals areexamples of NDPBs. Full form non-departmental public body (NOTE: NDBP is themore formal term that has come to replace quango, which acquired negativeassociations because quangos were thought of as being unelectable andunaccountable.)
  • NDT = TIME Newfoundland Daylight Time
  • NDU = HEALTH SERVICES Nursing Development Unit
  • NE = 1.MAIL Nebraska (NOTE: The abbreviation NE is part of the US sorting code on the lastline of a Nebraska address.) 2.GEOGRAPHY New England 3.northeast 4.northeastern
  • Ne = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS neon
  • ne = ONLINE Niger (NOTE: The abbreviation ne is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • NEA = US EDUCATION National Education Association
  • NEB = 1.BUSINESS National Enterprise Board 2.BIBLE New English Bible
  • NEbE = northeast by east
  • NEbN = northeast by north
  • NEC = 1.BUSINESS National Executive Committee 2.COMMERCE National Exhibition Centre(Birmingham)
  • NEDC = ECONOMICS National Economic Development Council (NOTE: The NEDC isinformally called Neddy.)needn't 110
  • needn't = need not
  • NEF = ENVIRONMENT noise exposure forecast
  • neg. = negative
  • Neh. = BIBLE Nehemiah
  • nem. con. = LAW without opposition _ The motion was carried nem. con.(NOTE: From the Latin nemine contradicente ‘with no one contradicting'.)
  • NEO = ASTRONOMY near-earth object
  • NEPAD = ECONOMICS an organization established in 2001 by Africa's political leaders toimplement an integrated social and economic development programme for the wholecontinent. Full form New Partnership for Africa's Development
  • NEQ = COMPUTING nonequivalence
  • NERC = ENVIRONMENT Natural Environment Research Council
  • net = ONLINE networking organization (NOTE: The abbreviation net is seen at the end ofInternet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • NetBIOS = COMPUTING a commonly used standard set of commands,originally developed by IBM, that allow application programs to carry out basicoperations such as file sharing and transferring data between nodes over a network. Fullform Network Basic Input Output System
  • Neth. = GEOGRAPHY Netherlands
  • neurol. = MEDICINE 1.neurological 2.neurology
  • neut. = GRAMMAR neuter
  • NEW = MILITARY nonexplosive warfare
  • New Eng. = GEOGRAPHY New England
  • Newf. = GEOGRAPHY Newfoundland
  • NF = 1.POLITICS National Front 2.MEDICINE an inherited disorder causing visual and hearingdefects, other nervous disorders, and sometimes major deformities. Full formneurofibromatosis 3.GEOGRAPHY Newfoundland 4.BANKING no funds 5.LANGUAGENorman French
  • nf = ONLINE Norfolk Island (NOTE: The abbreviation nf is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • Nfd = GEOGRAPHY Newfoundland
  • NFER = EDUCATION National Foundation for Educational Research
  • NFL = AMERICAN FOOTBALL National Football League
  • Nfld = GEOGRAPHY Newfoundland
  • NFS = 1.EMERGENCIES National Fire Service 2.COMPUTING network file service 3.COMPUTINGnetwork file system 4.not for sale
  • NFT = 1.CINEMA National Film Theatre 2.TIME Newfoundland Time
  • NFU = AGRICULTURE National Farmers' Union
  • NFWI = National Federation of Women's Institutes
  • ng = 1.ONLINE Nigeria (NOTE: The abbreviation ng is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.no good
  • NGO = nongovernmental organization
  • NH = MAIL New Hampshire (NOTE: The abbreviation NH is part of the US sorting code onthe last line of a New Hampshire address.)
  • NHI = HEALTH SERVICES National Health Insurance
  • NHS = HEALTH SERVICES National Health Service
  • NI = 1.FINANCE National Insurance 2.NZ GEOGRAPHY North Island 3.GEOGRAPHY NorthernIreland
  • Ni = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS nickel111 nmol
  • ni = ONLINE Nicaragua (NOTE: The abbreviation ni is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • NIC = 1.FINANCE National Insurance contribution(s) 2.COMPUTING network interface card 3.BUSINESS newly industrialized country
  • Nic. = GEOGRAPHY Nicaragua
  • NiCad = ELECTRICITY nickel-cadmium (battery)
  • NICAM = near-instantaneous companded audio multiplex
  • NICE = MEDICINE National Institute for Clinical Excellence
  • NIDA = PERFORMING ARTS Australia's premier drama school. Full form NationalInstitute of the Dramatic Arts
  • NIEO = ECONOMICS New International Economic Order
  • NIESR = ECONOMICS National Institute of Economic and Social Research
  • NIF = BUSINESS a facility by which a company obtains a short-term loan from a bank and canuse this to issue small Eurocurrency notes to replace ones which have expired. Full formnote issuance facility
  • Nig. = GEOGRAPHY 1.Nigeria 2.Nigerian
  • NIH = 1.US HEALTH SERVICES National Institutes of Health 2.ECOLOGY a stubborn refusal tomake use of an existing solution to a problem, simply because it originated outside thecompany. Full form not invented here
  • NIHE = EDUCATION National Institute for Higher Education
  • NII = INDUST Nuclear Installations Inspectorate
  • NIMBY = ENVIRONMENT a person who objects to something unattractive orpotentially dangerous being located near his or her home. Full form not in my backyardThe acronym NIMBY is usually derogatory, implying that the person would have no objectionto the offending installation if a different location were proposed (regardless of the potentialrisk or inconvenience to others). It is also used to describe the attitude of such people.
  • NiMH = ELECTRICITY nickel metal hydride (battery)
  • NIRC = HUMAN RESOURCES National Industrial Relations Court
  • NIREX = INDUST Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive
  • NJ = MAIL New Jersey (NOTE: The abbreviation NJ is part of the US sorting code on the lastline of a New Jersey address.)
  • NL = LANGUAGE New Latin
  • nl = 1.ONLINE Netherlands (NOTE: The abbreviation nl is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.PRINTING new line
  • NLF = POLITICS National Liberation Front
  • NLP = 1.COMPUTING natural language processing 2.PSYCHOLOGY neurolinguisticprogramming
  • NLQ = COMPUTING of a high quality comparable to typewritten text. Full form near letterquality
  • NM = 1.MEASUREMENTS nautical mile 2.MAIL New Mexico (NOTE: The abbreviation NM is partof the US sorting code on the last line of a New Mexico address.)
  • nm = 1.MEASUREMENTS nanometre 2.MEASUREMENTS, NAUTICAL nautical mile 3.MEASUREMENTSnuclear magneton
  • NMC = HEALTH SERVICES Nursing and Midwifery Council
  • NMI = COMPUTING a high-priority interrupt signal that cannot be blocked and overrides allother commands. Full form nonmaskable interrupt
  • nmol = MEASUREMENTS, CHEMISTRY nanomoleNMR 112
  • NMR = PHYSICS the energy pulse released by an atomic nucleus exposed to high-frequencyradiation in a magnetic field, which is used to provide data about the atom that can betransformed into an image by computer techniques. Full form nuclear magneticresonance (NOTE: NMR is used in medicine in the diagnostic technique of magneticresonance imaging (MRI).)
  • NNE = north-northeast
  • NNI = ENVIRONMENT a model used to assess average noise pollution by aircraft in an area.Full form noise and number index
  • NNP = ECONOMICS net national product
  • NNR = ECOLOGY National Nature Reserve
  • NNTP = COMPUTING network news transfer protocol
  • NNW = north-northwest
  • No = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS nobelium
  • No. = number (NOTE: From the Latin numero, ablative of numerus.)
  • no = CRICKET not out?ONLINE Norway (NOTE: The abbreviation no is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • no. = 1.north 2.northern 3.number
  • NOHSC = HEALTH National Occupational Health and Safety Commission
  • NoI = ISLAM Nation of Islam
  • nol. pros. = LAW an entry made in a court record when a plaintiff or a prosecutor decidesnot to proceed further with a case or action. Full form nolle prosequi (NOTE: From theLatin, ‘be unwilling to pursue'.)
  • nom. = GRAMMAR nominative
  • NOP = National Opinion Polls
  • Nopo = RAIL a train that is controlled automatically and needs no driver. Full formno person operated train
  • NOR = LOGIC a logic operator with two arguments that returns true if and only if botharguments are false. Full form not or
  • Nor. = 1.HISTORY Norman 2.North 3.GEOGRAPHY Norway 4.LANGUAGE Norwegian
  • Norf. = GEOGRAPHY Norfolk
  • Norm. = HISTORY Norman
  • norm. = MATHEMATICS normal
  • Northants. = GEOGRAPHY Northamptonshire
  • Norw. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Norway 2.LANGUAGE Norwegian
  • NOS = COMPUTING network operating system
  • Nos. = numbers
  • nos = not otherwise specified
  • nos. = numbers
  • Notts. = GEOGRAPHY Nottinghamshire
  • Nov. = CALENDAR November
  • NOW = National Organization for Women
  • NOx = ENVIRONMENT nitrogen oxides
  • NOYB = ONLINE none of your business (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • NP = 1.POLITICS National Party 2.MEDICINE neuropsychiatry 3.PRINTING new paragraph 4.LAWnotary public 5.GRAMMAR noun phrase113 nsec
  • Np = 1.MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY neper 2.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS neptunium
  • np = 1.ONLINE Nepal (NOTE: The abbreviation np is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.PRINTING new paragraph
  • NPA = PRESS Newspaper Publishers' Association
  • NPD = MARKETING new product development
  • NPK = AGRICULTURE nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (in fertilizers) (NOTE: Theabbreviation NPK is made up of the chemical symbols of the three elements.)
  • NPL = 1.PHYSICS National Physical Laboratory 2.ENVIRONMENT noise pollution level
  • NPN = CHEMISTRY nonprotein nitrogen
  • NPP = ECOLOGY net primary productivity
  • NPV = FINANCE 1.no par value 2.net present value
  • NPWS = Aus ECOLOGY National Parks and Wildlife Service
  • NQA = ONLINE no questions asked (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • nr = 1.ONLINE Nauru (NOTE: The abbreviation nr is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.near
  • NRA = 1.ARMS National Rifle Association 2.ENVIRONMENT National Rivers Authority
  • NRC = INDUST Nuclear Regulatory Commission
  • NRDC = BUSINESS National Research and Development Corporation
  • NRDS = MEDICINE neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
  • NREM = PHYSIOLOGY used to describe a stage of sleep in which rapid eye movement (REM)does not occur _ NREM sleep Full form nonrapid eye movement
  • NRI = an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country. Full form nonresidentIndian
  • NRMA = AUTOMOTIVE the largest motoring organization in Australia, providing roadsideassistance, travel information, and other motor-related services to its members, as wellas insurance and travel services to the general public. Full form National Roads andMotorists Association
  • NRN = ONLINE no reply necessary (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • NRPB = HEALTH SERVICES National Radiological Protection Board
  • NRV = FINANCE net realizable value
  • NRWT = FINANCE tax payable by a non-resident of a country on any income which has beenmade in that country, such as royalties or share dividends. Full form nonresidentwithholding tax
  • NRZ = COMPUTING transmission of binary data which does not return to a zero volts signalin between each bit of data. Full form nonreturn to zero
  • NS = 1.CALENDAR New Style (NOTE: The abbreviation NS is seen after a date reckonedaccording to the Gregorian calendar, especially one falling before or around the time ofthe changeover from the Julian calendar.) 2.BANKING not sufficient (funds) 3.GEOGRAPHYNova Scotia 4.SHIPPING nuclear ship
  • ns = 1.nearside 2.new series 3.not specified?MEASUREMENTS, TIME nanosecond
  • NS & I = FINANCE National Savings and Investments
  • NSA = 1.US National Security Agency 2.ACCOUNTING National Society of Accountants 3.ENVIRONMENT nitrate-sensitive area
  • NSAID = PHARMACOLOGY any of a group of drugs taken orally or applied externally for therelief of pain or inflammation. Aspirin and ibuprofen are NSAIDs. Full formnonsteroid(al) anti-inflammatory drug
  • NSB = BANKING National Savings Bank
  • NSC = 1.National Safety Council 2.FINANCE National Savings Certificate 3.US NationalSecurity Council
  • nsec = MEASUREMENTS, TIME nanosecondNSF 114
  • NSF = BANKING not sufficient funds
  • NSG = EDUCATION nonstatutory guidelines
  • NSPCA = US VETERINARY MEDICINE National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
  • NSPCC = SOCIAL WELFARE National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
  • NSU = MEDICINE nonspecific urethritis
  • NSW = GEOGRAPHY New South Wales
  • NT = 1.National Trust 2.BIBLE New Testament 3.CARD GAMES no trump 4.TIME Nome Time5.Aus GEOGRAPHY Northern Territory 6.Can GEOGRAPHY Northwest Territories
  • nt wt = MEASUREMENTS net weight
  • NTA = FINANCE net tangible assets
  • NTB = BUSINESS a restriction on import and export over a country's borders that is not tariffrelated,e.g. the lack of a market for the product in that country. Full form nontariffbarrier
  • Nth = north
  • NTIM = ONLINE not that it matters (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • NTL = ONLINE (used in e-mails and text messages) 1.nevertheless 2.nonetheless
  • NTP = 1.COMPUTING network time protocol 2.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS normal temperatureand pressure
  • NTSC = US TV a standard that defines the minimum definition quality for colour broadcastsin the US. Full form National Television Systems Committee
  • NTW = 1.ONLINE not to worry (used in e-mails and text messages) 2.no time-wasters (NOTE:In the meaning ‘no time-wasters', the abbreviation NTW is used in personal ads andonline dating.)
  • nu = ONLINE Niue (NOTE: The abbreviation nu is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • NUAAW = HUMAN RESOURCES National Union of Agricultural and Allied Workers
  • NUCPS = HUMAN RESOURCES National Union of Civil and Public Servants
  • NUDETS = MILITARY nuclear detection system
  • NUJ = HUMAN RESOURCES National Union of Journalists
  • NUM = HUMAN RESOURCES National Union of Mineworkers
  • Num. = BIBLE Numbers
  • num. = 1.number 2.numeral
  • NUPE = HUMAN RESOURCES a former trade union, now part of UNISON. Full formNational Union of Public Employees
  • NURMTW = HUMAN RESOURCES National Union of Rail, Maritime, and Transport Workers
  • NUS = 1.HUMAN RESOURCES National Union of Seamen 2.EDUCATION National Union ofStudents
  • NUT = HUMAN RESOURCES National Union of Teachers
  • NV = 1.MAIL Nevada (NOTE: The abbreviation NV is part of the US sorting code on the lastline of a Nevada address.) 2.WINE nonvintage 3.FINANCE used to describe a share thatdoes not give the holder the right to vote at company meetings. Full form nonvoting
  • NVC = ECOLOGY a system for studying and classifying all plant matter in the UK. Full formnational vegetation classification
  • nvCJD = MEDICINE a form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) that has a much shorterincubation period than previously recognized types but is clinically identical. Full formnew variant CJD
  • NVQ = EDUCATION a UK qualification, awarded at a variety of levels in a technical orvocational subject, certifying the holder's proficiency in a range of work-related115 NZSEactivities. Full form National Vocational Qualification (NOTE: The abbreviation NVQ isused as a noun in its own right.)
  • NVZ = ENVIRONMENT nitrate-vulnerable zone
  • NW = 1.northwest 2.northwestern
  • NWbN = northwest by north
  • NWbW = northwest by west
  • Nwfld = GEOGRAPHY Newfoundland
  • NWT = Can GEOGRAPHY Northwest Territories
  • NY = MAIL New York (State) (NOTE: The abbreviation NY is part of the US sorting code onthe last line of an address in the state of New York.)
  • NYC = GEOGRAPHY New York City
  • NYCE = FINANCE New York Cotton Exchange
  • NYFE = FINANCE New York Futures Exchange
  • NYLON = relating to a transatlantic lifestyle divided between New York andLondon, as lived by successful business executives (NOTE: The abbreviation NY-LON is acombination of the abbreviations for Nw York and London.)
  • NYMEX = FINANCE New York Mercantile Exchange
  • NYO = MUSIC National Youth Orchestra
  • NYP = PUBLISHING not yet published
  • NYSE = STOCK EXCHANGE New York Stock Exchange
  • NZ = New Zealand
  • nz = ONLINE New Zealand (NOTE: The abbreviation nz is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • NZBC = New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation
  • NZMA = MEDICINE New Zealand Medical Association
  • NZRFU = RUGBY New Zealand Rugby Football Union
  • NZSE = STOCK EXCHANGE New Zealand Stock Exchange
  • O = 1.GEOGRAPHY ocean 2.PRINTING octavo 3.CALENDAR October 4.old 5.MATHEMATICS order6.BASEBALL out 7.ONLINE over (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chat rooms)8.CRICKET over(s) 9.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS oxygen
  • o = 1.GEOGRAPHY ocean 2.PRINTING octavo 3.old 4.MATHEMATICS order 5.BASEBALL out 6.CRICKET over(s) 7.PHARMACOLOGY pint
  • o' = of
  • o/a = on or about
  • o.b.o. = COMMERCE or best offer (NOTE: The abbreviation o.b.o.is used in classifiedadvertisements following a guide price.)
  • o.c. = in the work or works cited (NOTE: The abbreviation o.c., from the Latin opus citatumor opere citato, is a less frequent variant of op. cit.)
  • o/c = FINANCE overcharge117 OFSTED
  • O/D = BANKING 1.overdraft 2.overdrawn
  • o.d. = 1.BANKING on demand 2.MEASUREMENTS outside diameter 3.OPHTHALMOLOGY righteye
  • o.g. = 1.STAMPS original gum 2.SPORTS own goal
  • O grade = EDUCATION a former lower-level examination for the Scottish Certificate ofEducation, now replaced by Standard grade. Full form Ordinary grade
  • O level = EDUCATION a former examination primarily for 16-year-olds in England and Walesthat was replaced (along with the Certificate of Secondary Education) by the GeneralCertificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). It was the lower of two levels of the GeneralCertificate of Education (GCE), the other being Advanced level (A level). Full formOrdinary level (NOTE: The abbreviation O level is used as a noun to denote both thelevel (studying Latin at O level) and the qualification (candidates with five or more Olevels).)
  • O & M = BUSINESS a process of examining how an office works, and suggesting how it canbe made more efficient. Full form organization and method
  • o.n.o. = COMMERCE or near(est) offer (NOTE: The abbreviation o.n.o.is used in classifiedadvertisements following a guide price.)
  • o.o. = COMMERCE on order
  • O/P = COMPUTING output
  • O/S = COMMERCE out of stock
  • o.s. = 1.LAW old series 2.COMMERCE out of stock 3.BANKING outstanding
  • OA = 1.COMPUTING office automation 2.MEDICINE osteoarthritis
  • OAC = COMMERCE on approved credit
  • OAM = MILITARY Medal of the Order of Australia
  • OAP = SOCIAL SCIENCES a person who is entitled to draw a state pension on reaching aspecific age, usually after retirement. Full form old-age pensioner (NOTE: Theabbreviation OAP is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • OAS = POLITICS Organization of American States
  • OAUS = ONLINE on an unrelated subject (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • OB = 1.MEDICINE obstetric 2.MEDICINE obstetrician 3.MEDICINE obstetrics 4.BROADCASTINGoutside broadcast
  • Ob. = BIBLE Obadiah
  • ob. = 1.he or she died (NOTE: From the Latin obiit.) 2.MUSIC oboe 3.MEDICINE obstetric 4.MEDICINE obstetrician 5.MEDICINE obstetrics
  • Obad. = BIBLE Obadiah
  • obb. = MUSIC obbligato
  • OBC = S Asia SOCIOLOGY Other Backward Classes
  • OBE = MILITARY Officer of the (Order of the) British Empire
  • OBI = E-COMMERCE open buying on the Internet
  • obj. = 1.GRAMMAR object 2.objection 3.GRAMMAR objective
  • obl. = PRINTING oblique
  • obo = COMMERCE or best offer (NOTE: The abbreviation o.b.o.is used in classifiedadvertisements following a guide price.)
  • Obs. = ASTRONOMY Observatory
  • obs. = 1.obscure 2.observation 3.ASTRONOMY observatory 4.obsolete 5.MEDICINEobstetrics
  • OBSF = FINANCE off-balance-sheet financing
  • obstet. = MEDICINE 1.obstetric 2.obstetrics
  • OBTW = ONLINE oh, by the way (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • OC = 1.MILITARY Officer Commanding 2.PHARMACOLOGY oral contraceptive 3.BIOCHEMISTRYorganic carbon 4.STAMPS original cover
  • Oc. = GEOGRAPHY Ocean
  • oc = in the work or works cited (NOTE: The abbreviation o.c., from the Latin opus citatumor opere citato, is a less frequent variant of op. cit.)
  • OCAM = ECONOMICS African and Malagasy Common Organization (NOTE: From the FrenchOrganisation commune africaine et malgache.)
  • occ. = 1.GEOGRAPHY occident 2.occupation
  • OCCAM = COMPUTING a computer programming language used in largemultiprocessor or multi-user systems
  • occas. = 1.occasional 2.occasionally
  • OCD = PSYCHIATRY obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • OCE = COMPUTING open collaboration environment
  • OCF = FINANCE operating cash flow
  • OCR = 1.FINANCE official cash rate 2.COMPUTING optical character reader 3.COMPUTINGoptical character recognition
  • OCS = US MILITARY Officer Candidate School
  • Oct. = CALENDAR October
  • oct. = PRINTING octavo
  • OD = 1.OPHTHALMOLOGY Doctor of Optometry 2.MILITARY Officer of the Day 3.MILITARYgreyish-green cloth used for military uniforms, or a uniform made of this cloth. Full formolive drab 4.MAPS the sea-level standard adopted by the Ordnance Survey formapmaking purposes. Full form ordnance datum 5.MEDICINE overdose (NOTE: Theabbreviation OD is used informally as a noun or verb, both in the literal sense ofoverdosing on a drug and in the figurative sense of overindulgence in anything.) 6.BANKING overdraft 7.BANKING overdrawn
  • od = 1.BANKING on demand 2.MEASUREMENTS outside diameter 3.OPHTHALMOLOGY righteye
  • ODA = HEALTH SERVICES operating department assistant
  • ODP = ENVIRONMENT ozone-depleting potential
  • OE = LANGUAGE Old English
  • Oe = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS oersted
  • OECD = COMMERCE Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
  • OEIC = FINANCE a limited company managing a portfolio of investments for investorswith holdings in the form of units representing a fraction of the value of the investmentsthat are issued and bought back by the managers. Full form open-ended investmentcompany
  • OEM = COMPUTING original equipment manufacturer
  • OEO = US ECONOMICS Office of Economic Opportunity
  • Ofcom = TV, RADIO an organisation formed in late 2003, regulating independenttelevision and radio communications in the UK. Full form Office of Communications
  • OFEX = STOCK EXCHANGE private trading facilities for buying and selling shares incompanies that are not quoted on the London Stock Exchange. Full form off exchange
  • off. = 1.office 2.officer 3.official
  • OFFER = UTILITIES a regulatory body set up to supervise the electricity industry in theUnited Kingdom after privatization and deregulation. Full form Office of ElectricityRegulation
  • OFGAS = UTILITIES a regulatory body set up to supervise the gas industry in theUnited Kingdom after privatization and deregulation. Full form Office of Gas Supply
  • OFM = CHRISTIANITY Order of Minor Friars (NOTE: The abbreviation OFM, from the LatinOrdo Fratrum Minorum, is used by Franciscan friars.)
  • OFSTED = EDUCATION the government department that monitors educationalstandards in schools and colleges in England and Wales. Full form Office for Standardsin EducationOFT 118
  • OFT = COMMERCE Office of Fair Trading
  • OFTEL = TELECOMMUNICATIONS a regulatory body set up to supervise thetelecommunications industry in the United Kingdom after privatization andderegulation. Full form Office of Telecommunications
  • OFWAT = UTILITIES a regulatory body set up to supervise water services in theUnited Kingdom after privatization and deregulation. Full form Office of WaterServices
  • OG = 1.MILITARY Officer of the Guard 2.STAMPS original gum
  • og = 1.STAMPS original gum 2.SPORTS own goal
  • OGD = MEDICINE oesophagogastroduodenoscopy
  • OH = 1.HEALTH SERVICES occupational health 2.MAIL Ohio (NOTE: The abbreviation OH is partof the US sorting code on the last line of an Ohio address.)
  • OHG = LANGUAGE Old High German
  • OHMS = On Her (or His) Majesty's Service
  • OHP = overhead projector
  • OHV = 1.VEHICLES off-highway vehicle 2.MECHANICAL ENGINEERING overhead valve
  • OI = BUSINESS operating income
  • OIC = ONLINE oh, I see (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • OINK = SOCIAL SCIENCES _ see note at dinky
  • OIRO = COMMERCE offers in the region ofThe abbreviation OIRO is used in classified advertisements, followed by a guide price. It is oneof several standard abbreviations used by estate agents: others include ch (‘central heating'),dbl bed (‘double bedroom'), d/g (‘double-glazing'), f/h (‘freehold'), l/h (‘leasehold'), p/b(‘purpose-built') and OSP (‘off-street parking').
  • OJ = BEVERAGES orange juice
  • OJT = HUMAN RESOURCES on-the-job training
  • OK = 1.all right (NOTE: The abbreviation OK is part of the US sorting code on the last lineof an Oklahoma address.) 2.MAIL OklahomaThe abbreviation OK (often ‘spelt out' as okay) is of uncertain origin. It may be short for orlkorrect, a facetious misspelling of ‘all correct', or Old Kinderhook, a nickname of Martin VanBuren, 8th president of the United States (1837–41), who was born in Kinderhook, New YorkState. The abbreviation is used as an adjective (Is that OK with you?), an adverb (if everythinggoes OK), a noun (until they give us the OK), a verb (I'll OK it with my boss), and an interjectionindicating agreement or approval.
  • OLE = COMPUTING object linking and embedding
  • OLS = BUSINESS ordinary least squares
  • OM = MILITARY Order of Merit
  • om = ONLINE Oman (NOTE: The abbreviation om is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • OMB = BUSINESS Office of Management and Budget
  • OMLX = FINANCE London Securities and Derivatives Exchange
  • OMOV = POLITICS one member one vote119 OR
  • OMR = COMPUTING 1.optical mark reader 2.optical mark recognition
  • ON = 1.LANGUAGE Old Norse 2.GEOGRAPHY Ontario
  • ONI = NAVY Office of Naval Intelligence
  • ono = COMMERCE or near(est) offer (NOTE: The abbreviation o.n.o.is used in classifiedadvertisements following a guide price.)
  • ONS = STATISTICS Office for National Statistics
  • Ont. = GEOGRAPHY Ontario
  • oo = COMMERCE on order
  • OOD = NAVY officer of the deck
  • OOG = COMPUTING graphics images present in a computer as actual instructions to drawobjects and not as bit maps. Full form object-oriented graphics
  • OOP = COMPUTING a form of computer programming based on objects arranged in abranching hierarchy. Full form object-oriented programming
  • OOTB = ONLINE (used in e-mails and text messages) 1.out of the blue 2.out of the box
  • OP = 1.MILITARY observation post 2.CHRISTIANITY Order of Preachers (NOTE: The abbreviationOP is used by Dominican friars.) 3.CHEMISTRY organophosphate 4.PUBLISHING out of print5.MEDICINE outpatient
  • Op. = MUSIC Opus (NOTE: The abbreviation Op., followed by a number, is used to identifyone of series of works by the same composer arranged to show the order in which theywere written or catalogued.)
  • op. = 1.MUSIC opera 2.operation (NOTE: When op is used informally as a noun in this sense(especially with reference to a surgical operation), it is written without a full stop.) 3.opposite 4.OPTICS optical 5.a creative piece of work, especially in music or literature.Full form opus
  • op art = ART a 20th-century school of abstract art using geometric patterns andcolour to create the illusion of movement. Full form optical art
  • op. cit. = in the work or works quoted (NOTE: The abbreviation op.cit., from the Latin opuscitatum or opere citato, is used in textual references to a source already mentioned.)
  • op shop = ANZ COMMERCE a charity shop selling second-hand goods donated bymembers of the public. Full form opportunity shop
  • OPA = BUSINESS offre publique d'achat (NOTE: From the French, ‘public offer to buy'.)
  • OPAP = WINE Appellation of Origin of Superior Quality
  • OPB = PENSIONS Occupational Pensions Board
  • OPE = WINE Controlled Appellation of Origin
  • OPEC = INDUSTRY an organization of oil-producing countries that share the samepolicies regarding the sale of petroleum. Full form Organization of PetroleumExporting Countries (NOTE: The acronym OPEC is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • ophthal. = MEDICINE 1.ophthalmologist 2.ophthalmology
  • ophthalmol. = MEDICINE 1.ophthalmologist 2.ophthalmology
  • OPM = FINANCE other people's money
  • OPP = oriented polypropylene (NOTE: OPP film is a plastic film used for packaging.)
  • opp. = opposite
  • OPT = MANUFACTURING optimized production technology
  • opt. = 1.GRAMMAR optative 2.optical 3.OPHTHALMOLOGY optician 4.optics 5.optimum 6.optional
  • OR = 1.LAW own recognizance 2.FINANCE an official appointed to manage a bankrupt'sproperty prior to the appointment of a trustee. Full form Official Receiver 3.MEDICINEthe US name for an operating theatre. Full form operating room 4.BUSINESS analysis ofthe problems that exist in complex systems such as those used to run a business or aORB 120military campaign, designed to give a scientific basis for decision-making. Full formoperations (or operational) research 5.MAIL Oregon (NOTE: The abbreviation OR ispart of the US sorting code on the last line of an Oregon address.) 6.MILITARY other ranks7.INSURANCE owner's risk
  • ORB = COMPUTING object request broker
  • orch. = MUSIC 1.orchestra 2.orchestrated by
  • ord. = 1.order 2.ordinal 3.ordinance 4.ordinary 5.MILITARY ordnance
  • ordn. = MILITARY ordnance
  • org = ONLINE noncommercial organization (NOTE: The abbreviation org is seen at theend of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • org. = 1.organic 2.organization 3.organized
  • orig. = 1.origin 2.original 3.originally
  • ornith. = BIRDS 1.ornithological 2.ornithology
  • OROM = COMPUTING optical read-only memory
  • ORT = MEDICINE oral rehydration therapy
  • orth. = MEDICINE 1.orthopaedic 2.orthopaedics
  • ORV = VEHICLES off-road vehicle
  • OS = 1.OPHTHALMOLOGY left eye (NOTE: From the Latin oculus sinister.) 2.LAW old series 3.CALENDAR Old Style (NOTE: The abbreviation OS is seen after a date reckoned accordingto the Julian calendar, especially one falling before or around the time of the changeoverto the Gregorian calendar.) 4.COMPUTING operating system 5.MILITARY Ordinary Seaman6.MAPS Ordnance Survey 7.COMMERCE out of stock 8.CLOTHING outsize 9.BANKINGoutstanding
  • Os = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS osmium
  • os = 1.LAW old series 2.COMMERCE out of stock 3.BANKING outstanding
  • OSA = 1.MEDICINE cessation or restriction of breathing during sleep that results in loudsnoring. Full form obstructive sleep apnoea 2.CHRISTIANITY Order of Saint Augustine
  • OSB = CHRISTIANITY Order of Saint Benedict
  • OSCE = POLITICS Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
  • OSD = CHRISTIANITY Order of Saint Dominic
  • OSF = 1.COMPUTING Open Software Foundation 2.CHRISTIANITY Order of Saint Francis
  • OSI = COMPUTING open systems interconnection
  • OSPF = COMPUTING open shortest path first
  • OSU = CHRISTIANITY Order of Saint Ursula
  • OT = 1.HEALTH SERVICES occupational therapist 2.HEALTH SERVICES occupational therapy 3.BIBLE Old Testament 4.HUMAN RESOURCES overtime
  • OTC = 1.MILITARY Officers' Training Corps 2.STOCK EXCHANGE, PHARMACOLOGY over-thecounter
  • OTE = HUMAN RESOURCES on-target earnings (NOTE: The abbreviation OTE is used inadvertisements for jobs that pay commission.)
  • OTEC = METEOROLOGY Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
  • OTL = ONLINE out to lunch (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • OTO = BUSINESS one time only
  • OTOH = ONLINE on the other hand (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • otol. = MEDICINE otology
  • OTP = E-COMMERCE open trading protocol
  • OTS = 1.MILITARY Officers' Training School 2.MARKETING opportunities to see
  • OTT = ridiculously or outrageously exaggerated or excessive _? Full form over the top(NOTE: The abbreviation OTT is used as an adjective in its own right.)121 oz
  • OU = EDUCATION Open University
  • OV = COMPUTING overflow
  • OWTTE = ONLINE or words to that effect (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • Oxon. = 1.EDUCATION of (the University of) Oxford (NOTE: The abbreviation Oxon., fromthe Latin Oxoniensis, is used after titles of academic awards.) 2.GEOGRAPHY Oxfordshire
  • oz = 1.ONLINE Australia (NOTE: The abbreviation oz is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.MEASUREMENTS ounce
  • P = 1.PHYSICS parity 2.AUTOMOTIVE park (NOTE: The abbreviation P is used on the gearselector of a motor vehicle with automatic transmission.) 3.CHRISTIANITY Pastor 4.MONEYpataca 5.CHESS pawn 6.MONEY the former unit of currency in Spain and Andorra,replaced by the euro in 2002. Symbol for peseta 7.MONEY peso 8.MEASUREMENTS peta-9.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS phosphorus 10.SPORTS played 11.PHYSICS power 12.President 13.PHYSICS pressure 14.CHRISTIANITY Priest 15.Prince 16.MONEY pula
  • p = 1.PUBLISHING page 2.part 3.GRAMMAR participle 4.GRAMMAR past 5.MONEY pence 6.MONEY penny 7.per 8.MUSIC piano (NOTE: The abbreviation p, usually italicized, is usedon sheet music at a passage that is to be played or sung softly.) 9.MEASUREMENTS pico-10.MEASUREMENTS pint 11.pipe 12.population 13.HANDICRAFT purl (NOTE: Theabbreviation p is used in knitting patterns as an instruction to make a purl stitch asopposed to a knit stitch (k).)
  • P/A = LAW power of attorney
  • p.a. = FINANCE per annum
  • p/b = CONSTRUCTION purpose-built
  • P/C = 1.BUSINESS petty cash 2.photocopyPCB 124
  • p.c. = 1.PHARMACOLOGY after meals (NOTE: The abbreviation p.c., from the Latin post cibum‘after food', is used in prescriptions.) 2.per cent 3.BUSINESS petty cash 4.FINANCE pricecurrent
  • P-D = STOCK EXCHANGE price-dividend (ratio)
  • p.d. = 1.per diem (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘per day'.) 2.PHYSICS potential difference
  • P/E = FINANCE price/earnings (NOTE: The abbreviation PE ratioand P/E multiple.)
  • p.e. = PRINTING printer's error
  • p & h = Aus, US MAIL postage and handling
  • P & L = ACCOUNTING profit and loss
  • p.m. = TIME in the period between noon and midnight. Full form post meridiem (NOTE:The abbreviation p.m., from the Latin, ‘after noon', is used after a specific time in the12-hour clock. It is sometimes written PM or pm.)
  • p.o. = PHARMACOLOGY by mouth (NOTE: The abbreviation p.o., from the Latin per os, is usedin prescriptions.)129 PP
  • p & p = MAIL postage and packing
  • p.p. = PHARMACOLOGY after a meal (NOTE: The abbreviation p.p., from the Latin postprandium, is used in prescriptions.)
  • p.r.n. = PHARMACOLOGY as required (NOTE: The abbreviation p.r.n., from the Latin pro renata, is used in prescriptions.)
  • p.t. = 1.HUMAN RESOURCES part-time 2.GRAMMAR past tense 3.at the present time but notpermanently. Full form pro tem(pore)
  • p.w. = per week
  • P2P = ONLINE 1.used to describe payments or linkups made between two individuals viathe Internet. Full form peer-to-peer 2.used to describe software enabling commercialor private users of the Internet to communicate or share resources without the use ofintermediaries such as servers. Full form person-to-person
  • PA = 1.INSURANCE insurance for goods being shipped against partial damage or loss, usuallythat caused by the shipping process itself. Full form particular average 2.MAILPennsylvania (NOTE: The abbreviation PA is part of the US sorting code on the last line ofa Pennsylvania address.) 3.BANKING personal account 4.personal appearance 5.BUSINESSpersonal assistant (NOTE: The abbreviation PA is used as a noun in its own right in thissense.) 6.US HEALTH SERVICES physician's assistant 7.MILITARY Post Adjutant 8.LAW powerof attorney 9.COMMUNICATION press agent 10.PRESS Press Association 11.US LAWprosecuting attorney 12.an electronic amplification system used to increase the soundlevel of speech or music in a large or open space such as a stadium or auditorium _ Anannouncement was made over the PA. Full form public-address (system) (NOTE: Theabbreviation PA is used as a noun in its own right in this sense.)
  • Pa = 1.PHYSICS pascal 2.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS protactinium
  • pa = FINANCE per annum?ONLINE Panama (NOTE: The abbreviation pa is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • PABA = BIOCHEMISTRY a form of aminobenzoic acid, part of the B vitamin complex,that is used in sunscreen lotions. Full form para-aminobenzoic acid
  • PABX = TELECOMMUNICATIONS private automatic branch exchange
  • PACE = LAW Police and Criminal Evidence Act
  • PACT = MEDICINE prescribing analyses and cost
  • PAD = COMPUTING packet assembler/disassembler
  • PAH = CHEMISTRY a toxic pollutant caused by industrial processes such as burning waste,thought to be carcinogenic in humans. Full form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
  • PAL = TV the system used for broadcasting television programmes in the UnitedKingdom and many other European countries. Full form phase alternation line
  • PAN = 1.POLITICS the main political party in opposition in Mexico. Full form Partido AcciónNacional (NOTE: From the Spanish, ‘National Action Party'.) 2.CHEMISTRY a toxic,irritating compound which can cause widespread damage to vegetation at very low123 P/Cconcentrations. Full form peroxyacetyl nitrate 3.E-COMMERCE primary accountnumber
  • PANSE = MANAGEMENT an Internet-based Mp3 streaming audio program open to all usersfor the development of experimental audiovisual art. Full form Public Access NetworkSound Engine
  • PAR = FINANCE a requirement that a bank most hold a percentage of the value of its totalliabilities in specified high-security investments. Full form prime assets ratio
  • Par. = GEOGRAPHY Paraguay
  • par. = 1.paragraph 2.parallel 3.parenthesis 4.parish
  • Parl. = GOVERNMENT 1.Parliament 2.parliamentary
  • PASCAL = COMPUTING a high-level general-purpose programming languagedesigned to encourage structured programming. Full form Programme Appliqué à laSélection et la Compilation Automatique de la Littérature (NOTE: The PASCALlanguage, from the French, ‘program applied to the selection and compilation ofliterature', is partly named in honour of the 17th-century French mathematician BlaisePascal.)
  • pat. = 1.patent 2.patented
  • Pat. Off. = GOVERNMENT Patent Office
  • pat. pend. = patent pending
  • patd = patented
  • PAU = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Pan American Union
  • PAX = TELECOMMUNICATIONS private automatic exchange
  • PAYE = FINANCE a system in which income tax is deducted from salary or wages as they areearned and paid directly to the government by the employer. Full form pay-as-youearn
  • PAYG = FINANCE the Australian equivalent of PAYE (pay-as-you-earn). Full form pay-asyou-go
  • PB = 1.SPORTS personal best 2.COMPUTING petabyte 3.AUTOMOTIVE power brakes 4.CHRISTIANITY prayer book
  • Pb = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS lead (NOTE: From the Latin plumbum.)
  • PBB = CHEMISTRY an organic compound generally used as a fire retardant. Full formpolybrominated biphenyl (NOTE: A quantity of PBBs entered the food chainaccidentally in Michigan in1973, causing organ damage and weakened appetite anddisease resistance in livestock and humans.)
  • PBR = BUSINESS payment by results
  • PBX = TELECOMMUNICATIONS private branch exchange
  • PC = 1.POLITICS Parish Council 2.POLITICS Parish Councillor 3.MILITARY Past Commander 4.COMPUTING personal computer (NOTE: The abbreviation PC is used as a noun in its ownright in this sense.) 5.POLICE Police Constable 6.politically correct (NOTE: The abbreviationPC is used as an adjective in its own right in this sense.) 7.MILITARY Post Commander 8.Prince Consort 9.ELECTRONICS printed circuit 10.POLITICS Privy Council 11.POLITICS PrivyCouncillor 12.COMPUTING program counter 13.Can POLITICS Progressive Conservative
  • pc = 1.PHARMACOLOGY after meals (NOTE: The abbreviation p.c., from the Latin post cibum‘after food', is used in prescriptions.) 2.per cent 3.BUSINESS petty cash 4.FINANCE pricecurrent
  • PC-DOS = COMPUTING Personal Computer Disk Operating System
  • PC/TV = COMPUTING a personal computer that can receive, decode and display standardtelevision images
  • PCB = 1.BUSINESS petty cash book 2.CHEMISTRY a compound derived from biphenyl andcontaining chlorine that is a hazardous pollutant. Full form polychlorinated biphenyl3.ELECTRONICS printed circuit board
  • PCC = MEDICINE Professional Conduct Committee
  • PCG = HEALTH SERVICES primary care group
  • PCI = COMPUTING a specification for extending the internal circuitry that transmits data fromone part of a computer to another by inserting circuit boards. Full form peripheralcomponent interconnect
  • PCL = COMPUTING printer control language
  • PCM = TELECOMMUNICATIONS a way of transmitting information using a series of electricalpulses, the duration, amplitude or frequency of the pulses being modified to carry theinformation. Full form pulse code modulation
  • pcm = per calendar month
  • PCMCIA = COMPUTING 1.a specification for extending the internal circuitry that transmitsdata from one part of a computer to another, used to add memory or connect creditcard-sized peripheral devices. Full form personal computer memory card interfaceadapter 2.an international organization that has developed a standard for addingmemory to personal computers using credit-card-sized devices. Full form PersonalComputer Memory Card International Association
  • PCOD = MEDICINE polycystic ovary disease
  • PCOS = MEDICINE polycystic ovary (or ovarian) syndrome
  • PCP = 1.DRUGS a drug used as an anaesthetic in veterinary medicine and illegally as ahallucinogen (with the slang name ‘angel dust'). Full form phencyclidine (NOTE: The fullname of the drug is made up of the elements pheno-, cyclo-, and piperidine, hence theabbreviation.) 2.MEDICINE a form of pneumonia that mainly affects people withweakened immune systems. Full form Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia 3.POLITICS aCanadian federal and provincial political party. Full form Progressive ConservativeParty
  • PCR = BIOTECHNOLOGY a technique used to replicate a fragment of DNA and produce a largeamount of that sequence. Full form polymerase chain reaction
  • PCS = COMPUTING personal communications services
  • PCT = HEALTH SERVICES primary care trust
  • PCU = COMPUTING peripheral control unit
  • PCV = TRANSPORT passenger-carrying vehicle
  • PD = 1.BUSINESS activities associated with the efficient moving of goods from the supplierto the consumer. Full form physical distribution 2.US POLICE police department 3.MAILpostal district 4.COMPUTING the condition of not being protected by patent or copyrightand therefore freely available for use. Full form public domain
  • Pd = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS palladium
  • pd = 1.per diem (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘per day'.) 2.PHYSICS potential difference?paid
  • PDA = 1.COMPUTING a small hand-held computer with a built-in notebook, diary, and faxcapability, usually operated using a stylus rather than a keyboard. Full form personaldigital assistant 2.ONLINE public display of affection (used in e-mails and textmessages)125 PET
  • PDF = COMPUTING a format for a computer file that enables a document to be processedand printed on any computer using any printer or word-processing software. Full formportable document format
  • PDL = COMPUTING 1.page description language 2.program design language
  • PDN = COMPUTING public data network
  • pdq = pretty damn quick (NOTE: The abbreviation pdq is used in informal language in placeof ‘at once' or ‘immediately'.)
  • PDR = STOCK EXCHANGE price-dividend ratio
  • PDSA = VETERINARY MEDICINE People's Dispensary for Sick Animals
  • PDT = TIME Pacific Daylight Time
  • PE = 1.EDUCATION gymnastics, athletics, team sports, and other forms of physical exercisetaught to children at school _ PE teacher Full form physical education (NOTE: Theabbreviation PE is used as a noun in its own right.) 2.PHYSICS potential energy 3.CALENDAR Present Era (NOTE: The abbreviation PE is sometimes used after a date as a non-Christian alternative for AD.) 4.GEOGRAPHY Prince Edward Island 5.STATISTICS probableerror 6.CHRISTIANITY Protestant Episcopal
  • pe = PRINTING printer's error?ONLINE Peru (NOTE: The abbreviation pe is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • PEEP = MEDICINE the insertion of a valve into the respiratory system to ensure that the lungsdo not completely empty on expiration, to improve the absorption of oxygen into theblood. Full form positive end-expiratory pressure
  • PEFR = MEDICINE a measure of expiration function used to diagnose whether there are anyairway or lung obstructions or disease. Full form peak expiratory flow rate
  • PEI = GEOGRAPHY Prince Edward Island
  • pel = COMPUTING picture element (NOTE: The abbreviation pel has been almost entirelysuperseded by the variation ‘pixel'.)
  • PEN = LITERATURE International Association of Poets, Playwrights, Editors, Essayists,and Novelists
  • Pen. = GEOGRAPHY Peninsula
  • PEP = FINANCE a tax-free investment plan that allows small investors to own shares inUK companies. Full form Personal Equity Plan
  • PER = STOCK EXCHANGE price-earnings ratio
  • per pro = BUSINESS a fuller form of the abbreviation pp. Full form perprocurationem
  • perf. = 1.GRAMMAR perfect 2.STAMPS perforated 3.performance
  • PERLA = MEDICINE a measure of the eye's reaction to stimulus, used in assessing theconscious state of the person examined. Full form pupils equal, react to light andaccommodation
  • PERT = MANAGEMENT a method of charting and scheduling a complex set ofinterrelated activities that identifies the most time-critical events in the process. Full formprogramme evaluation and review technique
  • PESA = MEDICINE a technique used in assisted conception, in which sperm forintracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are removed directly from the epididymis. Fullform percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration
  • PESC = BUSINESS Public Expenditure Survey Committee
  • PET = 1.CHEMISTRY a fully-recyclable plastic resin used in making food and drinkscontainers. Full form polyethylene terephthalate 2.MEDICINE a method of medicalPet. 126imaging capable of displaying the metabolic activity of organs in the body, and usefulin diagnosing cancer, locating brain tumours, and investigating other brain disorders _PET scan Full form positron emission tomography
  • Pet. = BIBLE Peter
  • petrol. = GEOLOGY petrology
  • pF = MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY picofarad
  • pf = ONLINE French Polynesia (NOTE: The abbreviation pf is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • pf. = 1.preferred 2.GRAMMAR perfect 3.MONEY a coin formerly used in Germany, worthone hundredth of a Deutschmark (replaced by the euro in 2002). Full form pfennig
  • PFBC = INDUSTRY an advanced type of FBC that automatically feeds the coal into thecombustion system and uses the steam produced to drive gas turbines. Full formpressurized fluidized-bed combustion
  • PFC = CHEMISTRY a potent greenhouse gas produced by industrial processes such as themanufacture of aluminium. Full form perfluorocarbon
  • PFD = 1.NAUTICAL the US term for a life jacket. Full form personal flotation device 2.USSTOCK EXCHANGE preferred (NOTE: Preferred stock is the US term for preference shares,i.e. shares whose holders are the first to receive dividends from available profit.)
  • PFI = FINANCE Private Finance Initiative
  • PG = 1.CINEMA a rating indicating that a film may be inappropriate for children and thatparents should exercise caution. Full form parental guidance 2.paying guest 3.EDUCATION postgraduate
  • Pg. = LANGUAGE Portuguese
  • pg = ONLINE Papua New Guinea (NOTE: The abbreviation pg is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • PGA = GOLF Professional Golfers' Association
  • PGCA = E-COMMERCE payment gateway certificate authority
  • PGCE = EDUCATION a teaching qualification taken by somebody who has already graduatedfrom a university or college with a first degree. Full form Postgraduate Certificate ofEducation
  • PgDn = COMPUTING page down (key)
  • PGEA = MEDICINE formerly, an allowance given to general practitioners attendingeducational courses, intended to cover expenses involved in this. Full formpostgraduate education allowance
  • PGP = E-COMMERCE a program used to encrypt data for security purposes whentransmitting over public networks such as the Internet. PGP uses public key encryption,a system that provides privacy for and authentication of both the sender and thereceiver of the message. Full form Pretty Good Privacy
  • PgUp = COMPUTING page up (key)
  • PGx = PHARMACOLOGY pharmacogenetics
  • PH = PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION public health
  • Ph = CHEMISTRY phenyl group
  • pH = CHEMISTRY a measure of acidity or alkalinity in which the pH of pure water is 7, withlower numbers indicating acidity and higher numbers indicating alkalinity. Full formpotential of hydrogen
  • ph = ONLINE Philippines (NOTE: The abbreviation ph is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Pharm. = Pharmacopoeia
  • pharm. = 1.pharmaceutical 2.pharmacist 3.pharmacy
  • PhB = EDUCATION Bachelor of Philosophy (NOTE: From the Latin Philosophiae Baccalaureus.)127 pl
  • PhD = EDUCATION Doctor of Philosophy (NOTE: From the Latin Philosophiae Doctor.)
  • PHI = INSURANCE permanent health insurance
  • PHIGS = COMPUTING programmers' hierarchical interactive graphics standard
  • Phil. = 1.MUSIC Philharmonic 2.BIBLE Philippians 3.GEOGRAPHY Philippines
  • phil. = 1.philological 2.philology 3.philosopher 4.philosophical 5.philosophy
  • Phil. I. = GEOGRAPHY Philippine Islands
  • PHS = US HEALTH SERVICES Public Health Service
  • PI = 1.performance indicator 2.CRIME private investigator
  • PIA = 1.COMPUTING peripheral interface adapter 2.FINANCE Personal Investment Authority
  • PIB = FINANCE permanent interest-bearing share
  • PIBOR = BANKING Paris Interbank Offered Rate
  • PIBS = FINANCE permanent interest-bearing shares
  • PIC = 1.COMPUTING picture 2.CHEMISTRY product of incomplete combustion
  • Pick = COMPUTING a multi-user, multitasking operating system that runs onmainframe, mini or personal computers
  • PICS = COMPUTING platform for Internet content selection
  • PID = 1.MEDICINE pelvic inflammatory disease 2.COMPUTING personal identification device3.MEDICINE prolapsed intervertebral disc
  • PIDS = MEDICINE immunodeficiency arising from a congenital fault in the cells rather thancaused by a virus. Full form primary immune deficiency syndrome
  • PIH = MEDICINE pregnancy-induced hypertension
  • PILOT = COMPUTING programmed inquiry, learning, or teaching
  • PIM = COMPUTING a piece of software that organizes random notes, contacts, andappointments for fast access. Full form personal information manager
  • PIN = FINANCE a multidigit number that is used to gain access to an account at acashpoint machine and in various other situations. Full form personal identificationnumber (NOTE: The acronym PIN is used as a noun in its own right. A PIN is sometimescalled a PIN number, although the word number is technically redundant.)
  • PIO = COMPUTING parallel input/output
  • PIP = MEDICINE proximal interphalangeal (joint) (NOTE: The PIP joint is the finger joint nearestthe knuckle, in the middle of the finger.)
  • PIPO = COMPUTING parallel input/parallel output
  • pippie = SOCIAL SCIENCES _ see note at dinky
  • PISO = COMPUTING parallel input/serial output
  • PIW = HUMAN RESOURCES period of incapacity for work
  • PK = PARAPSYCHOLOGY psychokinesis
  • pk = 1.pack 2.ONLINE Pakistan (NOTE: The abbreviation pk is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.) 3.park 4.peak 5.MEASUREMENTS peck
  • PKD = MEDICINE polycystic kidney disease
  • PKI = E-COMMERCE a method of encrypting data using one key to encrypt and another todecrypt, using digital certificates issued by certificate authorities. Full form public keyinfrastructure
  • pkt = packet
  • PKU = MEDICINE a condition, resulting from a genetic mutation, in which the body lacks theenzyme to metabolize phenylalanine. If untreated, it results in developmental deficiency,seizures, and tumours. Full form phenylketonuria
  • Pky = Aus, US ROADS a wide stretch of public highway with grassy areas on both sides,often divided by a grassy central reservation. Full form parkway
  • PL = LAW public law
  • Pl. = ROADS Place (NOTE: The abbreviation Pl.is used in addresses.)
  • pl = 1.GRAMMAR plural 2.ONLINE Poland (NOTE: The abbreviation pl is seen at the end ofInternet addresses, preceded by a dot.)PL 128
  • PLA = 1.SHIPPING Port of London Authority 2.COMPUTING programmable logic array
  • PLAN = COMPUTING a low-level programming language. Full form PacketLanguage for Active Networks
  • PLC = MARKETING product life cycle
  • plc = COMMERCE a company whose shares can be bought and sold on the stock market andwhose shareholders are subject to restricted liability for any debts or losses. Full formpublic limited company (NOTE: The lower-case form plc is probably the most frequent,but some companies prefer PLC or Plc.)
  • PLD = COMPUTING programmable logic device
  • PLO = POLITICS Palestine Liberation Organization
  • PLP = POLITICS Parliamentary Labour Party
  • PLR = LIBRARIES a system whereby authors receive a small fee every time their books areborrowed from public libraries in the United Kingdom. Full form Public Lending Right
  • PLS = ONLINE please (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • PLSS = MEDICINE portable life-support system
  • PLZ = ONLINE please (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • PM = 1.MEDICINE solid or liquid particles dispersed in the air. Full form particulate matter2.a former holder of the position of master of a fraternity. Full form Past Master 3.MAIL postmaster 4.MEDICINE postmortem 5.GOVERNMENT Prime Minister 6.ONLINE privatemessage (used in e-mails and text messages) 7.MILITARY Provost Marshal
  • Pm = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS promethium
  • pm = TIME in the period between noon and midnight. Full form post meridiem (NOTE:The abbreviation p.m., from the Latin, ‘after noon', is used after a specific time in the12-hour clock. It is sometimes written PM or pm.)?1.TELECOMMUNICATIONS phase modulation 2.MEDICINE postmortem 3.premium 4.ONLINE St-Pierre and Miquelon (NOTE: The abbreviation pm is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • PMA = MEDICINE progressive muscular atrophy
  • PME = COMMERCE petites et moyennes entreprises (NOTE: From the French, ‘small andmedium-sized businesses'.)
  • PMG = 1.GOVERNMENT Paymaster General 2.MAIL Postmaster General 3.MILITARY ProvostMarshal General
  • pmol = CHEMISTRY picomole
  • PMR = MEDICINE polymyalgia rheumatica
  • PMS = MEDICINE premenstrual syndrome
  • PMT = MEDICINE premenstrual tension
  • PMTS = MANAGEMENT predetermined motion-time system
  • PN = FINANCE promissory note
  • pn = ONLINE Pitcairn Island (NOTE: The abbreviation pn is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • PNdB = MEASUREMENTS, ACOUSTICS perceived noise decibel
  • PNL = ACOUSTICS perceived noise level
  • PNS = ANATOMY peripheral nervous system
  • PO = 1.MILITARY Petty Officer 2.MILITARY Pilot Officer 3.MAIL post office 4.FINANCE postalorder 5.BUSINESS purchase order
  • Po = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS polonium
  • po = PHARMACOLOGY by mouth (NOTE: The abbreviation p.o., from the Latin per os, is usedin prescriptions.)129 PP
  • PO Box = MAIL Post Office Box (NOTE: The abbreviation PO Box, followedby a number, is used in addresses, identifying a private numbered box in a post officewhere letters are held until collected by the addressee.)
  • POA = HUMAN RESOURCES Prison Officers' Association
  • POD = MAIL pay on delivery
  • POE = 1.MILITARY port of embarkation 2.SHIPPING port of entry
  • poet. = 1.poetic 2.poetical 3.poetry
  • POETS day = an informal name for Friday, referring to shorter hours worked(officially or unofficially) on that day. Full form push (or piss) off early, tomorrow'sSaturday
  • POEU = HUMAN RESOURCES Post Office Engineers Union
  • POL = 1.MILITARY petroleum, oil, and lubricants 2.COMPUTING problem-oriented language
  • pol. = 1.political 2.politics
  • POM = 1.ONLINE phase of (the) moon (NOTE: The abbreviation POM is used in Internetchatting as a humorous random parameter on which something is supposed to depend,meaning that it is unreliable.) 2.PHARMACOLOGY prescription-only medicine
  • POP = 1.ENVIRONMENT persistent organic pollutant 2.COMPUTING a location where a usercan connect to a network, e.g. a place where subscribers can dial in to an Internetservice provider. Full form point of presence 3.COMMERCE point of purchase 4.MAILPost Office Preferred (NOTE: The abbreviation POP refers to the size of envelopes andpackages.) 5.PHARMACOLOGY an oral contraceptive that contains progestogen but notoestrogen, also known as a minipill. Full form progestogen-only pill 6.COMMERCEproof of purchase
  • pop. = 1.popular 2.population
  • POPA = MARKETING point-of-purchase advertising
  • POS = 1.ONLINE parents over shoulder (used in e-mails, text messages and Internet chatrooms) 2.COMMERCE point of sale
  • POSSLQ = an informal name for either member of an unmarried cohabitingcouple. Full form person of the opposite sex sharing living quarters
  • POST = 1.COMMERCE point-of-sale terminal 2.COMPUTING power-on self-test
  • post-obit = LAW coming into effect after somebody's death. Full form post-obitum(NOTE: A post-obit bond, from the Latin, ‘after death', is a bond that pays after the deathof somebody from whom the issuer of the bond expects to inherit.)
  • Postcomm = MAIL the independent regulatory body for postal services in theUnited Kingdom. Full form Postal Services Commission
  • POTUS = US GOVERNMENT President of the United States (NOTE: The acronymPOTUS is used by White House staff in memos and internal documents to refer to thepresident.)
  • POV = ONLINE point of view (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • POW = MILITARY prisoner of war (NOTE: The abbreviation POW is used as a noun in its ownright.)
  • PP = 1.MAIL parcel post 2.CHRISTIANITY parish priest 3.GOVERNMENT past president 4.MAILpostpaid 5.MAIL prepaid 6.GRAMMAR prepositional phrasep.p. 130
  • pp = PHARMACOLOGY after a meal (NOTE: The abbreviation p.p., from the Latin postprandium, is used in prescriptions.)?1.pages 2.GRAMMAR past participle 3.BUSINESS per procurationem (NOTE: Theabbreviation pp, usually italicized, is used on sheet music at a passage that is to beplayed or sung very softly.) 4.MUSIC pianissimo 5.PRINTING privately printedThe abbreviation pp is used when signing documents on behalf of somebody else. If AnneSmith is signing on behalf of Mary Jones, she should write ‘Mary Jones pp Anne Smith',although in practice the names are often reversed.
  • ppb = MEASUREMENTS parts per billion
  • PPBS = BUSINESS Planning Programming Budgeting System
  • PPD = MEDICINE an antigen that is injected into the arm and the reaction assessed todetermine whether a patient has ever had tuberculosis. Full form purified proteinderivative
  • PPH = MEDICINE postpartum haemorrhage
  • pphm = MEASUREMENTS parts per hundred million
  • ppm = MEASUREMENTS parts per million
  • PPP = 1.PENSIONS personal pension plan 2.ONLINE petty pet peeve (used in e-mails and textmessages) 3.ONLINE a protocol for dial-up access to the Internet using a modem. Fullform point-to-point protocol 4.ENVIRONMENT polluter-pays principle 5.BUSINESS publicprivatepartnership 6.FINANCE purchasing-power parity
  • pptm = MEASUREMENTS parts per thousand million
  • PPU = COMPUTING peripheral processing unit
  • PPV = 1.TV pay-per-view 2.MEDICINE any method of simulating normal breathing patternsin patients with chronic respiratory failure, either manually or using a mechanicalventilator. Full form positive pressure ventilation
  • PR = 1.POLITICS an electoral system in which each party's share of the seats in governmentis the same as its share of all the votes cast. Full form proportional representation 2.BUSINESS public relations (NOTE: The abbreviation PR is used as a noun in its own right.)3.GEOGRAPHY Puerto Rico
  • Pr = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS praseodymium
  • pr = 1.pair 2.ONLINE Puerto Rico (NOTE: The abbreviation pr is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • pr. = GRAMMAR pronoun
  • PRB = ARTS Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (NOTE: The abbreviation PRB is used after the nameof a painter belonging to this group: WH Hunt PRB.)
  • PRC = GEOGRAPHY People's Republic of China
  • pref. = 1.PUBLISHING preface 2.prefatory 3.preference 4.preferred 5.GRAMMAR prefix
  • PREP = MEDICINE post-registration education and practice
  • prep. = 1.preparation (NOTE: When prep is used informally as a noun in this sense(especially with reference to homework or private study at a boarding school), it iswritten without a full stop.) 2.preparatory (NOTE: When prep is used informally in thephrase prep school (short for preparatory school), it is written without a full stop.) 3.GRAMMAR preposition
  • Pres. = GOVERNMENT President
  • pres. = 1.GRAMMAR present 2.POLITICS presidential
  • prn = PHARMACOLOGY as required (NOTE: The abbreviation p.r.n., from the Latin pro renata, is used in prescriptions.)
  • PRO = 1.Public Record Office 2.BUSINESS public relations officer
  • pro = ONLINE professional practice (NOTE: The abbreviation pro is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • Prof. = EDUCATION Professor
  • PROFS = COMPUTING Professional Office System
  • Prog. = POLITICS Progressive
  • prog. = 1.program 2.programme 3.progress 4.progressive
  • Prolog = COMPUTING a high-level programming language based on logicalrather than mathematical relationships. Full form programming logic131 PST
  • PROM = COMPUTING programmable read-only memory
  • prom. = GEOGRAPHY promontory
  • pron. = 1.GRAMMAR pronominal 2.GRAMMAR pronoun 3.PHONETICS pronounced 4.PHONETICS pronunciation
  • prop. = 1.GRAMMAR proper 2.properly 3.property (NOTE: When prop is used informally asa noun in this sense (especially with reference to an object used during the performanceof a play or film), it is written without a full stop.) 4.proposition 5.COMMERCE proprietor
  • propr. = COMMERCE proprietor
  • pros. = LITERATURE prosody
  • Pros. Atty = US LAW prosecuting attorney
  • Prot. = 1.Protectorate 2.CHRISTIANITY Protestant
  • Prov. = 1.LANGUAGE Provençal 2.BIBLE Proverbs 3.Provost
  • prov. = 1.GEOGRAPHY province 2.provincial 3.provisional
  • prox. = BUSINESS occurring during the next month. Full form proximo
  • PRP = FINANCE 1.performance-related pay 2.profit-related pay
  • prs = pairs
  • PRT = FINANCE petroleum revenue tax
  • PS = 1.BOAT passenger steamer 2.GOVERNMENT Permanent Secretary 3.GRAMMAR phrasestructure 4.POLICE Police Sergeant 5.postscript (NOTE: The abbreviation PS precedesextra information or a short message added after the signature on a letter.) 6.privatesecretary 7.THEATRE prompt side
  • Ps. = BIBLE Psalms
  • pS = MEASUREMENTS, TIME picosecond
  • PSA = 1.BIOCHEMISTRY an enzyme produced by prostate cells. Elevated levels of PSA in theblood are associated with prostate cancer. _ PSA test Full form prostate specificantigen 2.Aus, NZ GOVERNMENT Public Service Association
  • Psa. = BIBLE Psalms
  • PSBR = ECONOMICS the amount that the government needs to borrow in any fiscal year inorder to be able to meet its budgeted costs. Full form public-sector borrowingrequirement
  • PSDR = ECONOMICS public-sector debt repayment
  • PSE = EDUCATION the study of social (especially health-related) issues as a school subject. Fullform personal and social education
  • pseud. = pseudonym
  • psf = MEASUREMENTS pounds per square foot
  • PSFD = ECONOMICS public-sector financial deficit
  • Psge = ROADS Passage (NOTE: The abbreviation Psge is used in addresses.)
  • PSHE = EDUCATION the study of social (especially health-related) issues as a school subject.Full form personal, social, and health education
  • psi = MEASUREMENTS pounds per square inch
  • psia = MEASUREMENTS pounds per square inch, absolute
  • psid = MEASUREMENTS pounds per square inch, differential
  • psig = MEASUREMENTS pounds per square inch, gauge
  • PSL = ECONOMICS private sector liquidity
  • PSN = COMPUTING packet switched network
  • PSNCR = ECONOMICS public-sector net cash requirement
  • PSNI = Police Service of Northern Ireland
  • PSS = COMPUTING 1.packet switching service 2.packet switching system
  • PST = 1.TIME Pacific Standard Time 2.Can FINANCE provincial sales taxPSTN 132
  • PSTN = TELECOMMUNICATIONS public switched telephone network
  • PSU = ELECTRICITY power supply unit
  • PSV = TRANSPORT public service vehicle
  • PSW = COMPUTING processor status word
  • psych. = 1.psychological 2.psychology
  • psychoanal. = psychoanalysis
  • psychol. = 1.psychological 2.psychologist 3.psychology
  • PT = 1.TIME Pacific Time 2.the US name for physiotherapy. Full form physical therapy 3.SPORTS physical training (NOTE: The abbreviation PT is used as a noun in its own right.) 4.TELECOMMUNICATIONS postal telegraph
  • Pt = 1.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS platinum 2.GEOGRAPHY Point (NOTE: The abbreviation Pt is usedin placenames.) 3.GEOGRAPHY Port (NOTE: The abbreviation Pt is used in placenames.)
  • pt = 1.HUMAN RESOURCES part-time 2.GRAMMAR past tense 3.at the present time but notpermanently. Full form pro tem(pore)?1.part 2.MEDICINE patient 3.FINANCE payment 4.MEASUREMENTS pint 5.point 6.port 7.ONLINE Portugal (NOTE: The abbreviation pt is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • pt. = GRAMMAR preterite
  • PTA = 1.EDUCATION Parent-Teacher Association 2.TRANSPORT Passenger Transport Authority
  • pta = MONEY the former unit of currency in Spain and Andorra, replaced by the euro in2002. Symbol for peseta
  • PTB = ONLINE powers that be (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • PTC = CHEMISTRY a crystalline compound that tastes extremely bitter to people who possessa particular dominant gene, used in testing for that gene. Full formphenylthiocarbamide
  • PTE = TRANSPORT Passenger Transport Executive
  • Pte = 1.BUSINESS private limited company 2.MILITARY Private
  • PTFE = CHEMISTRY a durable substance widely used to coat metal surfaces, especially in themanufacture of nonstick cooking utensils. Full form polytetrafluoroethylene
  • ptg = printing
  • PTH = BIOCHEMISTRY a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that controls calciumand phosphorus balance in the body. Full form parathyroid hormone
  • PTN = TELECOMMUNICATIONS public telephone network
  • PTO = 1.US Patent and Trademark Office 2.please turn over (NOTE: The abbreviation PTOis written at the bottom of a page to indicate that the text continues overleaf.)
  • PTR = COMPUTING paper tape reader
  • pts = 1.parts 2.FINANCE payments 3.points 4.ports
  • PTSD = PSYCHOLOGY post-traumatic stress disorder
  • PTV = TV pay television
  • Pty = BUSINESS a company that is privately owned and run. Full form proprietary company(NOTE: The abbreviation Pty Ltd is used to indicate a private limited company.)
  • Pu = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS plutonium
  • pub = public houseThe word pub, written without a full stop, is short for ‘public house', denoting a buildingwhere alcoholic (and other) drinks can be bought and consumed. Shortenings such as this arenot generally classed as abbreviations. Many have entered the language as nouns in their ownright, replacing full forms that now sound old-fashioned (e.g. bra ‘brassiere', bus ‘omnibus',cello ‘violoncello', fax ‘facsimile', mac ‘mackintosh', piano ‘pianoforte', pram ‘perambulator',zoo ‘zoological garden'). Sometimes the full form remains in use in formal contexts, but theshort form is found in standard speech and writing (e.g. amp ‘ampere', disco ‘discotheque',exam ‘examination', flu ‘influenza', fridge ‘refrigerator', gym ‘gymnasium', lab ‘laboratory',133 PYOmemo ‘memorandum', phone ‘telephone', photo ‘photograph', plane ‘aeroplane', quad‘quadruplet', vet ‘veterinary surgeon'). In other cases, the shortening is restricted to informalusage (e.g. ad ‘advertisement', deli ‘delicatessen', demo ‘demonstration', hippo‘hippopotamus', info ‘information', limo ‘limousine', marg ‘margarine', panto ‘pantomime',rhino ‘rhinoceros', specs ‘spectacles', telly ‘television'). Note that the spelling of the short formis sometimes adjusted to match the sound (e.g. fax, fridge, pram, telly). Where the first partof the word is dropped (as in bus, flu, phone, and plane), some people mark the omission withan apostrophe, but this is not necessary.
  • pub. = 1.public 2.publication 3.published 4.publisher 5.publishing
  • publ. = 1.publication 2.published 3.publisher
  • PUC = S Asia EDUCATION preuniversity college
  • putts = WINE a measure of the richness of Hungarian wines, defined by the number ofputtonyos (basketfuls of sweet intense grapes) that went into its making. Full formputtonyos
  • PV = 1.ELECTRICITY photovoltaic 2.BUSINESS present value
  • PVA = CHEMISTRY a colourless resin used in adhesives and paints. Full form polyvinylacetate
  • PVC = INDUSTRY a hard-wearing synthetic resin made by polymerizing vinyl chloride andused in clothing, flooring, and piping. Full form polyvinyl chloride
  • PVS = MEDICINE 1.a medical condition in which a patient has severe brain damage and asa result is unable to stay alive without the aid of a life-support system, showing noresponse to stimuli. Full form persistent vegetative state 2.an illness without aknown cause that is characterized by long-term exhaustion, muscle weakness,depression, and sleep disturbances. Also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) orchronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), it may occur as a reaction to a viral infection. Full formpostviral syndrome
  • Pvt. = MILITARY Private
  • PW = 1.GEOGRAPHY Palau 2.POLICE Policewoman
  • pw = per week?ONLINE Palau (NOTE: The abbreviation pw is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • PWA = MEDICINE person with Aids
  • PWC = NAUT the US name for a jet-propelled vehicle for one or two people that is used fortravelling on water. The Jet-Ski by Kawasaki is the best known example of a personalwatercraft. Full form personal watercraft
  • PWR = INDUST pressurized-water reactor
  • pwt = MEASUREMENTS pennyweight
  • PX = 1.WINE a white-wine grape grown in the Jeréz region of Spain. Full form PedroXiménez 2.MILITARY a store in a US military base selling goods to military personnel andtheir families, as well as to some authorized civilians. Full form Post Exchange
  • py = ONLINE Paraguay (NOTE: The abbreviation py is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • PYB = FINANCE preceding year basis
  • PYO = AGRICULTURE used to describe fruit, vegetables, or flowers that can be picked directlyfrom the fields by customers and bought for less than the normal shop price. Full formpick your own
  • Q = 1.PHYSICS heat 2.MILITARY quartermaster 3.PAPER quarto 4.GEOGRAPHY Quebec 5.CARDGAMES, CHESS queen 6.MONEY quetzal
  • q = 1.MEASUREMENTS quart 2.quarter 3.quarterly 4.PAPER quarto 5.query 6.question 7.MEASUREMENTS quintal 8.MEASUREMENTS, PAPER quire
  • Q & A = question and answer
  • q.e. = which is (NOTE: From the Latin quod est.)
  • q.i.d. = PHARMACOLOGY four times a day (NOTE: The abbreviation q.i.d., from the Latinquater in die, is used in prescriptions.)
  • q.l. = PHARMACOLOGY as much as you like (NOTE: The abbreviation q.l., from the Latinquantum libet, is used in prescriptions.)
  • q.m. = PHARMACOLOGY every morning (NOTE: The abbreviation q.m., from the Latin quaquemane, is used in prescriptions.)
  • q.n. = PHARMACOLOGY every night (NOTE: The abbreviation q.n., from the Latin quaquenocte, is used in prescriptions.)
  • q.s. = 1.PHARMACOLOGY as much as is sufficient (NOTE: The abbreviation q.s., from the Latinquantum sufficit, is used in prescriptions.) 2.N Am MEASUREMENTS a tract of landmeasuring one quarter of a square mile. Full form quarter section
  • q.t. = quiet (NOTE: The informal abbreviation q.t.is used in the phrase on the q.t., meaning‘quietly and secretly'.)
  • qa = ONLINE Qatar (NOTE: The abbreviation qa is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • QAM = COMPUTING a data encoding method used by high-speed modems. Full formquadrature amplitude modulation
  • QB = 1.LAW Queen's Bench 2.CHESS queen's bishop
  • QBE = COMPUTING a simple method of retrieving information from a database by enteringan example of the data which is then matched with it. Full form query by example
  • QBP = CHESS queen's bishop's pawn
  • QC = 1.BUSINESS a group of employees from different levels of a company who meetregularly to discuss ways of improving quality and to resolve any problems related toproduction. Full form quality circle 2.GEOGRAPHY Quebec 3.a senior barrister (whenthe reigning monarch is female). Full form Queen's Counsel
  • QCD = QUANTUM PHYSICS quantum chromodynamics
  • qe = which is (NOTE: From the Latin quod est.)
  • QED = 1.QUANTUM PHYSICS quantum electrodynamics 2.quod erat demonstrandum (NOTE:The abbreviation QED is used to indicate that a particular fact is proof of the theory thathas just been advanced (or of the statement that has just been made).)
  • QEF = quod erat faciendum (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘which was to be done'.)
  • QF = ARMS quick-firing
  • QFD = BUSINESS a strategy to ensure that the customer's wants and needs are being directlyaddressed by the product being manufactured, e.g. by using an HOQ. Full form qualityfunction deployment
  • qid = PHARMACOLOGY four times a day (NOTE: The abbreviation q.i.d., from the Latinquater in die, is used in prescriptions.)
  • QISAM = COMPUTING queued indexed sequential access method
  • QKt = CHESS queen's knight
  • QKtP = CHESS queen's knight's pawn
  • QL = COMPUTING query language
  • ql = PHARMACOLOGY as much as you like (NOTE: The abbreviation q.l., from the Latinquantum libet, is used in prescriptions.)?MEASUREMENTS quintal
  • Qld = GEOGRAPHY Queensland
  • qlty = quality
  • QM = MILITARY quartermaster
  • qm = PHARMACOLOGY every morning (NOTE: The abbreviation q.m., from the Latin quaquemane, is used in prescriptions.)
  • QMC = MILITARY quartermaster corps
  • QMG = MILITARY Quartermaster General
  • QMS = MILITARY Quartermaster Sergeant135 QWERTY
  • QN = CHESS queen's knight
  • qn = PHARMACOLOGY every night (NOTE: The abbreviation q.n., from the Latin quaquenocte, is used in prescriptions.)?question
  • QNP = CHESS queen's knight's pawn
  • QOS = COMPUTING quality of service
  • QP = CHESS queen's pawn
  • qq. = questions
  • qqv = which see (NOTE: The abbreviation qqv, from the Latin quae vide, is used after a crossreference to more than one item within the same book or article.)
  • QR = CHESS queen's rook
  • qr. = 1.quarter 2.quarterly 3.MEASUREMENTS, PAPER quire
  • QRP = CHESS queen's rook's pawn
  • QS = LAW quarter sessions
  • qs = 1.PHARMACOLOGY as much as is sufficient (NOTE: The abbreviation q.s., from the Latinquantum sufficit, is used in prescriptions.) 2.N Am MEASUREMENTS a tract of landmeasuring one quarter of a square mile. Full form quarter section
  • QSAM = COMPUTING queued sequential access method
  • QSO = 1.RADIO conversation (used in amateur radio) 2.ASTRONOMY a compact object inspace, usually with a large red shift indicating extreme remoteness, that emits hugeamounts of energy, sometimes equal to the energy output of an entire galaxy. Full formquasi-stellar object
  • qt = quiet (NOTE: The informal abbreviation q.t.is used in the phrase on the q.t., meaning‘quietly and secretly'.)?1.quantity 2.MEASUREMENTS quart
  • qto = PAPER quarto
  • qty = quantity
  • qu. = 1.queen 2.query 3.question
  • quad. = MATHEMATICS 1.quadrangle (NOTE: When quad is used informally as a noun in thissense (with reference to a rectangular yard), it is written without a full stop.) 2.quadrant3.quadrilateral
  • quango = _ see note at Aids, NDPB
  • quant. = quantitative
  • quar. = 1.quarter 2.quarterly
  • qubit = COMPUTING an elementary particle such as an electron or photon that canstore data and perform computational tasks within a quantum computer's processorand memory. Full form quantum bit
  • Que. = GEOGRAPHY Quebec
  • ques. = question
  • quot. = quotation
  • qv = which see (NOTE: The abbreviation qv, from the Latin quod vide, is used after a crossreference to an item within the same book or article.)
  • QWERTY = COMPUTING used to describe a typewriter or computer keyboard inwhich the top row of alphabetic characters begins with the letters Q, W, E, R, T, Y. Thisis the standard layout in English-speaking countries (and in many other countries thatuse the Roman alphabet).The enduring popularity of the QWERTY keyboard is a fine example of product ‘lock-in', i.e.that the first product onto the market becomes so entrenched that later, more efficientversions fail to catch on. The illogical arrangement of keys on the QWERTY keyboard isassumed to have been an attempt to stop early keyboards from jamming, either by keepingQWL 136frequent combinations of keys far apart or by slowing down typing in general. Although laterarrangements such as the Dvorak keyboard were proven to increase typing speed, theQWERTY layout is now so widespread that there is little point in learning to type on any otherstyle of keyboard.
  • QWL = BUSINESS quality of working life
  • qy = query
  • R = 1.PHYSICS gas constant 2.JUDAISM rabbi 3.CHEMISTRY radical 4.MATHEMATICS radius 5.RAIL railway 6.MONEY rand 7.GEOGRAPHY range 8.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS Réaumur scale9.CHRISTIANITY rector 10.Regina (NOTE: The abbreviation R is used after the name of aqueen.) 11.POLITICS Republican 12.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING resistance 13.CHRISTIANITYresponse (NOTE: The abbreviation R is used to indicate a phrase sung or spoken by thechoir or congregation in reply to the officiant during a church service.) 14.CINEMA arating indicating that a film may only be watched by people over the age of 18 (inAustralia) or over the age of 17 unless accompanied by an adult (in the United States).Full form restricted 15.Rex (NOTE: The abbreviation R is used after the name of a king.)16.right 17.GEOGRAPHY river 18.road 19.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS roentgen 20.CHESSrook 21.MONEY rouble 22.royal 23.MONEY rupee
  • r = 1.MATHEMATICS radius 2.TRANSPORT railway 3.MONEY rouble 4.rare 5.PRINTING recto 6.right 7.GEOGRAPHY river 8.road 9.MEASUREMENTS rod 10.SPORTS run(s) 11.MONEY rupee
  • R & B = MUSIC a style of popular music with elements of blues and jazz, adapted from astyle originally developed by African American musicians. Full form rhythm and blues
  • R & D = BUSINESS research and developmentR & R 138
  • r.f. = 1.RADIO radio frequency 2.ARMS rapid fire 3.TELECOMMUNICATIONS reception fair 4.PAPER rough finish
  • R & R = rest and recreation (or relaxation or recuperation) (NOTE: Of military origin, theabbreviation R & R has now entered general usage.)
  • R/W = COMPUTING read/write
  • RA = 1.MILITARY Rear Admiral 2.ASTRONOMY right ascension 3.ARTS Royal Academician 4.ARMY Royal Artillery
  • Ra = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS radium
  • RAA = ARTS Royal Academy of Arts
  • RAAF = AIR FORCE Royal Australian Air Force
  • RAC = 1.ARMY Royal Armoured Corps 2.AUTOMOTIVE Royal Automobile Club
  • rad = MATHEMATICS radian
  • rad. = 1.radiator 2.MATHEMATICS radical 3.radio 4.MATHEMATICS radius 5.MATHEMATICSradix
  • RADA = THEATRE Royal Academy of Dramatic Art
  • radar = _ see note at Aids
  • RADM = MILITARY Rear Admiral
  • RAEC = ARMY Royal Army Educational Corps
  • RAF = AIR FORCE Royal Air Force
  • RAFDS = HEALTH SERVICES Royal Australian Flying Doctor Service
  • RAFVR = AIR FORCE Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve
  • RAID = COMPUTING a fast disk drive system in which many hard drives are linkedtogether to save data simultaneously. Full form redundant array of independent (orinexpensive) disks
  • rall. = MUSIC rallentando
  • RAM = 1.COMPUTING random-access memory (NOTE: The acronym RAM is used as anoun in its own right.) 2.PHYSICS relative atomic mass 3.ENGINEERING rocket-assistedmotor 4.MUSIC Royal Academy of Music
  • RAMC = ARMY Royal Army Medical Corps
  • RAMDAC = COMPUTING an electronic component on a video graphics adapterthat converts the digital colour signals into electrical signals that are sent to the monitor.Full form random-access memory digital-to-analogue converter
  • RAN = 1.MILITARY request for authority to negotiate 2.NAVY Royal Australian Navy
  • RAOC = ARMY Royal Army Ordnance Corps
  • RAR = FINANCE risk-adjusted return (on capital)
  • RAS = 1.AGRICULTURE Royal Agricultural Society 2.ASTRONOMY Royal Astronomical Society
  • RATO = AVIAT rocket-assisted takeoff
  • RAVC = ARMY Royal Army Veterinary Corps
  • Rb = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS rubidium
  • RBA = BANKING Reserve Bank of Australia
  • RBC = MEDICINE red blood cell _ RBC count
  • RBE = BIOLOGY relative biological effectiveness
  • RBNZ = BANKING Reserve Bank of New Zealand
  • RBTL = ONLINE read between the lines (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • RC = 1.MEDICINE Red Cross 2.MILITARY Reserve Corps 3.CHRISTIANITY Roman Catholic
  • rc = CONSTRUCTION reinforced concrete
  • RCA = ARTS Royal College of Art
  • rcd = COMMERCE received
  • RCGP = MEDICINE Royal College of General Practitioners
  • RCM = MUSIC Royal College of Music
  • RCMP = POLICE Royal Canadian Mounted Police
  • RCN = 1.NAVY Royal Canadian Navy 2.HEALTH SERVICES Royal College of Nursing
  • RCOG = MEDICINE Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
  • RCP = MEDICINE Royal College of Physicians
  • RCPC = US BANKING regional check processing center
  • RCPsych = PSYCHIATRY Royal College of Psychiatrists
  • rcpt = COMMERCE receipt
  • RCS = 1.SCIENCE Royal College of Science 2.MEDICINE Royal College of Surgeons 3.ARMYRoyal Corps of Signals
  • RCT = 1.MEDICINE randomized controlled trial 2.MILITARY Royal Corps of Transport
  • rct = MILITARY recruit
  • RCVS = VETERINARY MEDICINE Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons
  • RD = 1.BANKING refer to drawer (NOTE: The abbreviation RD (or R/D) is used on a bouncedcheque.) 2.MAIL Rural Delivery
  • Rd = ROADS Road (NOTE: The abbreviation Rd is used in addresses.)
  • rd = 1.COMMERCE rendered 2.ROADS road 3.MEASUREMENTS rod 4.round
  • RDA = 1.HEALTH the amount of a nutrient that is needed in the diet for a person to stayhealthy, as recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board. Full form recommendeddaily allowance 2.BUSINESS Regional Development Agency
  • RDBMS = COMPUTING relational database management system
  • RDF = 1.RADIO radio direction finder 2.INDUST refuse-derived fuel
  • RDG = BUSINESS regional development grant
  • RDO = Aus HUMAN RESOURCES a day off given by some employers in lieu of extra hoursworked, sometimes on a regular basis. Full form rostered day off
  • RDPR = BANKING refer to drawer please represent
  • RDS = 1.RADIO a system for tuning radio receivers automatically by sending digital signalswith normal radio programmes. Full form radio data system 2.MEDICINE respiratorydistress syndrome
  • RDZ = ECOLOGY resource depletion zone139 RES
  • 're = are
  • RE = 1.CHRISTIANITY Reformed Episcopal 2.EDUCATION Religious Education _ RE teacher(NOTE: The abbreviation RE is used as a noun in its own right.) 3.Right Excellent 4.ARMYRoyal Engineers
  • Re = 1.PHYSICS Reynold's number 2.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS rhenium 3.MONEY rupee
  • re = ONLINE Réunion (NOTE: The abbreviation re is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • rec. = 1.COMMERCE receipt 2.COMMERCE received 3.COOKERY recipe 4.recommended 5.recorded 6.recorder 7.recording 8.recreation
  • rec. sec. = recording secretary
  • recd = COMMERCE received
  • recip. = 1.MATHEMATICS reciprocal 2.COMMERCE reciprocity
  • recit. = MUSIC recitative
  • Rect. = CHRISTIANITY 1.Rector 2.Rectory
  • rect = COMMERCE receipt
  • rect. = MATHEMATICS rectangle
  • red. = 1.FINANCE redeemable 2.reduced 3.reduction
  • REE = CHEMISTRY rare-earth element
  • ref. = 1.reference 2.INDUSTRY refining 3.reformed 4.refunding
  • Ref. Ch. = CHRISTIANITY Reformed Church
  • refl. = 1.reflection 2.reflective 3.PHYSIOLOGY reflex 4.GRAMMAR reflexive
  • Reg. = 1.Regent 2.Regina 3.MEASUREMENTS, INDUST a trademark for a gas mark (i.e. agradation of heat in the temperature regulation of gas ovens). Full form Regulo
  • reg. = 1.GEOGRAPHY region 2.registered 3.registrar 4.registry 5.GRAMMAR regular 6.regularly 7.regulation 8.regulator
  • Reg. Prof. = EDUCATION Regius Professor
  • regd = registered
  • Regt = 1.Regent 2.MILITARY Regiment
  • REIT = N Am FINANCE real-estate investment trust
  • rel. = 1.relating 2.relative 3.relatively 4.released 5.religion 6.religious
  • relig. = religion
  • REM = 1.PHYSIOLOGY rapid eye movement (NOTE: REM sleep is a stage of sleep thatrecurs several times during the night and is marked by dreaming, rapid eye movementsunder closed lids, and elevated pulse rate and brain activity.) 2.COMPUTING a noteembedded in a computer program that is purely explanatory and not interpreted as partof the programming code. Full form remark
  • rem = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS a unit for measuring amounts of radiation, equal to theeffect that one roentgen of X-rays or gamma-rays would produce in a human being. Itis used in radiation protection and monitoring. Full form roentgen equivalent (in)man
  • REME = MILITARY Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
  • Rep. = POLITICS 1.Representative 2.Republic 3.Republican
  • rep. = 1.repair 2.report 3.reported 4.reporter 5.PUBLISHING reprint
  • repr. = 1.representative 2.represented 3.representing 4.PUBLISHING reprint
  • rept = 1.COMMERCE receipt 2.report
  • Repub. = POLITICS 1.Republic 2.Republican
  • req. = 1.request 2.require 3.required 4.requirement 5.requisition
  • RES = 1.INDUST renewable energy source 2.INDUST renewable energy system 3.MEDICINE adefence system of cells widely distributed in the body that are able to attack hostileres. 140particles such as bacteria. Full form reticuloendothelial system 4.INSECTS RoyalEntomological Society
  • res. = 1.research 2.reservation 3.reserved 4.reservoir 5.residence 6.resident 7.resigned8.resolution
  • resp. = 1.respective 2.respectively 3.respiration 4.LAW respondent
  • ret. = 1.retain 2.retired 3.return 4.COMMERCE returned
  • retd = 1.retained 2.retired 3.COMMERCE returned
  • Rev. = CHRISTIANITY Reverend
  • rev. = 1.revenue 2.reverse 3.review 4.PUBLISHING revised 5.PUBLISHING revision 6.revolution 7.ARMS revolver 8.revolvingWhen rev is used informally as a noun in this sense (with reference to a single revolution of avehicle's engine), or as a verb meaning ‘to increase a vehicle's engine speed', it is writtenwithout a full stop.
  • Rev. Ver. = BIBLE Revised Version
  • Revd = CHRISTIANITY Reverend
  • RF = 1.RADIO radio frequency 2.AIR FORCE reconnaissance fighter 3.MILITARY regular forces4.BIOCHEMISTRY a hormone produced by the hypothalamus that causes the pituitarygland to secrete other hormones. Full form releasing factor 5.MAPS the system ofrelating scale to real distance on a map. Full form representative fraction 6.GEOGRAPHY the official name of France. Full form République Française 7.MILITARYReserve Force 8.CHEMISTRY in chromatography, a measure of how quickly a compounddissolved in a solvent travels relative to the solvent itself. Full form retention factor 9.BASEBALL right fielder 10.MILITARY Royal Fusiliers 11.MONEY Rwanda franc
  • Rf = 1.MONEY rufiyaa 2.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS rutherfordium
  • rf = 1.RADIO radio frequency 2.ARMS rapid fire 3.TELECOMMUNICATIONS reception fair 4.PAPER rough finish?GEOGRAPHY reef
  • rf. = COMMERCE refund
  • RFC = 1.COMPUTING request for comment 2.AIR FORCE Royal Flying Corps 3.RUGBY RugbyFootball Club
  • RFD = 1.RADIO radio-frequency device 2.MILITARY reporting for duty
  • RFLP = BIOTECHNOLOGY a variation between individuals in the length of the DNA fragmentsproduced by a specific restriction enzyme (an enzyme that splits DNA into segments atprecise locations, used in genetic engineering). Full form restriction fragment lengthpolymorphism
  • Rfn = MILITARY Rifleman
  • RG = AMERICAN FOOTBALL right guard
  • RGB = COMPUTING the standard model for display devices in which all colours are describedin terms of the quantity of red, green, and blue they contain. Printers use the CMYB(cyan, magenta, yellow, black) model. Full form red, green, blue
  • RGN = HEALTH SERVICES Registered General Nurse
  • RGS = GEOGRAPHY Royal Geographical Society
  • Rgt = MILITARY regiment
  • RH = 1.METEOROLOGY relative humidity 2.right hand 3.Royal Highness141 RN
  • Rh = 1.BIOCHEMISTRY rhesus (NOTE: A person who is Rh negative lacks the rhesus factor inthe blood; a person who is Rh positive has blood containing the rhesus factor.) 2.BIOCHEMISTRY rhesus factor (NOTE: The Rh factor is a group of antigens present in mostpeople's red blood cells.) 3.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS rhodium
  • rH = CHEMISTRY a measure of the oxidising power of a solution. Full form redox potential
  • rh = 1.METEOROLOGY relative humidity 2.right hand
  • RHA = 1.HEALTH SERVICES Regional Health Authority 2.MILITARY Royal Horse Artillery
  • rhd = AUTOMOTIVE right-hand drive
  • RHG = MILITARY Royal Horse Guards
  • rhp = MEASUREMENTS rated horsepower
  • RHS = GARDENING Royal Horticultural Society
  • RI = 1.King and Emperor (NOTE: From the Latin rex et imperator.) 2.Queen and Empress 3.EDUCATION religious instruction _ RI teacher (NOTE: The abbreviation RI is used as a nounin its own right.) 4.MAIL Rhode Island (NOTE: The abbreviation RI is part of the US sortingcode on the last line of a Rhode Island address.) 5.SCIENCE Royal Institution
  • RIA = 1.MEDICINE the technique of measuring the levels of antibodies in the blood byintroducing into the bloodstream a substance that has a radioactive tracer attached toit. Full form radioimmunoassay 2.Royal Irish Academy
  • RIB = BOAT rigid inflatable boat
  • RIBA = ARCHITECTURE Royal Institute of British Architects
  • RICS = Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors
  • RIE = FINANCE recognized investment exchange
  • RIF = US HUMAN RESOURCES the laying off of members of a workforce. Full form reductionin force
  • RIFF = COMPUTING resource interchange file format
  • RIP = 1.COMPUTING raster image processor 2.rest in peace (NOTE: The abbreviation RIP isseen on gravestones.) 3.COMPUTING routing information protocol
  • RISC = COMPUTING reduced-instruction-set computer
  • rit. = MUSIC 1.ritardando 2.ritenuto
  • riv. = GEOGRAPHY river
  • RJ = ROADS road junction
  • RK = EDUCATION religious knowledge
  • RL = 1.ONLINE real life (used in e-mails and text messages) 2.RUGBY Rugby League
  • RLG = ARMS rocket-launched grenade
  • Rls = MONEY rials
  • rly = RAIL railway
  • RM = 1.HEALTH SERVICES Registered Midwife 2.MAIL Royal Mail 3.MILITARY Royal Marines
  • Rm = BIBLE Romans
  • rm = 1.MEASUREMENTS, PAPER ream 2.room
  • RMA = MILITARY 1.Royal Marine Artillery 2.Royal Military Academy
  • RMB = Aus MAIL roadside mail box (NOTE: The abbreviation RMB is used in addresses inrural areas of Australia.)
  • RMD = Aus MAIL roadside mail delivery (NOTE: The abbreviation RMD is used in addressesin rural areas of Australia.)
  • RMDIR = COMPUTING a command to remove an empty subdirectory. Full form removedirectory
  • RMM = CHEMISTRY relative molecular mass
  • RMN = HEALTH SERVICES Registered Mental Nurse
  • RMS = 1.MAIL Royal Mail Service 2.SHIPPING Royal Mail Ship
  • rms = MATHEMATICS the square root of the mean of the squares of a set of numbers. Fullform root mean square
  • RMT = HUMAN RESOURCES National Union of Rail, Maritime, and Transport Workers
  • RN = 1.HEALTH SERVICES Registered Nurse 2.ONLINE right now (used in e-mails and textmessages) 3.NAVY Royal NavyRNA 142
  • Rn = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS radon
  • RNA = GENETICS a nucleic acid containing ribose found in all living cells, essential for proteinsynthesis. Full form ribonucleic acid (NOTE: The abbreviation RNA is used as a noun inits own right.)
  • RNAS = NAVY 1.Royal Naval Air Service 2.Royal Naval Air Station
  • RNase = BIOCHEMISTRY an enzyme that splits or degrades RNA. Full formribonuclease
  • rnd = round
  • RNIB = Royal National Institute for the Blind
  • RNLI = NAUTICAL Royal National Lifeboat Institution
  • RNMH = HEALTH SERVICES Registered Nurse for the Mentally Handicapped
  • RNP = BIOCHEMISTRY a complex of RNA and a protein formed during the synthesis of RNA.Full form ribonucleoprotein
  • RNR = NAVY Royal Naval Reserve
  • rns = CRICKET runs
  • RNVR = NAVY Royal Naval Volunteer Force
  • RNZAF = AIR FORCE Royal New Zealand Air Force
  • RNZN = NAVY Royal New Zealand Navy
  • ro = 1.PRINTING recto 2.ONLINE Romania (NOTE: The abbreviation ro is seen at the end ofInternet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • ro. = MEASUREMENTS rood
  • ro-ro = TRANSPORT used to describe a ferry (or other method of transport)designed so that vehicles are driven on one end and, on arrival at their destination, offthe other end. Full form roll-on roll-off
  • ROA = FINANCE return on assets
  • ROB = BUSINESS defines an advertisement which is placed wherever space is available, at thepublisher's discretion, instead in a stand-alone insert. Full form run of book. Same asROP
  • ROC = MILITARY Royal Observer Corps
  • ROCE = FINANCE return on capital employed
  • ROE = FINANCE return on equity
  • ROI = 1.GEOGRAPHY region of interest 2.FINANCE return on investment
  • ROM = COMPUTING read-only memory
  • Rom. = 1.Roman 2.LANGUAGE Romance 3.GEOGRAPHY Romania 4.LANGUAGE Romanian 5.BIBLE Romans
  • rom. = PRINTING roman (type)
  • RON = BUSINESS defines an advertisement which is placed wherever space is availablewithin an advertising network. Full form run of network
  • RONA = FINANCE return on net assets
  • ROP = BUSINESS defines an advertisement which is placed wherever space is available, at thepublisher's discretion, instead in a stand-alone insert. Full form run of paper / press.Same as ROB
  • ROS = 1.FINANCE return on sales 2.BUSINESS defines an Internet advertisement which isplaced wherever space is available within a specified website. Full form run of site 3.BUSINESS defines an advertisement which is placed whenever space is available within agiven time period. Full form run of station
  • ROSCO = a company that leases trains to train-operating companies under thearrangements by which the UK national railway system was privatized. Full form rollingstock operating company
  • RoSPA = DOMESTIC Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents
  • rot. = MATHEMATICS rotation143 RSA
  • ROTFL = ONLINE rolling on the floor laughing (used in e-mails and Internet chat rooms)
  • ROTM = ONLINE right on the money
  • ROU = GEOGRAPHY Republic of Uruguay
  • ROW = BUSINESS defines an advertisement which is placed whenever space is availablewithin a given week. Full form run of week
  • RP = 1.PHONETICS the accent of British English that educated people from the southern partof England traditionally use, widely regarded as the least regionally modified of all Britishaccents. Full form Received Pronunciation 2.EDUCATION Regius Professor 3.GEOGRAPHYRepublic of the Philippines 4.role-play
  • RPB = BUSINESS recognized professional body
  • RPC = 1.COMPUTING a method of communication between two programs running onseparate, but connected, computers. Full form remote procedure call 2.COMMERCERestrictive Practices Court
  • RPG = 1.COMPUTING a high-level computer language used primarily for business reports.Full form report program generator 2.MILITARY rocket-propelled grenade 3.COMPUTERGAMES a computer or other game in which the participants assume roles, often asfantasy characters such as heroes or elves, in a scenario that develops as the gameprogresses. Full form role-playing game
  • RPI = COMMERCE a measure of inflation taken from the average change in prices of arepresentative sample of goods and services over a period of time. Full form retail priceindex
  • RPIX = FINANCE a measure of the underlying rate of inflation, that is the retail price indexnot taking into account mortgage payments
  • RPIY = FINANCE a measure of the core rate of inflation, that is the retail price index nottaking into account indirect taxes and council tax
  • RPM = COMMERCE the setting by the manufacturer of a minimum price at which its goodsare to be sold at retail. Full form resale (or retail) price maintenance
  • rpm = MEASUREMENTS revolutions per minuteBefore the advent of the compact disc for audio recordings, the abbreviation rpm was mostfrequently encountered as an indication of the speed at which the various types and sizes ofgramophone record were played.
  • RPN = MATHEMATICS a method of expressing complex mathematical equations without theneed for brackets. Full form reverse Polish notation
  • RPO = MUSIC Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
  • RPS = PHOTOGRAPHY Royal Photographic Society
  • rps = MEASUREMENTS revolutions per second
  • rpt = 1.repeat 2.report
  • RPV = MILITARY remotely piloted vehicle
  • RQ = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSIOLOGY the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide released to thevolume of oxygen absorbed by an organism, cell, or tissue over a given time period. Fullform respiratory quotient
  • RR = 1.US RAIL railroad 2.MEDICINE recovery room 3.MEDICINE relative risk 4.CHRISTIANITYRight Reverend
  • rRNA = BIOCHEMISTRY ribosomal RNA
  • RRP = COMMERCE recommended retail price
  • RS = 1.recording secretary 2.right side 3.SCIENCE Royal Society
  • Rs = MONEY rupees
  • RSA = 1.BUSINESS a grant scheme operating in certain areas of the UK to encouragebusiness to set up or expand in that area. Full form regional selective assistance 2.GEOGRAPHY Republic of South Africa 3.MILITARY an organization in New Zealand toRSC 144provide help for former members of the armed forces and their families. Full formReturned Services Association 4.ARTS Royal Scottish Academician 5.ARTS RoyalScottish Academy 6.ARTS Royal Society of Arts 7.COMPUTING a public-key cryptographysystem used to provide high-level security
  • RSC = 1.THEATRE Royal Shakespeare Company 2.CHEMISTRY Royal Society of Chemistry
  • RSCN = HEALTH SERVICES Registered Sick Children's Nurse
  • RSFSR = POLITICS the former name for Russia before the collapse of the Soviet Union in1991. Full form Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
  • RSI = MEDICINE a painful condition affecting some people who overuse muscles as a resultof activities such as regularly operating a computer keyboard. Full form repetitivestrain injury (NOTE: The abbreviation RSI is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • RSJ = CONSTRUCTION rolled steel joist (NOTE: The abbreviation RSJ is used as a noun in its ownright.)
  • RSL = 1.MILITARY an organization established in Australia in 1916 to provide help forformer members of the armed forces and their families. Full form Returned ServicesLeague 2.LITERATURE Royal Society of Literature
  • RSM = 1.MILITARY Regimental Sergeant Major 2.GEOGRAPHY Republic of San Marino 3.MEDICINE Royal Society of Medicine
  • RSNC = ECOLOGY Royal Society for Nature Conservation
  • RSP = COMMERCE retail service provider
  • RSPB = BIRDS Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
  • RSPCA = VETERINARY MEDICINE Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
  • RSV = 1.MICROBIOLOGY a virus causing infection of the lungs and respiratory tract, mostusually in young children. Full form respiratory syncytial virus 2.BIBLE RevisedStandard Version
  • RSVP = BUSINESS répondez s'il vous plaît (NOTE: The abbreviation RSVP, from the French,‘please reply', is used on an invitation to request a response to it.)
  • RT = 1.TELECOMMUNICATIONS radio telegraph 2.TELECOMMUNICATIONS radio telegraphy 3.TELECOMMUNICATIONS radiotelephone 4.TELECOMMUNICATIONS radiotelephony 5.COMPUTING real time 6.AMERICAN FOOTBALL right tackle 7.room temperature 8.US TRAVELround trip
  • rt = right
  • Rt Hon. = POLITICS Right Honourable
  • Rt Rev. = CHRISTIANITY Right Reverend
  • RTDS = COMPUTING real-time data system
  • RTE = 1.BROADCASTING Radio Telefis Éireann (NOTE: From the Irish, ‘Irish Radio andTelevision'.) 2.COMPUTING real-time execution
  • Rte = ROADS route (NOTE: The abbreviation Rte is used in addresses.)
  • RTF = COMPUTING a format for a computer file that contains text with formatting codes (e.g.for bold or italic). Full form rich text format
  • RTFM = ONLINE a more offensive variant of RTM. Full form read the fucking manual
  • RTGS = BUSINESS a system of settling large payments between banks by paying throughoutthe day rather than totting up debits against credits at the end of the day. Full form realtimegross settlement
  • RTM = ONLINE read the manual (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • RTN = HEALTH SERVICES Registered Theatre Nurse
  • RTP = COMPUTING real-time transport protocol
  • RTS = 1.BUSINESS the rate at which a manufacturer can reduce one input and increaseanother while keeping output constant. Full form rate of technical substitution 2.145 RYSCOMPUTING a signal used to inform a sending device such as a modem that a receivingdevice is ready to accept more data. Full form request to send
  • RTSC = COMPUTING read the source code
  • RTW = CLOTHING ready-to-wear
  • RU = 1.GEOGRAPHY Republic of Burundi (NOTE: The abbreviation ru comes from thecountry's original name, the Republic of Urundi.) 2.ONLINE are you (used in e-mails andtext messages) 3.RUGBY Rugby Union
  • Ru = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ruthenium
  • ru = ONLINE Russia (NOTE: The abbreviation ru is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • RUC = POLICE Royal Ulster Constabulary
  • RV = 1.AEROSPACE re-entry vehicle 2.CAMPING the US and Canadian name for a camper van.Full form recreational vehicle 3.BIBLE Revised Version
  • rv = STATISTICS random variable
  • RW = 1.Right Worshipful 2.Right Worthy
  • rw = ONLINE Rwanda (NOTE: The abbreviation rw is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • RWD = AUTOMOTIVE rear-wheel drive
  • rwy = RAIL railway
  • RX = COMPUTING receive(r)
  • RYS = ONLINE read your screen (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • S = 1.QUANTUM PHYSICS entropy 2.JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN Sabbath 3.CHRISTIANITY Saint 4.BIBLESamuel 5.EDUCATION satisfactory 6.CALENDAR Saturday 7.HISTORY Saxon 8.MONEY theformer unit of currency in Austria, replaced by the euro in 2002. Full form schilling 9.GEOGRAPHY Sea 10.CALENDAR September 11.MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS siemens 12.CLOTHING small (used in e-mails and text messages) 13.ONLINE smile (used in e-mails andtext messages) 14.ONLINE smiling (NOTE: The abbreviation S is used as a size of clothing.)15.POLITICS Socialist 16.south 17.southern 18.QUANTUM PHYSICS strangeness 19.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS sulphur 20.CALENDAR Sunday
  • s = 1.MEASUREMENTS, TIME second 2.semi- 3.MONEY shilling 4.GRAMMAR singular 5.ZOOLOGYthe male parent of an animal. Full form sire 6.sister 7.MUSIC solo 8.son 9.MUSICsoprano 10.MEASUREMENTS stere 11.FINANCE stock 12.QUANTUM PHYSICS strange quark13.GRAMMAR substantive
  • s.a. = 1.semiannual 2.COMMERCE subject to approval 3.without date
  • s.a.e. = MAIL 1.self-addressed envelope 2.stamped addressed envelope
  • S-A node = ANATOMY a small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibres in the wall of theheart. The S-A node originates the regular electrical impulses that stimulate theheartbeat. Full form sinoatrial node
  • S. Afr. = GEOGRAPHY South Africa
  • s/c = BUILDINGS self-contained (used in property advertisements)
  • s.d. = without a day being fixed for a further meeting. Full form sine die (NOTE: From theLatin, ‘without a day'.)
  • S & H = COMMERCE shipping and handling
  • S-HTTP = COMPUTING Secure HyperText Transfer Protocol
  • S & L = BANKING savings and loan (association)
  • s.l.a.n. = PUBLISHING without place, year, or name (NOTE: From the Latin sine loco, anno, velnomine.)
  • S & M = sadism and masochism
  • S/M = sadomasochism
  • S/MIME = COMPUTING Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
  • s.o. = FINANCE seller's option
  • S. of Sol. = BIBLE Song of Solomon
  • S & P = STOCK EXCHANGE Standard and Poor's
  • s.p. = LAW without children (NOTE: From the Latin sine prole.)
  • S & P 500 = STOCK EXCHANGE Standard and Poor's 500-stock index147 SC
  • s.t.p. = 1.COMPUTING shielded twisted pair (cable) 2.PHYSICS standard temperature andpressure157 SWELL
  • s.v. = 1.BOAT sailing vessel 2.ENGINEERING side valve 3.under the word or term (NOTE: Theabbreviation s.v.is used in textual references, e.g. to direct the reader to a particularheadword in a dictionary or encyclopedia.)
  • SA = 1.CHRISTIANITY Salvation Army 2.COMMERCE a private limited company in Spain. Fullform sociedad anónima 3.COMMERCE a private limited company in France. Full formsociedade anónima 4.COMMERCE a private limited company in Portugal. Full formsociété anonyme 5.GEOGRAPHY South Africa 6.GEOGRAPHY South America 7.GEOGRAPHY South Australia
  • sa = 1.semiannual 2.COMMERCE subject to approval 3.without date?ONLINE Saudi Arabia (NOTE: The abbreviation sa is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • SAA = COMPUTING systems application architecture
  • Sab. = JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN Sabbath
  • SABC = BROADCASTING South African Broadcasting Corporation
  • SACEUR = MILITARY Supreme Allied Commander, Europe
  • SAD = MEDICINE depression associated with the onset of winter and thought to be causedby decreasing amounts of daylight. Full form seasonal affective disorder
  • SADS = MEDICINE another name for SAD. Full form seasonal affective disordersyndrome
  • sae = MAIL 1.self-addressed envelope 2.stamped addressed envelope
  • SAEF = STOCK EXCHANGE Stock Exchange Automatic Execution Facility
  • SAIF = FINANCE savings association insurance fund
  • SALT = MILITARY Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (or Treaty)
  • SAM = ARMS surface-to-air missile
  • Sam. = BIBLE Samuel
  • SAR = 1.MEDICINE the rate at which a mass, especially human tissue, absorbs radiatedelectrical energy (e.g. when using a mobile phone), measured in watts or milliwatts perkilogram. Full form specific absorption rate 2.COMPUTING store address register
  • SARL = COMMERCE a small private limited company in France which may not have morethan 40 shareholders. Full form société anonyme à responsabilité limitée (NOTE:From the French, ‘limited company'.)
  • SARS = MEDICINE severe acute respiratory syndrome
  • SAS = 1.COMPUTING single attachment station 2.MILITARY a British army regiment that isspecially trained to undertake dangerous clandestine operations. Full form Special AirService
  • SASE = MAIL self-addressed stamped envelope
  • Sask. = GEOGRAPHY Saskatchewan
  • SAT = EDUCATION standard assessment task (NOTE: The acronym SAT is used as a nounin its own right, often in the plural.)
  • Sat. = CALENDAR Saturday
  • SATB = MUSIC soprano, alto, tenor, bass
  • SAW = ELECTRONICS surface acoustic wave
  • SAYE = FINANCE a savings plan in which monthly deposits are made over a five-year period.Full form save as you earn
  • SB = BROADCASTING simultaneous broadcast
  • Sb = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS antimony (NOTE: From the Latin stibium.)
  • sb = ONLINE Solomon Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation sb is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • SBA = 1.BUSINESS small business administration 2.AVIAT a system of radio navigation thatprovides an aircraft with lateral guidance and marker beam indicators at set pointsduring its landing approach. Full form standard beam approach
  • SbE = south by east
  • SBF = STOCK EXCHANGE Société des Bourses Françaises (NOTE: From the French, ‘Associationof French Stock Exchanges'.)
  • SBM = COMPUTING a trademark for an acoustic technology developed by Sony. Full formSuper Bit Mapping
  • SBS = 1.HEALTH a group of symptoms typically including headaches and respiratoryproblems that affect workers in usually new or remodelled office buildings and areattributed to toxic building materials or poor ventilation. Full form sick buildingsyndrome 2.MILITARY an elite British Royal Marines force that is used to spearheadamphibious operations and to reconnoitre beach landings. Full form Special BoatService 3.Aus BROADCASTING Special Broadcasting Service
  • SBU = BUSINESS strategic business unit
  • SbW = south by west
  • SC = 1.STOCK EXCHANGE Securities Commission 2.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS the permanentcommittee of the United Nations that oversees its peacekeeping operations throughoutthe world. Full form Security Council 3.MILITARY Signal Corps 4.MAIL South Carolina(NOTE: The abbreviation SC is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a SouthCarolina address.) 5.MEDICINE subcutaneoussc. 148
  • Sc = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS scandium
  • sc = 1.ONLINE Seychelles (NOTE: The abbreviation sc is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.) 2.PRINTING small capital
  • sc. = 1.THEATRE scene (NOTE: The abbreviation sc.(or Sc.) is used in references to a particularsubdivision of a play, as in Hamlet Act I Sc. 4.) 2.used to introduce a word or phrase ofclarification, or a missing word or phrase. Full form scilicet 3.MEASUREMENTS scruple
  • ScB = SCIENCE Bachelor of Science (NOTE: From the Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus.)
  • SCC = 1.MEDICINE a common type of cancer that usually develops in the epithelial layer ofthe skin but sometimes in various mucous membranes of the body. Full form squamouscell carcinoma 2.ELECTRONICS storage connecting circuit
  • ScD = SCIENCE Doctor of Science (NOTE: From the Latin Scientiae Doctor.)
  • SCE = EDUCATION in Scotland, any of three levels of examinations in a wide range of subjectstaken in the last three years of secondary school. Standard Grades are usually taken atthe age of 16, Highers at 17, and Sixth Year Studies at 18. Full form Scottish Certificateof Education
  • SCF = Save the Children Fund
  • SCG = CRICKET Sydney Cricket Ground
  • sch. = school
  • sci = PRINTING single column inch
  • sci. = 1.science 2.scientific
  • SCID = MEDICINE a rare but severe inherited disorder of the immune system. Full formsevere combined immunodeficiency
  • SCM = 1.HEALTH SERVICES State Certified Midwife 2.CHRISTIANITY Student ChristianMovement
  • ScM = SCIENCE Master of Science (NOTE: From the Latin Scientiae Magister.)
  • SCN = ANATOMY a discrete area of the brain responsible for regulating circadian rhythms(the ‘biological clock') in mammals. Full form suprachiasmatic nucleus
  • Scot. = 1.BEVERAGES Scotch 2.GEOGRAPHY Scotland 3.GEOGRAPHY Scottish
  • SCPO = MILITARY Senior Chief Petty Officer
  • SCPS = PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Society of Civil and Public Servants
  • SCR = 1.EDUCATION a common room for the use of academic staff in some colleges anduniversities. Full form senior common room 2.COMPUTING sequence control register
  • Script. = RELIGION Scripture
  • SCSI = COMPUTING a specification for a high-speed computer interface used toconnect peripheral devices to a computer. Full form small computer systemsinterface
  • scuba = _ see note at Aids
  • sculp. = ARTS sculptor
  • SD = 1.COMPUTING secure digital 2.COMPUTING single density (disk) 3.MAIL South Dakota(NOTE: The abbreviation SD is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a SouthDakota address.) 4.STATISTICS standard deviation
  • sd = without a day being fixed for a further meeting. Full form sine die (NOTE: From theLatin, ‘without a day'.)?ONLINE Sudan (NOTE: The abbreviation sd is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • SDA = BUSINESS Scottish Development Agency
  • SDB = COMMERCE sales day book
  • SDI = MILITARY Strategic Defense Initiative
  • SDLC = COMPUTING synchronous data link control
  • SDLP = POLITICS Social Democratic and Labour Party
  • Sdn = COMMERCE Sendirian (NOTE: Sdn berhad is a Malay term for a private limitedcompany.)149 sess.
  • SDP = POLITICS Social Democratic Party
  • SDR = 1.ECONOMICS a method of settling international debts through the InternationalMonetary Fund in order to stabilize exchange rates. Full form special drawing right(s)2.COMPUTING store data register
  • SDRAM = COMPUTING synchronous dynamic random-access memory
  • SDRs = ECONOMICS special drawing rights
  • SE = 1.southeast 2.southeastern 3.STOCK EXCHANGE stock exchange
  • Se = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS selenium
  • se = ONLINE Sweden (NOTE: The abbreviation se is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • SEAQ = STOCK EXCHANGE a computerized system for displaying prices andtransactions in securities on the UK Stock Exchange. Full form Stock ExchangeAutomated Quotation
  • SEATO = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
  • SEATS = STOCK EXCHANGE Stock Exchange Alternative Trading Service
  • SEbE = southeast by east
  • SEbS = southeast by south
  • SEC = 1.ONLINE (wait a) second (used in e-mails and text messages) 2.STOCK EXCHANGE anagency of the US government set up to regulate transactions in securities and protectinvestors against malpractice. Full form Securities and Exchange Commission
  • sec = MATHEMATICS secant
  • sec. = 1.MEASUREMENTS, TIME second 2.secondary 3.secretary 4.section 5.sector 6.security
  • SECAM = TV a broadcasting system for colour television used in France, Russia,and a number of other countries. Full form séquentiel couleur à mémoire
  • secy = secretary
  • SED = GOVERNMENT Scottish Education Department
  • SEDD = GOVERNMENT Scottish Executive Development Department
  • SEED = GOVERNMENT Scottish Executive Education Department
  • SEERAD = GOVERNMENT Scottish Executive Environment and Rural AffairsDepartment
  • SEHD = GOVERNMENT Scottish Executive Health Department
  • SEM = PHYSICS scanning electron microscope
  • SEN = 1.EDUCATION special educational needs 2.HEALTH SERVICES a grade for nurses before1988, when clinical grading came into effect. Most SENs converted to clinical grade Cor D. Full form State Enrolled Nurse
  • Sen. = 1.POLITICS senate 2.POLITICS senator 3.senior
  • SEP = ONLINE someone else's problem (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • Sep. = 1.CALENDAR September 2.Septuagint
  • sepd = separated
  • SEPP = COMPUTING secure encryption payment protocol
  • Sept. = 1.CALENDAR September 2.BIBLE Septuagint
  • seq. = sequel
  • Sergt = MILITARY sergeant
  • SERM = MEDICINE a simulated oestrogen which has some but not all of the effects ofoestrogen, e.g. protecting against bone deterioration. Full form selective oestrogenreceptor modulator
  • SERPS = PENSIONS a pension paid by the government to people who have beenemployed during their lives. Full form state earnings-related pension scheme
  • sess. = sessionSET 150
  • SET = COMPUTING the standards created by a group of banks and Internet companiesthat allow users to buy goods over the Internet without risk. Full form secure electronictransactions
  • SETI = SCIENCE a scientific attempt to detect or communicate with intelligent beingsfrom beyond Earth, especially using radio signals. Full form search for extraterrestrialintelligence
  • SETS = STOCK EXCHANGE Stock Exchange Electronic Trading System
  • SF = 1.LITERATURE science fiction 2.FINANCE a fund created by setting aside regular sums forinvestment, usually in bonds, in order to repay a debt that will fall due at a future date.Full form sinking fund
  • sf = 1.LITERATURE science fiction 2.MUSIC sforzando
  • SFA = 1.FOOTBALL Scottish Football Association 2.STOCK EXCHANGE Securities and FuturesAuthority
  • SFAS = FINANCE Statement of Financial Accounting Standards
  • SFD = MEDICINE small for dates (NOTE: The abbreviation SFD is used of a baby with anabnormally low birth weight in relation to the length of the pregnancy.)
  • SFE = STOCK EXCHANGE Sydney Futures Exchange
  • SFO = 1.CRIME Serious Fraud Office 2.FINANCE Superannuation Funds Office
  • sfz. = MUSIC sforzando
  • SG = 1.GRAMMAR singular 2.LAW Solicitor General 3.PHYSICS specific gravity
  • Sg = 1.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS seaborgium 2.BIBLE Song of Songs
  • sg = ONLINE Singapore (NOTE: The abbreviation sg is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • sgd = signed
  • SGHWR = INDUST steam-generating heavy-water reactor
  • SGM = US MILITARY Sergeant Major
  • SGML = COMPUTING an international standard for the definition of system-independentmethods of representing texts in electronic form by describing the relationship betweena document's form and its structure. Full form Standard Generalized MarkupLanguage
  • SGOT = BIOCHEMISTRY an enzyme manufactured in the liver, elevated levels of which canindicate decreased liver function. Full form serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase
  • SGPT = BIOCHEMISTRY an enzyme manufactured in the liver and heart, the presence ofwhich in the blood indicates damage to these organs. Full form serum glutamicpyruvictransaminase
  • Sgt = MILITARY Sergeant
  • Sgt Maj. = MILITARY Sergeant Major
  • SGX = STOCK EXCHANGE Singapore Exchange
  • sh = ONLINE St Helena (NOTE: The abbreviation sh is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • sh. = 1.STOCK EXCHANGE share 2.AGRICULTURE sheep 3.PRINTING sheet
  • SHA = NAVIGATION a measure of a star's position in relation to the meridian passing throughAries. Full form sidereal hour angle
  • SHAEF = MILITARY Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces
  • shan't = shall not
  • SHAPE = MILITARY Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe
  • she'd = 1.she had 2.she would
  • she'll = 1.she shall 2.she will
  • she's = 1.she has 2.she is151 SIP
  • SHF = RADIO a radio frequency between 3,000 and 30,000 megahertz. Full formsuperhigh frequency
  • shipt = MAIL shipment
  • SHM = PHYSICS simple harmonic motion
  • SHO = HEALTH SERVICES Senior House Officer
  • should've = should have
  • shouldn't = should not
  • shp = MECHANICAL ENGINEERING shaft horsepower
  • shpt = shipment
  • shr. = STOCK EXCHANGE share
  • sht = PRINTING sheet
  • shtg. = shortage
  • SI = 1.MEASUREMENTS Système International (d'Unités) (NOTE: The abbreviation SI, from theFrench, ‘International System (of Units)', refers to a set of units adopted for internationaluse in science and technology. The coulomb, for example, is the SI unit of electriccharge.) 2.NZ GEOGRAPHY South Island 3.FINANCE statutory instrument
  • Si = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS silicon
  • si = ONLINE Slovenia (NOTE: The abbreviation si is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • SIA = FINANCE Securities Institute of Australia
  • SIB = FINANCE Securities and Investments Board
  • SIC = COMMERCE Standard Industrial Classification
  • SICAV = FINANCE a limited company in Luxembourg. Full form société d'investissementà capital variable
  • SIDS = MEDICINE the technical name for cot death. Full form sudden infant deathsyndrome
  • SIG = ONLINE special-interest group
  • Sig. = 1.the Italian equivalent of Mr. Full form Signor 2.a title used before the name of ahighly respected man or a man of advanced age in Italy and other Italian-speakingcountries. Full form Signore
  • sig. = signature
  • sigint = intelligence data acquired electronically. Full form signals intelligence
  • Signa = the Italian equivalent of Miss. Full form Signorina
  • Sigra = the Italian equivalent of Mrs. Full form Signora
  • sim. = similar
  • SIM card = TELECOMMUNICATIONS a smart card inserted into a mobile phonethat holds the personal information relating to the subscriber (e.g. the subscriber's PINor stored phone numbers). Full form Subscriber Identity Module card
  • SIMD = COMPUTING single instruction stream multiple data stream
  • SIMM = COMPUTING a module plugged into the motherboard of a computer to addmemory. Full form single in-line memory module
  • sin = MATHEMATICS sine
  • SINBAD = SOCIAL SCIENCES _ see note at dinky
  • sing. = GRAMMAR singular
  • Singh. = LANGUAGE Singhalese
  • SINK = SOCIAL SCIENCES _ see note at dinky
  • SIO = COMPUTING serial input/output
  • SIP = COMPUTING single in-line packageSIPC 152
  • SIPC = FINANCE Securities Investor Protection Corporation
  • SIPO = COMPUTING serial input/parallel output
  • SIPP = PENSIONS self-invested personal pension
  • SIR = GOVERNMENT Singapore Immigration and Registration
  • SIS = INFORMATION SCIENCE strategic information systems
  • SISD = COMPUTING single instruction stream single data stream
  • SISO = COMPUTING serial input/serial output
  • SITD = ONLINE still in the dark (used in e-mails)
  • SIV = MICROBIOLOGY simian immunodeficiency virus
  • SJ = CHRISTIANITY Society of Jesus (NOTE: The abbreviation SJ is used after the name of aJesuit.)
  • sj = ONLINE Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation sj is seen at the end ofInternet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • SJA = MEDICINE Saint John Ambulance (Brigade or Association)
  • SJD = Doctor of Juridical Science (NOTE: From the Latin Scientiae Juridicae Doctor.)
  • SK = GEOGRAPHY Saskatchewan
  • sk = ONLINE Slovakia (NOTE: The abbreviation sk is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Skr. = LANGUAGE Sanskrit
  • SKU = COMMERCE a unique code, consisting of numbers or letters andnumbers, assigned to a product by a retailer for identification and stock control. Fullform stockkeeping unit
  • SL = 1.INSURANCE salvage loss 2.GEOGRAPHY sea level 3.LAW Solicitor-at-Law 4.LINGUISTICSsource language 5.GEOGRAPHY south latitude
  • sl = ONLINE Sierra Leone (NOTE: The abbreviation sl is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • SLA = COMMERCE service level agreement
  • SLADE = ARTS Society of Lithographic Artists, Designers, Engravers, and ProcessWorkers
  • slan = PUBLISHING without place, year, or name (NOTE: From the Latin sine loco, anno, velnomine.)
  • SLBM = ARMS submarine-launched ballistic missile
  • SLCM = ARMS sea-launched cruise missile
  • SLE = MEDICINE a condition of the immune system in which it wrongly attacks the body'sown tissues, most common in young women. Full form systemic lupuserythematosus
  • SLIP = ONLINE the older of two protocols for dial-up access to the Internet using amodem. It has now been largely replaced by point-to-point protocol (PPP). Full formserial line Internet protocol
  • SLOSS = ENVIRONMENT a term in ecology relating to the debate over whether it is better toprotect one large area or many smaller ones. Full form single large or several small
  • SLP = POLITICS Scottish Labour Party
  • SLR = PHOTOGRAPHY a camera in which the light passes through one lens to the film and,by means of a mirror and prism system, to the focusing screen. Full form single-lensreflex
  • SLSI = ELECTRONICS super large scale integration
  • SLV = AEROSPACE 1.space launch vehicle 2.standard launch vehicle
  • SM = MILITARY Sergeant Major
  • Sm = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS samarium153 so
  • sm = ONLINE San Marino (NOTE: The abbreviation sm is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • sm. = small
  • SMA = METALLURGY shape memory alloy
  • SMATV = TV satellite master antenna television
  • SMB = COMPUTING server message block
  • SME = BUSINESS small and medium-sized enterprises
  • SMED = COMMERCE the concept of reducing the time involved in setting up amanufacturing process, ideally to under ten minutes. Full form single minuteexchange of dies
  • SMI = BUSINESS the stock market index of the Zurich stock exchange in Switzerland. Fullform Swiss Market Index
  • SMP = HUMAN RESOURCES statutory maternity pay
  • SMR = MEDICINE submucous resection
  • SMS = TELECOMMUNICATIONS a service that allows short text messages to be sent to andfrom mobile phones. Full form short message serviceText messaging has introduced a new form of shorthand that can seem daunting to theuninitiated, although it is largely based on well-established principles that date from longbefore the introduction of this technology. These include omitting letters from words (e.g. tlk= ‘talk', wn = ‘when', yr = ‘your'), using letters and numbers in place of words or syllables thatsound the same (e.g. C = ‘see', R = ‘are', U = ‘you', 2 = ‘to', 4 = ‘for', 8 as in GR8 = ‘great',L8R = ‘later', and W8 = ‘wait'), and reducing phrases to their initial letters (e.g. CB = ‘callback', IDK = ‘I don't know', MYOB = ‘mind your own business', SYS = ‘see you soon').
  • SMT = COMPUTING surface-mount technology
  • SMTP = COMPUTING the main protocol used to send electronic mail on the Internet,consisting of rules for how programs sending mail should interact with programsreceiving mail. Full form simple mail transfer protocol
  • SN = US MILITARY seaman
  • Sn = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS tin
  • sn = ONLINE Senegal (NOTE: The abbreviation sn is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • SNA = COMPUTING systems network architecture
  • SNAFU = situation normal all fouled up (NOTE: The acronym SNAFU (or snafu) isused as a noun to denote any mishap or mistake generally caused by incompetence andresulting in delay or confusion.)
  • SNCF = RAIL the national railway system in France. Full form Société Nationale desChemins de Fer (NOTE: From the French, ‘National Railway Association'.)
  • SNG = INDUST substitute (or synthetic) natural gas
  • SNMP = COMPUTING simple network management protocol
  • SNOBOL = COMPUTING a high-level computer programming languagedesigned for dealing with strings of symbols. Full form StriNg-Oriented symBOlicLanguage (NOTE: The form of the acronym SNOBOL is humorously modelled on that ofCOBOL, an otherwise unrelated language.)
  • SNP = 1.POLITICS Scottish National Party 2.BIOTECHNOLOGY a commonly found change in asingle nucleotide base in a DNA sequence, occurring about every 1,000 bases. It is ofsignificance in biomedical research. Full form single nucleotide polymorphism
  • Snr = Senior
  • SO = 1.a spouse or long-term sexual partner (used in Internet chat rooms and textmessages) Full form significant other 2.BANKING standing order
  • so = FINANCE seller's option?ONLINE Somalia (NOTE: The abbreviation so is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)SO 154
  • sociol. = sociology
  • SOCKS = COMPUTING a network protocol developed to support the transfer ofTCP/IP (Internet) traffic through a proxy server. It is commonly used to enable users ona local area network to access the Internet via a single shared connection. Full formsockets
  • soln = solution
  • SOM = ECOLOGY soil organic matter
  • Som. = GEOGRAPHY 1.Somalia 2.Somerset
  • sonar = _ see note at Aids
  • SOP = standard operating procedure
  • sop. = MUSIC soprano
  • SOR = COMMERCE sale or return
  • SORN = AUTOMOTIVE a formal declaration by the owner that a vehicle does notrequire a road-fund licence (i.e. a current tax disc) because it is not being used on publicroads. Full form statutory off-road notification (NOTE: The acronym SORN is used asa noun in its own right.)
  • SOS = a call or signal requesting help (NOTE: The abbreviation SOS, popularly said to standfor ‘save our souls', was chosen as an international distress signal because it could beeasily transmitted and received in Morse code.)
  • Sov. = Soviet
  • SOW = ONLINE speaking of which (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • Sow. = a title used in India before the name of a married woman whose husband is stillalive. Full form Sowbhagyawati
  • SP = 1.COMPUTING the address register containing the address of the most recently-storedpiece of data or the location of the next piece of data to be retrieved. Full form stackpointer 2.HORSERACING starting price 3.NAVY submarine patrol
  • Sp. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Spain 2.Spaniard 3.LANGUAGE Spanish
  • sp = LAW without children (NOTE: From the Latin sine prole.)
  • sp. = 1.special 2.BIOLOGY species 3.specific 4.specimen 5.spelling
  • sp ht = PHYSICS specific heat
  • SpA = COMMERCE società per azioni (NOTE: From the Italian, ‘limited company'.)
  • Span. = LANGUAGE Spanish
  • SPC = COMMERCE statistical process control
  • SPCK = CHRISTIANITY Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge
  • spec. = 1.special 2.specification
  • specif. = 1.specific 2.specifically
  • SPECT = MEDICINE a technique used in diagnosing some diseases that generates a threedimensionalcomputer image of the distribution of a radioactive tracer in a particularorgan. Full form single photon emission computed tomography
  • SPF = the degree to which a sun cream, lotion, screen, or block provides protection for theskin against the sun. Full form sun protection factor
  • Spgs = Springs (NOTE: The abbreviation Spgs is used in placenames.)
  • SPL = MEASUREMENTS, ACOUSTICS sound pressure level
  • SPOT = ENVIRONMENT Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre
  • spp. = BIOLOGY species (NOTE: The abbreviation spp.is the plural form of sp.)155 SSgt
  • SPQR = ANCIENT HIST Senatus Populusque Romanus (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘the senate andpeople of Rome'.)
  • Spr = MILITARY Sapper
  • SPS = PHYSICS standard pressure setting
  • spt = GEOGRAPHY seaport
  • SPUC = Society for the Protection of the Unborn Child
  • SPX = COMPUTING simplex
  • Sq. = 1.MILITARY Squadron 2.ROADS Square (NOTE: The abbreviation Sq.is used inaddresses.)
  • sq. = 1.sequence 2.sequens 3.MILITARY squadron 4.MEASUREMENTS square
  • SQA = COMPUTING software quality assurance
  • SQL = COMPUTING a standardized language that approximates the structure ofnatural English for obtaining information from databases. Full form structured querylanguage
  • Sqn = MILITARY Squadron
  • Sr = 1.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS strontium 2.the Portuguese equivalent of Mr. Full form Senhor3.senior 4.the Spanish equivalent of Mr. Full form Señor 5.the Italian equivalent of Mr.Full form Signor 6.Sir 7.Sister
  • sr = 1.MEASUREMENTS, MATHEMATICS steradian 2.ONLINE Suriname (NOTE: The abbreviation sris seen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • SRA = RAIL Strategic Rail Authority
  • Sra = 1.the Portuguese equivalent of Mrs. Full form Senhora 2.the Spanish equivalent ofMrs. Full form Señora
  • SRAM = COMPUTING static random-access memory
  • SRB = COMMERCE sales returns book
  • SRCN = HEALTH SERVICES State Registered Children's Nurse
  • SRDS = BUSINESS Standard Rate and Data Service
  • SRI = FINANCE socially responsible investor
  • Srl = COMMERCE società a responsabilità limitata (NOTE: From the Italian, ‘limited company'.)
  • SRN = HEALTH SERVICES State Registered Nurse
  • sRNA = BIOCHEMISTRY soluble RNA
  • SRO = 1.BUSINESS self-regulatory organization 2.TRAVEL single room occupancy 3.standingroom only 4.Statutory Rules and Orders
  • SRT = COMPUTING source transparent routing
  • Srta = 1.the Portuguese equivalent of Miss. Full form Senhorita 2.the Spanish equivalentof Miss. Full form Señorita
  • SS = 1.Saints 2.SOCIAL WELFARE Social Security 3.BOAT steamship 4.CHRISTIANITY Sundayschool 5.LAW sworn statement
  • ss = PUBLISHING sections
  • SSADM = MANAGEMENT structured systems analysis and design method
  • SSAP = ACCOUNTING Statement of Standard Accounting Practice
  • SSB = RADIO single sideband (transmission)
  • SSC = 1.S Asia EDUCATION a qualification given to students in India on passing out ofsecondary school. Full form Secondary School Certificate 2.LAW Solicitor to theSupreme Court
  • SSD = COMPUTING single-sided disk
  • SSE = south-southeast
  • SSG = US MILITARY Staff Sergeant
  • SSgt = MILITARY Staff SergeantSSHA 156
  • SSHA = SOCIAL WELFARE Scottish Special Housing Association
  • SSI = 1.ELECTRONICS small-scale integration 2.BUSINESS instructions from one bank to otherbanks as to the procedure to be followed when making payments to it. Full formstanding settlement instructions
  • SSL = COMPUTING a protocol designed by Netscape that provides secure communicationsover the Internet. Full form secure sockets layer
  • SSM = ARMS surface-to-surface missile
  • SSN = US SOCIAL WELFARE Social Security Number
  • SSP = HUMAN RESOURCES statutory sick pay
  • ssp. = BIOLOGY subspecies
  • SSR = POLITICS Soviet Socialist Republic (NOTE: The abbreviation SSR was used in the namesof constituent members of the Soviet Union, such as the Latvian SSR (now Latvia).)
  • SSRI = PHARMACOLOGY an antidepressant drug that increases serotonin levels in synapses,resulting in elevation of mood. Full form selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
  • SSSI = ENVIRONMENT Site of Special Scientific Interest
  • SST = TRANSPORT supersonic transport
  • SSW = south-southwest
  • ST = TIME standard time
  • St = 1.CHRISTIANITY Saint 2.GEOGRAPHY Strait 3.ROADS Street (NOTE: The abbreviation St isused in addresses.)
  • st = 1.ONLINE São Tomé and Príncipe (NOTE: The abbreviation st is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.MEASUREMENTS short ton
  • st. = 1.POETRY stanza 2.start 3.state 4.LAW statute 5.PRINTING stet 6.HANDICRAFT stitch
  • St. Ex. = Stock Exchange
  • Sta = Santa (NOTE: The abbreviation Sta, from Spanish and Italian, is used before the nameof a woman who is a saint, especially in placenames.)
  • stacc. = MUSIC staccato
  • Staffs. = GEOGRAPHY Staffordshire
  • START = MILITARY Strategic Arms Reduction Talks
  • STB = BUSINESS the joining together of unions so as to enter negotiations as one entity, toensure fairness to all members of a profession. Full form single table bargaining
  • stbd = NAUTICAL starboard
  • STD = 1.MEDICINE sexually transmitted disease 2.TELECOMMUNICATIONS subscriber trunkdialling
  • std = standard
  • Ste = Sainte (NOTE: The abbreviation Ste, from French, is used before the name of a womanwho is a saint, and is often used in the names of wines.)
  • ster. = MONEY sterling
  • stg = MONEY sterling
  • stge = storage
  • Sth = south
  • StHA = HEALTH SERVICES Strategic Health Authority
  • STI = MEDICINE sexually transmitted infection
  • stk = COMMERCE stock
  • STM = RELIGION Master of Sacred Theology (NOTE: From the Latin Sacrae TheologiaeMagister.)
  • STOL = AVIAT a flying system that gives an aircraft the ability to take off and land ona very short runway. Full form short takeoff and landing
  • STP = 1.COMPUTING shielded twisted pair (cable) 2.PHYSICS standard temperature andpressure
  • stp = 1.COMPUTING shielded twisted pair (cable) 2.PHYSICS standard temperature andpressure157 SWELL
  • Str. = GEOGRAPHY Strait
  • str. = 1.GEOGRAPHY strait 2.ROWING stroke
  • STRESS = COMPUTING structural engineering system solver
  • STS = GENETICS sequence tagged site
  • STUC = POLITICS Scottish Trades Union Congress
  • STV = 1.TV Scottish Television 2.POLITICS a system of voting in a multimember constituencyin which voters list the candidates in order of preference and any candidate receivingthe required number of votes is elected. Full form single transferable vote
  • STX = COMPUTING start of text
  • STYS = ONLINE speak to you soon (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • SU = MEASUREMENTS, NUCLEAR PHYSICS strontium unit
  • subj. = 1.GRAMMAR subject 2.subjective 3.GRAMMAR subjunctive
  • Suff. = GEOGRAPHY Suffolk
  • Sun. = CALENDAR Sunday
  • sup. = 1.superior 2.GRAMMAR superlative 3.GRAMMAR supine 4.supplement 5.supplementary 6.supply 7.supra (NOTE: The abbreviation sup.is used in formal writingto refer the reader back to something at an earlier point in the same text.)
  • Supdt = Superintendent
  • super. = 1.superfine 2.superior
  • Supt = Superintendent
  • supvr = supervisor
  • Sur. = GEOGRAPHY Suriname
  • surg. = 1.surgeon 2.surgery 3.surgical
  • SUV = N Am VEHICLES a tough four-wheel-drive vehicle built on a truck chassis, usually usedfor everyday driving. Full form sport-utility vehicle
  • SV = CHRISTIANITY 1.Holy Virgin (NOTE: From the Latin Sancta Virgo.) 2.Your Holiness
  • Sv = MEASUREMENTS, SCIENCE sievert
  • sv = 1.BOAT sailing vessel 2.ENGINEERING side valve 3.under the word or term (NOTE: Theabbreviation s.v.is used in textual references, e.g. to direct the reader to a particularheadword in a dictionary or encyclopedia.)?ONLINE El Salvador (NOTE: The abbreviation sv is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • SVA = FINANCE shareholder value analysis
  • SVGA = a modified specification for video display controllers used in personal computers.Full form super video graphics array
  • SW = 1.RADIO short wave 2.southwest 3.southwestern
  • Sw. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Sweden 2.LANGUAGE Swedish
  • SWALK = sealed with a loving kissThe acronym SWALK, traditionally written on the back of a envelope containing a letter to abeloved person, is falling into disuse along with the practice of letter-writing itself.Nonetheless, it is probably the most enduring of a set of acronyms formerly used in the sameway. Many of the others share a geographical theme; they include BURMA ‘be undressed andready my angel', HOLLAND ‘hope our love lasts and never dies', ITALY ‘I trust and love you',and NORWICH ‘(k)nickers off ready when I come home'.
  • SWAT = US POLICE a police unit that is trained in the use of military weapons andtactics. Full form Special Weapons and Tactics
  • swbd = TELECOMMUNICATIONS switchboard
  • SWbS = southwest by south
  • SWbW = southwest by west
  • SWELL = SOCIAL SCIENCES _ see note at dinkySWG 158
  • SWG = MEASUREMENTS, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING standard wire gauge
  • SWIFT = BANKING Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications
  • SWIM = see what I mean? (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • Switz. = GEOGRAPHY Switzerland
  • SWP = POLITICS Socialist Workers Party
  • SWPA = GEOGRAPHY Southwestern Pacific Area
  • SX = COMPUTING a type of processor chip derived from the basic 80386 or 80486 processorthat is slightly cheaper to manufacture and buy
  • sy = ONLINE Syria (NOTE: The abbreviation sy is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • SYHA = Scottish Youth Hostels Association
  • sym. = 1.symbol 2.symmetrical 3.MUSIC symphony 4.MEDICINE symptom
  • synd. = syndicate
  • SYS = ONLINE see you soon (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • syst. = system
  • sz = ONLINE Swaziland (NOTE: The abbreviation sz is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • T = 1.PHYSICS absolute temperature 2.PHYSICS kinetic energy 3.PHYSICS period 4.PHYSICSsurface tension 5.MEASUREMENTS, COOKERY tablespoon(ful) 6.TELECOMMUNICATIONStelephone (number) (NOTE: The abbreviation T is used to contrast with E (e-mail address)and F (fax number).) 7.MEASUREMENTS temperature 8.MEASUREMENTS tera- 9.PHYSICS tesla10.CALENDAR Thursday 11.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS tritium 12.true 13.CALENDAR Tuesday
  • t = 1.PHYSICS time 2.MEASUREMENTS, FREIGHT tare 3.MEASUREMENTS, COOKERY teaspoon(ful) 4.MUSIC tempo 5.MUSIC tenor 6.GRAMMAR tense 7.MEASUREMENTS ton 8.GRAMMARtransitive 9.MEASUREMENTS troy
  • T-bill = FINANCE a financial security issued by the Treasury payable to the bearer after a fixedperiod, usually three months. Full form Treasury bill
  • T & E = an informal euphemism describing somebody who is slightly drunk. Full form tiredand emotional
  • t.i.d. = PHARMACOLOGY three times a day (NOTE: The abbreviation t.i.d., from the Latin terin die, is used in prescriptions.)
  • t.l. = INSURANCE total loss
  • t.l.o. = INSURANCE total loss only
  • t.p. = PUBLISHING title page
  • TA = 1.ARMY Territorial Army 2.ONLINE thanks again (used in e-mails and text messages) 3.PSYCHOLOGY a form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the interactions within andbetween individuals and classifies these interactions as ‘adult', ‘parent', or ‘child'. Fullform transactional analysis 4.TRANSPORT Transit Authority
  • Ta = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS tantalum
  • TAB = 1.COMPUTING tabulate 2.GAMBLING in Australia and New Zealand, the agencyor company that runs legal betting on horseracing, greyhound racing, and othersporting events. Full form Totalizator Agency Board 3.IMMUNOLOGY typhoidparatyphoidA-paratyphoid B (vaccine)
  • tab. = table
  • TAC = FISHERIES total allowable catch
  • TAFE = EDUCATION in Australia, a system of higher education providing instruction intechnical subjects. Full form Technical and Further Education
  • TAFN = ONLINE that's all for now (used in e-mails and Internet chat rooms)
  • 'tain't = it ain't
  • TALISMAN = STOCK EXCHANGE a computer system used for buying and sellingsecurities on the London Stock Exchange. Full form Transfer Accounting Lodgementfor Investors and Stock Management
  • TAM = TV Television Audience Measurement
  • tan = MATHEMATICS tangent
  • TAO = BUSINESS an application for specific relief from taxes on the grounds that they arecausing you significant hardship. Full form taxpayer assistance order
  • TAPI = COMPUTING telephony application programming interface
  • TAS = AEROSPACE true air speed
  • Tas. = GEOGRAPHY Tasmania
  • TAT = 1.PSYCHOLOGY thematic apperception test 2.COMPUTING turnaround time
  • TAURUS = STOCK EXCHANGE a computerized system used for buying and sellingsecurities on the International Stock Exchange. Full form Transfer of AutomatedRegistration of Uncertified Stock
  • TB = 1.NAVY torpedo boat 2.ACCOUNTING trial balance 3.MEDICINE tuberculosis (NOTE: Theabbreviation TB is used as a noun in its own right in this sense.)TBA 160
  • Tb = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS terbium
  • TBA = 1.to be agreed 2.to be announced 3.WINE the highest grade of German table wine,made from individually selected shrivelled grapes and typically very sweet. Full formTrockenbeerenauslese
  • TBC = ONLINE to be continued (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • TBD = 1.to be determined 2.to be discussed
  • TBI = MEDICINE total body irradiation
  • tbs. = MEASUREMENTS, COOKERY tablespoon(ful)
  • TBT = ECOLOGY a compound used in marine antifouling paints, banned in many countiesbecause of its devastating effect on wildlife. Full form tributyl tin
  • TC = 1.BUSINESS till countermanded 2.AUTOMOTIVE twin carburettors
  • Tc = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS technetium
  • tc = ONLINE Turks and Caicos Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation tc is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • TCA = WINE a chemical that can form on wine bottle corks during the manufacturingprocess, causing the wine to become musty and ‘corked' in storage. Full formtrichloranisole
  • TCCB = CRICKET Test and County Cricket Board
  • TCDD = CHEMISTRY an extremely toxic by-product of herbicide manufacture. Full formtetrachlorodibenzodioxin
  • TCO = BUSINESS total cost of ownership
  • TCOB = ONLINE taking care of business (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • TCP/IP = ONLINE a protocol used for transmitting data between computers and as the basisfor standard protocols on the Internet. Full form transmission controlprotocol/Internet protocol
  • TCS = FINANCE Tariff Concession Scheme
  • TD = 1.GOVERNMENT Member of the Dáil (the lower house of the Irish parliament) (NOTE:From the Irish Teachta Dála.) 2.ARMS tank destroyer 3.TECHNOLOGY technical drawing 4.MILITARY Territorial Decoration 5.AMERICAN FOOTBALL touchdown
  • TDB = COMMERCE Trade Development Board
  • TDD = TELECOMMUNICATIONS telecommunications device for the deaf
  • TDM = 1.TELECOMMUNICATIONS time-division multiplexing 2.ONLINE too damn many (usedin e-mails and text messages)
  • TDR = COMPUTING a method of testing a conductor such as a fibre-optic cable for faults, bysending a controlled pulsed signal into it and monitoring the reflections of this. Full formtime domain reflectometry
  • TDS = COMPUTING transaction-driven system
  • Te = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS tellurium
  • TE score = EDUCATION in Australia, a score awarded on the basis of final secondary schoolexaminations that determines whether or not a student is accepted into some tertiaryeducation institutions. Full form tertiary entrance score
  • TEC = BUSINESS Training and Enterprise Council
  • tec. = technician
  • tech. = 1.technical 2.technician 3.technology
  • technol. = technology
  • TED = MEDICINE supportive elastic stockings that help to maintain circulation in the lowerlegs and prevent conditions such as deep-vein thrombosis. Full form thromboembolicdeterrent (stocking)
  • TEE = RAIL Trans-Europe Express (train)
  • TEFL = EDUCATION teaching of English as a foreign language
  • TEL = CHEMISTRY an extremely poisonous oily liquid formerly used as an antiknock agent inpetrol. Full form tetraethyl lead161 THC
  • tel. = 1.telegram 2.telegraph 3.telegraphic 4.telephone
  • teleg. = 1.telegram 2.telegraph 3.telegraphic 4.telegraphy
  • temp. = 1.temperance 2.temperate 3.temperature 4.template 5.temporal 6.temporary
  • TENS = MEDICINE a method of treating chronic pain by applying electrodes to the skinand passing small electric currents through sensory nerves and the spinal cord, thussuppressing the transmission of pain signals. Full form transcutaneous electricalnerve stimulation
  • TEPP = CHEMISTRY a crystalline compound used as an insecticide and in medicine as astimulant for the nervous system. Full form tetraethyl pyrophosphate
  • TER = EDUCATION in parts of Australia, a measure on a scale of 0 to 100 of a student'sperformance in the HUSK (Higher School Certificate) examinations, used to assesseligibility for tertiary courses. Full form tertiary entrance rank
  • Ter. = Terrace (NOTE: The abbreviation Ter.is used in addresses.)
  • ter. = 1.terrace 2.territorial 3.territory
  • term. = terminal
  • Terr. = Terrace (NOTE: The abbreviation Terr.is used in addresses.)
  • terr. = 1.territorial 2.territory
  • TESL = EDUCATION teaching of English as a second language
  • TESOL = EDUCATION teaching of English to speakers of other languages
  • TESSA = FINANCE a tax-free savings account, now superseded by the ISA (althoughTESSAs opened before the introduction of ISAs may still be held or transferred). Fullform tax-exempt special savings account
  • Test. = BIBLE Testament
  • Teut. = Teutonic
  • Tex. = GEOGRAPHY Texan
  • TFN = FINANCE tax file number
  • TFR = ECOLOGY total fertility rate
  • TFTP = COMPUTING a simple form of the standard FTP (file transfer protocol) system,commonly used to load the operating system software onto a diskless workstation froma server. Full form trivial file transfer protocol
  • TG = LINGUISTICS transformational grammar
  • tg = ONLINE Togo (NOTE: The abbreviation tg is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • TGAL = ONLINE think globally, act locally
  • TGAT = EDUCATION Task Group on Assessment and Testing
  • TGI = MARKETING Target Group Index
  • TGIF = thank God (or goodness) it's Friday
  • TGV = RAIL in France and some other countries, a very high-speed train. Full form train àgrande vitesse (NOTE: The abbreviation TGV, from French, is used as a noun in its ownright.)
  • TGWU = HUMAN RESOURCES Transport and General Workers' Union
  • Th = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS thorium
  • Th. = 1.BIBLE Thessalonians 2.CALENDAR Thursday
  • th = ONLINE Thailand (NOTE: The abbreviation th is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • ThB = RELIGION Bachelor of Theology (NOTE: From the Latin Theologiae Baccalaureus.)
  • THC = CHEMISTRY the main active chemical in cannabis. Full form tetrahydrocannabinolThD 162
  • ThD = RELIGION Doctor of Theology (NOTE: From the Latin Theologiae Doctor.)
  • theat. = 1.theatre 2.theatrical
  • theol. = RELIGION 1.theologian 2.theological 3.theology
  • theos. = RELIGION 1.theosophical 2.theosophy
  • therap. = MEDICINE 1.therapeutic 2.therapeutics
  • therm. = thermometer
  • Thess. = BIBLE Thessalonians
  • they'd = 1.they had 2.they would
  • they'll = 1.they shall 2.they will
  • they're = they are
  • they've = they have
  • THI = PHYSICS temperature-humidity index
  • THNQ = ONLINE thank you (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • thp = MEASUREMENTS, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING thrust horsepower
  • Thur. = CALENDAR Thursday
  • Thurs. = CALENDAR Thursday
  • THX = ONLINE thanks (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • THz = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS terahertz
  • Ti = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS titanium
  • TIA = 1.ONLINE thanks in advance (used in e-mails and text messages) 2.MEDICINE atemporary disruption to normal body function caused by a restriction of blood flow tothe brain, commonly called a ‘mini-stroke'. Full form transient ischaemic attack
  • TIBOR = BANKING Tokyo Interbank Offered Rate
  • TIC = ONLINE tongue in cheek (used in e-mails)
  • tid = PHARMACOLOGY three times a day (NOTE: The abbreviation t.i.d., from the Latin terin die, is used in prescriptions.)
  • TIFF = COMPUTING tagged image file format
  • TIGR = FINANCE a bond linked to US treasury bonds, profits from which are subjectto UK tax when the bond is cashed or redeemed. Full form Treasury InvestmentGrowth Receipts
  • TILA = FINANCE Truth in Lending Act
  • Tim. = BIBLE Timothy
  • tinct. = PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY tincture
  • TIR = TRANSPORT Transports Internationaux Routiers (NOTE: The abbreviation TIR, from theFrench, ‘international road transport', is seen on trucks.)
  • 'tis = it is
  • Tit. = BIBLE Titus
  • tj = ONLINE Tajikistan (NOTE: The abbreviation tj is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • tk = TRANSPORT truck
  • TKO = BOXING technical knockout
  • tkt = ticket
  • Tl = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS thallium
  • tl = INSURANCE total loss
  • TLA = three-letter acronym163 TPATLA has come to be used of many terms that are not strictly acronyms (which can bepronounced as a word) but abbreviations or initialisms (which are pronounced letter by letter).CAMRA is a TLA, for instance, but BBC is an initialism.
  • TLC = 1.tender loving care 2.SCIENCE thin-layer chromatographyThe abbreviation TLC is used as a noun in its own right in this sense. It principally denotes thecare and attention required by people (as in She just needs a bit of TLC), but can also refer toplants, animals, and even inanimate objects.
  • tlo = INSURANCE total loss only
  • TM = 1.trademark 2.transcendental meditation 3.ONLINE trust me (used in e-mails andtext messages)
  • Tm = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS thulium
  • tm = ONLINE Turkmenistan (NOTE: The abbreviation tm is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • TMJ = ANATOMY either of the joints connecting the lower part of the jaw (the mandible)with the temporal bone on each side of the head. Full form temporomandibular joint(NOTE: TMJ syndrome is a painful condition involving the temporomandibular joint andthe muscles used for chewing, sometimes causing clicking sounds and restricted jawmovement.)
  • TMT = BUSINESS technology, media, and telecommunications _ companies in the TMTsector
  • TN = MAIL Tennessee (NOTE: The abbreviation TN is part of the US sorting code on the lastline of a Tennessee address.)
  • tn = ONLINE Tunisia (NOTE: The abbreviation tn is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • TNA = HUMAN RESOURCES training-needs analysis
  • tng = training
  • TNT = CHEMISTRY a yellow flammable crystalline compound used as an explosive. Full formtrinitrotoluene (NOTE: The abbreviation TNT is used as a noun in its own right, and thefull form is rarely encountered.)
  • TNX = ONLINE thanks (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • to = ONLINE Tonga (NOTE: The abbreviation to is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Tob. = BIBLE Tobit
  • TOC = RAIL train operating company
  • Toc H = CHRISTIANITY an interdenominational association formed in Englandafter World War I to encourage Christian fellowship (NOTE: Toc H was telegraphic codefor TH, the initials of Talbot House, a Belgian recreation centre on which the associationwas modelled.)
  • TOE = MEASUREMENTS tonnes of oil equivalent
  • TOIL = HUMAN RESOURCES time off in lieu
  • TOPIC = STOCK EXCHANGE Teletext Output of Price Information by Computer
  • topog. = GEOGRAPHY topography
  • tox. = toxicology
  • TOY = ONLINE thinking of you (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • TP = COMPUTING 1.teleprocessing 2.transaction processing
  • tp = PUBLISHING title page?MILITARY troop
  • TPA = BIOCHEMISTRY an anticlotting enzyme that is produced naturally in blood vessel liningsand is genetically engineered for use in treating heart attacks, to dissolve blood clots,and to prevent heart muscle damage. Full form tissue plasminogen activatorTPC 164
  • TPC = Aus COMMERCE Trade Practices Commission
  • TPI = 1.FINANCE tax and price index 2.COMPUTING tracks per inch
  • TPM = COMMERCE total productive maintenance
  • TPN = BIOCHEMISTRY another name for NADP. Full form triphosphopyridine nucleotide
  • TPO = ECOLOGY tree preservation order
  • Tpr = MILITARY Trooper
  • TPWS = RAIL a safety system that automatically causes the brakes of a train to be appliedif it passes a signal set at danger. Full form Train Protection and Warning System
  • TQM = MANAGEMENT total quality management
  • TR = TELECOMMUNICATIONS transmit-receive
  • tr = ONLINE Turkey (NOTE: The abbreviation tr is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • tr. = 1.GRAMMAR transitive 2.PUBLISHING translator 3.PRINTING transpose 4.PRINTINGtransposition 5.FINANCE treasurer 6.MUSIC trill 7.MILITARY troop 8.FINANCE trust 9.FINANCEtrustee
  • trad. = traditional (NOTE: When trad is used informally as an adjective or noun referring totraditional jazz, it is written without a full stop.)
  • trans. = 1.COMMERCE transaction 2.transferred 3.GRAMMAR transitive 4.PUBLISHINGtranslated 5.PUBLISHING translation 6.transport 7.transpose 8.transverse
  • transf. = transferred
  • transl. = PUBLISHING 1.translated 2.translation 3.translator
  • transp. = 1.transport 2.transportation
  • treas. = FINANCE 1.treasurer 2.treasury
  • TRH = 1.Their Royal Highnesses 2.BIOCHEMISTRY a hormone released by the hypothalamuswhich stimulates the pituitary gland to produce thyroid stimulating hormone. Full formthyroid-releasing hormone 3.BIOCHEMISTRY a peptide hormone that is produced bythe hypothalamus and controls the release of thyrotropin (TSH) by the pituitary gland.Full form thyrotropin-releasing hormone
  • trig. = MATHEMATICS 1.trigonometric(al) (NOTE: When trig is used in the phrase trig point,short for ‘trigonometrical point', it is written without a full stop.) 2.trigonometry (NOTE:When trig is used informally in this sense, especially with reference to trigonometry asa school subject, it is written without a full stop.)
  • tripl. = triplicate
  • tRNA = BIOCHEMISTRY transfer RNA
  • trop. = 1.GEOGRAPHY tropic 2.tropical
  • trp = MILITARY troop
  • trs. = PRINTING transpose (NOTE: The abbreviation trs.is used in proofreading to mean‘change the order of the indicated words'.)
  • TS = transsexual
  • TSA = STOCK EXCHANGE The Securities Association
  • TSAPI = COMPUTING telephony services application programming interface
  • TSE = MEDICINE a disease that affects the nervous system and can be transmitted from onespecies to another. Full form transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
  • TSH = BIOCHEMISTRY a hormone that is secreted by the pituitary gland and stimulates releaseof hormones by the thyroid gland. TSH is also called thyrotropin. Full form thyroidstimulatinghormone
  • tsp. = MEASUREMENTS, COOKERY teaspoon(ful)
  • TSR = 1.HUMAN RESOURCES telephone sales representative 2.COMPUTING a program whichloads itself into main memory and carries out a function when activated. Full formterminate and stay resident (program)165 TX
  • TSS = MEDICINE acute circulatory failure, commonly associated with the use of vaginaltampons, which can create conditions promoting the growth of a toxin-producingstaphylococcal bacterium. Full form toxic shock syndrome
  • TSW = COMPUTING telesoftware
  • TT = 1.teetotal 2.BANKING telegraphic transfer 3.MOTORCYCLES a series of motorcycle racesheld every year in the Isle of Man. Full form Tourist Trophy 4.AGRICULTURE tuberculintested
  • tt = ONLINE Trinidad and Tobago (NOTE: The abbreviation tt is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • TTFN = ta-ta for nowThe abbreviation TTFN, used informally in place of ‘goodbye', originated in the 1940s as acatchphrase on the BBC radio programme ITMA (It's That Man Again), featuring the comedianTommy Handley.
  • TTL = 1.PHOTOGRAPHY through-the-lens _ TTL metering 2.ELECTRONICS a method ofconstructing electronic logic circuits. Full form transistor-transistor logic
  • TTL4N = ONLINE that's the lot for now (used in e-mails)
  • TTT = ONLINE 1.that's the ticket (used in e-mails) 2.to the top (NOTE: The abbreviation TTTis used in Internet bulletin boards to move a message to a more prominent position andstop it being overlooked.)
  • TTY = COMPUTING teletype
  • TU = HUMAN RESOURCES trade union
  • Tu. = CALENDAR Tuesday
  • TUC = POLITICS Trades Union Congress
  • Tue. = CALENDAR Tuesday
  • Tun. = GEOGRAPHY 1.Tunisia 2.Tunisian
  • Tur. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Turkey 2.LANGUAGE Turkish
  • Turk. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Turkey 2.LANGUAGE Turkish
  • TV = 1.television 2.transvestite
  • tv = ONLINE Tuvalu (NOTE: The abbreviation tv is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • TVEI = EDUCATION Technical and Vocational Education Initiative
  • TVP = FOOD INDUSTRY a high-protein product made from processed soya beans that areformed into chunks or minced and flavoured to taste like meat. Full form texturedvegetable protein
  • TVR = TV television rating(s)
  • TVRO = TV an aerial used for receiving television signals from a broadcasting satellite. Fullform television receive only
  • TW = MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY terawatt
  • tw = ONLINE Taiwan (NOTE: The abbreviation tw is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • TWAIN = COMPUTING an application programming interface standard developedby Hewlett-Packard, Logitech, Eastman Kodak, Aldus, and Caere that allows softwareto control image hardware. Full form Technology Without an Interesting Name
  • 'twas = it was
  • 'twere = it were
  • 'twill = it will
  • 'twould = it would
  • TX = 1.MAIL Texas (used in e-mails and text messages) 2.ONLINE thanks (NOTE: Theabbreviation TX is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a Texas address.) 3.COMPUTING transmit(ter)TY 166
  • TY = ONLINE thank you (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • typ. = PRINTING 1.typographer 2.typographical 3.typography
  • typo. = PRINTING 1.typographer 2.typographical (NOTE: When typo is used informally as anoun, short for ‘typographical error', it is written without a full stop.) 3.typography
  • typw. = 1.COMMERCE typewriter 2.typewritten
  • tz = ONLINE Tanzania (NOTE: The abbreviation tz is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • U = 1.PHYSICS internal energy 2.JUDAISM kosher certification 3.ELECTRICITY potentialdifference 4.united 5.CINEMA a rating indicating that a film can be seen by everybody,regardless of age. Full form universal 6.EDUCATION university 7.US EDUCATIONunsatisfactory 8.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS uraniumThe abbreviation U applies when a student in the US chooses to take a study course under aless strict marking scheme than is usually applied, for personal enrichment rather than for anofficial grade.
  • u = 1.uncle 2.unit 3.upper
  • U/S = unserviceable
  • u.s. = 1.ubi supra (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘where (mentioned) above'.) 2.ut supra (NOTE:From the Latin, ‘as (mentioned) above'.)
  • ua = ONLINE Ukraine (NOTE: The abbreviation ua is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • UAE = GEOGRAPHY United Arab Emirates
  • UAM = ARMS underwater-to-air missile
  • UART = COMPUTING universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter
  • UBC = COMPUTING universal block channel
  • UBE = ONLINE unsolicited bulk e-mail
  • UBR = BUSINESS uniform business rate
  • uc = PRINTING uppercase
  • UCAS = EDUCATION Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (NOTE: Theacronym UCAS is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • UCATT = Union of Construction, Allied Trades, and Technicians
  • UCC = CHRISTIANITY United Church of Christ
  • UCCA = EDUCATION the former name of UCAS. Full form Universities CentralCouncil on Admissions
  • UCE = ONLINE unsolicited commercial e-mail
  • UCL = EDUCATION University College London
  • UCLA = EDUCATION University of California at Los Angeles
  • UDA = POLITICS Ulster Defence Association
  • UDI = POLITICS unilateral declaration of independence (NOTE: Probably the most famous UDIwas that made in 1965 by Ian Smith, prime minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe),which led to thirteen years of UN sanctions against the country.)
  • UDM = HUMAN RESOURCES Union of Democratic Mineworkers
  • UDR = POLITICS Ulster Defence Regiment
  • UEFA = /ju| e?f?/ FOOTBALL Union of European Football Associations (NOTE: The acronymUEFA is used as a noun in its own right)
  • UFO = AEROSPACE a flying object that cannot be identified and isthought by some to be an alien spacecraft. Full form unidentified flying objectThe abbreviation UFO has entered the language as a noun in its own right and has spawnedthe derivative ufology, denoting the study of UFOs and the investigation of recorded sightingsof them.
  • ug = ONLINE Uganda (NOTE: The abbreviation ug is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • UGC = EDUCATION University Grants Committee
  • UHF = RADIO any or all radio frequencies between 300 and 3,000 megahertz, typically usedfor television transmission. Full form ultrahigh frequency
  • UI = COMPUTING user interfaceuk 168
  • UK = GEOGRAPHY United Kingdom
  • uk = ONLINE United Kingdom (NOTE: The abbreviation uk is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • UKAEA = INDUST United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
  • UKCC = HEALTH SERVICES United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery andHealth Visiting
  • ULA = COMPUTING a chip containing a number of unconnected logic circuits and gateswhich can then be connected by a customer to provide a required function. Full formuncommitted logic array
  • ult. = 1.ultimate 2.of the previous month. Full form ultimo (NOTE: The abbreviation ult.was formerly used in business correspondence, as in your letter of the 13th ult.)
  • UMIST = EDUCATION University of Manchester Institute of Science andTechnology
  • UN = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS United Nations
  • UN/EDIFACT = E-COMMERCE United Nations electronic data interchange foradministration, commerce, and transport (or trade)
  • unb. = PUBLISHING unbound
  • unbd = PUBLISHING unbound
  • UNCED = ENVIRONMENT United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
  • UNCTAD = BUSINESS United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
  • UNDP = BUSINESS United Nations Development Programme
  • UNEP = ENVIRONMENT United Nations Environment Programme
  • UNESCO = /ju_| nesk??/ INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS a United Nations agency that promotesinternational collaboration on culture, education, and science Full form UnitedNations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
  • UNHCR = LAW United Nations High Commission for Refugees
  • UNICEF = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS a United Nations agency that works for theprotection and survival of children around the world. Full form United NationsChildren's Fund (NOTE: The agency was formerly called the United Nations InternationalChildren's Emergency Fund, hence the abbreviation.)
  • UNIDO = /ju_| ni_d??/ INDUSTRY United Nations Industrial Development Organization
  • UNISON = HUMAN RESOURCES a trade union for public service employees, thelargest trade union in the United Kingdom (NOTE: UNISON is not an abbreviation. Thename reflects the fact that the union was formed by the merger of three unions, COHSE,NALGO, and NUPE, in July 1993.)
  • univ. = EDUCATION university
  • UNO = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS United Nations Organization
  • unp. = PUBLISHING unpaged
  • UNPROFOR = /?n| pr??|_f?_(r)/ MILITARY United Nations Protection Force
  • UNRRA = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS United Nations Relief and RehabilitationAdministration
  • UNRWA = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS United Nations Relief and Works Agency
  • UNSF = ECONOMICS United Nations Special Fund for Economic Development
  • UP = GEOGRAPHY Uttar Pradesh
  • up. = upper
  • UPC = US COMMERCE an early form of bar code containing 12 digits, used in the US beforethe advent of the EAN-UCC system in 1977. Full form Universal Product Code
  • UPI = PRESS United Press International
  • UPPP = uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
  • UPS = COMPUTING uninterruptable power supply169 Uub
  • uPVC = INDUSTRY a rigid form of PVC. Full form unplasticized polyvinyl chloride
  • URC = CHRISTIANITY United Reformed Church
  • URL = ONLINE an address identifying the location of a webpage on the Internet, consistingof the protocol, the domain name of the service, and the directory or file name. Full formUniform (formerly Universal) Resource Locator
  • urol. = MEDICINE 1.urological 2.urology
  • Uru. = Uruguay
  • US = GEOGRAPHY United States (of America) (NOTE: The abbreviation US can be used as anoun or adjective. The nickname Uncle Sam, a personification of the US government, isa jocular expansion of these initials.)
  • us = 1.ubi supra (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘where (mentioned) above'.) 2.ut supra (NOTE:From the Latin, ‘as (mentioned) above'.)?ONLINE United States (NOTE: The abbreviation us is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • USA = GEOGRAPHY United States of America
  • USAF = AIR FORCE United States Air Force
  • USAID = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS a trademark for a US government agencythat provides humanitarian aid and assistance for development to other countries
  • USART = COMPUTING universal synchronous asynchronous receiver/transmitter
  • USASCII = COMPUTING USA Standard Code for Information Interchange
  • USB = COMPUTING an external interface standard designed for communication between acomputer and attached peripheral devices such as printers, scanners, and keyboards _USB port Full form universal serial bus
  • USDAW = HUMAN RESOURCES Union of Shop, Distributive, and Allied Workers
  • USGS = GEOLOGY United States Geological Survey
  • USM = 1.ARMS underwater-to-surface missile 2.STOCK EXCHANGE unlisted securities market
  • USN = NAVY United States Navy
  • USO = MILITARY United Service Organizations
  • USP = 1.MARKETING a characteristic of a product that makes it different from all similarproducts. Full form unique selling proposition (or point) (NOTE: The abbreviation USPis used in advertisements and marketing: What is this product's USP?) 2.PHARMACOLOGYUnited States Pharmacopeia
  • USRT = COMPUTING universal synchronous receiver/transmitter
  • USS = 1.GOVERNMENT United States Senate 2.NAVY United States Ship
  • USSR = GEOGRAPHY Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • usu. = usually
  • USW = RADIO ultrashort wave
  • UT = 1.TIME another name for Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Full form Universal Time 2.MAIL Utah (NOTE: The abbreviation UT is part of the US sorting code on the last line of aUtah address.)
  • ut dict. = PHARMACOLOGY as directed (NOTE: The abbreviation ut dict., from the Latin utdictum, is used in prescriptions.)
  • UTC = TIME an internationally accepted standard for calculating time based on InternationalAtomic Time. Full form Universal Time Coordinated
  • UTI = MEDICINE urinary tract infection
  • util. = utility
  • UTP = COMPUTING unshielded twisted pair (cable)
  • UU = 1.POLITICS Ulster Unionist 2.RELIGION Unitarian Universalist
  • Uub = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ununbiumUUCP 170
  • UUCP = COMPUTING UNIX-to-UNIX copy
  • Uuq = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ununquadium
  • Uuu = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS unununium
  • UV = PHYSICS ultraviolet (radiation)
  • UVA = PHYSICS ultraviolet radiation, especially from the sun, with a relatively longwavelength. Full form ultraviolet A
  • UVB = PHYSICS ultraviolet radiation, especially from the sun, with a relatively shortwavelength. Full form ultraviolet B
  • UVF = POLITICS Ulster Volunteer Force
  • UVR = PHYSICS ultraviolet radiation
  • UW = INSURANCE 1.underwriter 2.underwritten
  • UWIST = EDUCATION University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology
  • ux. = wife (NOTE: From the Latin uxor.)
  • UXB = ARMS unexploded bomb
  • uy = ONLINE Uruguay (NOTE: The abbreviation uy is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • uz = ONLINE Uzbekistan (NOTE: The abbreviation uz is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • V = 1.PHYSICS electric potential 2.PHYSICS electromotive force 3.PHYSICS potential 4.PHYSICSpotential efficiency 5.PHYSICS potential energy 6.PHYSICS vacuum 7.BIOCHEMISTRY valine8.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS vanadium 9.MEDICINE a region in an antibody that has manyvarying patterns of amino acids. Full form variable region 10.MONEY vatu 11.MATHEMATICS vector 12.ANATOMY vein 13.PHYSICS velocity 14.CHRISTIANITY Venerable 15.MEDICINE ventilator 16.ANATOMY ventral 17.GRAMMAR verb 18.GRAMMAR verbal 19.verse20.version 21.versus 22.vertical 23.very 24.CHRISTIANITY vespers 25.via 26.QUANTUMPHYSICS vibrational quantum number 27.CHRISTIANITY vicar 28.CHRISTIANITY vicarage 29.vice 30.victory 31.vide (NOTE: The abbreviation V is used in textual references.) 32.village 33.MUSIC violin 34.MICROBIOLOGY virus 35.Viscount 36.Viscountess 37.METEOROLOGY (abnormally good) visibility 38.OPHTHALMOLOGY vision 39.GRAMMARvocative 40.MUSIC voice 41.GEOGRAPHY volcano 42.MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY volt 43.MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY voltage 44.PHYSICS voltmeter 45.volume 46.Volunteer(s) 47.PHONETICS vowel
  • v = 1.PHYSICS instantaneous potential difference 2.PHYSICS instantaneous voltage 3.PHYSICSspecific volume 4.PHYSICS vacuum 5.MATHEMATICS vector 6.ANATOMY vein 7.PHYSICSvelocity 8.MEDICINE ventilator 9.ANATOMY ventral 10.GRAMMAR verb 11.GRAMMAR verbal12.verse 13.PRINTING verso 14.versus 15.vertical 16.very 17.via 18.QUANTUM PHYSICSvibrational quantum number 19.CHRISTIANITY vicarage 20.victory 21.vide (NOTE: Theabbreviation v is used in textual references.) 22.MUSIC violin 23.MICROBIOLOGY virus 24.METEOROLOGY (abnormally good) visibility 25.OPHTHALMOLOGY vision 26.GRAMMARvocative 27.MUSIC voice 28.GEOGRAPHY volcano 29.MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY voltage30.volume 31.PHONETICS vowel
  • V & A = ARTS Victoria and Albert Museum
  • V/A = COMMERCE voucher attached
  • v.i. = vide infra (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘see below'.)
  • v.s. = vide supra (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘see above'.)
  • V/STOL = AVIAT a system used by some aircraft that enables them to take offand land vertically or using a short runway. Full form vertical/short takeoff andlanding
  • VA = 1.COMMERCE value analysis 2.COMMERCE value-added 3.MEDICINE ventriculararrhythmia 4.CHRISTIANITY vicar apostolic 5.MILITARY Vice Admiral 6.MILITARY (Royal Orderof) Victoria and Albert 7.MAIL Virginia (NOTE: The abbreviation VA is part of the USsorting code on the last line of a Virginia address.) 8.OPHTHALMOLOGY visual acuity 9.visual aid 10.WINE volatile acidity 11.MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY volt-ampere 12.MILITARYVolunteer Artillery
  • va = 1.ONLINE Vatican City (NOTE: The abbreviation va is seen at the end of Internetaddresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.GRAMMAR verb active 3.GRAMMAR verbal adjective 4.MUSIC viola
  • vac. = 1.vacancy 2.vacant 3.PHYSICS vacuum
  • val. = 1.GEOLOGY valley 2.FINANCE valuation 3.COMMERCE value
  • VAN = COMPUTING a computer network that enables private companies to exchangeinformation with other registered subscribers. Full form value-added network
  • van. = vanilla
  • VAR = 1.COMPUTING a retail seller of computers who adds products to computersproduced by manufacturers or performs services such as product integration orcustomization before selling the computers to customers. Full form value-addedreseller 2.visual aural range 3.ELECTRICITY volt-ampere reactive
  • var = MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY volt-ampere reactive
  • var. = 1.variable 2.variant 3.variationVAT 172
  • VAT = FINANCE a tax added to the estimated value of a product or material at eachstage of its manufacture or distribution, ultimately paid by the consumer. Full formvalue-added tax (NOTE: The abbreviation VAT is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • Vat. = Vatican
  • vb = GRAMMAR 1.verb 2.verbal
  • VBAC = MEDICINE a vaginal delivery of a baby by a woman whose first baby wasdelivered by Caesarean section. Full form vaginal birth after Caesarean
  • VC = 1.FINANCE venture capital 2.FINANCE venture capitalist 3.vice chairman 4.vicechancellor 5.POLITICS vice consul 6.MILITARY Victoria Cross 7.POLITICS Vietcong 8.WINE acategory for Spanish wines falling just below the standards set out by the DOappellation. Full form Vino Comarcal
  • vc = ONLINE St Vincent and the Grenadines (NOTE: The abbreviation vc is seen at the end ofInternet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • vCJD = MEDICINE a form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) that has a much shorterincubation period than previously recognized types but is clinically identical. Full formvariant CJD
  • VCM = FINANCE venture capital market
  • VCR = 1.HOUSEHOLD video cassette recorder 2.AVIAT visual control room (on an airfield)
  • VCT = FINANCE venture capital trust
  • VD = 1.MEDICINE venereal disease (NOTE: The abbreviation VD is used as a noun in its ownright. Both the abbreviation and the full form are somewhat dated, sexually transmitteddisease (STD) being the current term.) 2.MILITARY Volunteer Decoration
  • vd = 1.PHYSICS vapour density 2.various dates 3.void
  • VDC = Aus MILITARY Volunteer Defence Corps
  • VDH = MEDICINE valvular disease of the heart
  • VdlT = WINE a category for Spanish wines equivalent to the French ‘vin de pays'. Full formVino de la Tierra
  • VdM = WINE Vino de Mesa (NOTE: From the Spanish, ‘table wine'.)
  • VDN = WINE a French fortified wine made from naturally sweet grapes such as Muscat. Fullform vin doux naturel
  • VDQS = WINE the second-highest quality of French wine after AOC. Full form Vin Délimitéde Qualité Supérieure
  • VDR = VIDEO 1.videodisk recorder 2.videodisk recording
  • VDRL = MEDICINE venereal disease research laboratory
  • VDSL = TELECOMMUNICATIONS very-high-data-rate (or very-high-bit-rate) digital subscriberline
  • VDT = 1.COMPUTING video / visual display terminal 2.WINE Vino da Tavola
  • VDU = COMPUTING visual display unit (NOTE: The abbreviation VDU is used as a noun in itsown right.)
  • 've = have
  • ve = ONLINE Venezuela (NOTE: The abbreviation ve is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • vel. = 1.PAPER vellum 2.PHYSICS velocity
  • Ven. = 1.CHRISTIANITY Venerable 2.GEOGRAPHY Venezuela
  • Venez. = GEOGRAPHY Venezuela
  • VER = COMMERCE voluntary export restraint
  • ver. = 1.verse 2.version
  • vers = MATHEMATICS versed sine
  • vert. = vertical
  • VESA = COMPUTING Video Electronics Standards Association173 VM
  • vet. = 1.MILITARY veteran 2.veterinarian 3.veterinary
  • VF = 1.MEDICINE ventricular fibrillation 2.TV video frequency 3.TELECOMMUNICATIONS voicefrequency
  • VFR = AEROSPACE visual flight rules
  • VFT = RAIL very fast train
  • VFU = COMPUTING part of the control system of a printer that controls the vertical formatof the page to be printed, e.g. the line spacing. Full form vertical format unit
  • VG = CHRISTIANITY Vicar General
  • vg = 1.very good 2.ONLINE (British) Virgin Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation vg is seen at theend of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • VGA = COMPUTING a specification for video display controllers used in personal computers.Full form video graphics array
  • vgc = very good condition (NOTE: The abbreviation vgc is used in classified advertisementsof items for sale, for example cars.)
  • VHF = RADIO very high frequency
  • VI = GEOGRAPHY Vancouver Island
  • vi = vide infra (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘see below'.)?1.GRAMMAR verb intransitive 2.ONLINE (US) Virgin Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation vi isseen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • Vic. = Victoria
  • vic. = RELIGION vicar
  • Viet. = 1.GEOGRAPHY Vietnam 2.LANGUAGE Vietnamese
  • VIF = COMMERCE variable import fee
  • vign. = vignette
  • vil. = village
  • vill. = village
  • vin. = FOOD vinegar
  • VIP = 1.MEDICINE a peptide secreted by the intestines that has been shown to havebeneficial effects for arthritis sufferers. Full form vasoactive intestinal peptide 2.veryimportant person (NOTE: The abbreviation VIP is used as a noun in its own right.)
  • VIR = Victoria Empress and Queen (NOTE: From the Latin Victoria Imperatrix Regina.)
  • Vir. = 1.LITERATURE Virgil 2.ASTRONOMY Virgo
  • Vis. = 1.Viscount 2.Viscountess
  • Visc. = 1.Viscount 2.Viscountess
  • visc. = PHYSICS viscosity
  • ViSCA = COMPUTING a trademark for a protocol used to synchronize multiple videodevices, developed by Sony. Full form video system control architecture
  • Visct. = 1.Viscount 2.Viscountess
  • VJ = VIDEO somebody who plays videos, especially music videos, on television. Full formvideo jockey
  • VL = LANGUAGE Vulgar Latin
  • vl = LITERATURE an alternative translation for a piece of literature. Full form variant reading(NOTE: From the Latin varia lectio.)
  • VLCC = INDUSTRY very large crude carrier
  • VLDL = BIOCHEMISTRY a lipoprotein that is associated with coronary and heart diseases as itdeposits cholesterol on the walls of arteries. Full form very low density lipoprotein
  • VLF = RADIO very low frequency
  • VLSI = ELECTRONICS very large scale integration
  • VM = COMPUTING virtual machineVMD 174
  • VMD = EDUCATION Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
  • vn = ONLINE Vietnam (NOTE: The abbreviation vn is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • VO = 1.MILITARY Royal Victorian Order 2.an spoken order, sometimes delivered bytelephone, by a physician to administer treatment to a patient. Full form verbal order3.BEVERAGES very old (NOTE: The abbreviation VO is used on brandy, whisky, or portlabels.) 4.TV, CINEMA voiceover
  • vo = PRINTING verso
  • VOC = CHEMISTRY an organic compound such as ethylene, propylene, benzene, or styrenethat evaporates at a relatively low temperature and contributes to air pollution. Full formvolatile organic compound
  • voc. = GRAMMAR vocative
  • vocat. = GRAMMAR vocative
  • VoIP = ONLINE a technology that enables voice messages to be sent via the Internet,often simultaneously with data in text or other forms. Full form voice over Internetprotocol
  • vol. = 1.GEOGRAPHY volcano 2.volume 3.volunteer
  • vols. = volumes
  • VOR = AEROSPACE very-high-frequency omnidirectional radio range
  • vou. = voucher
  • VP = 1.GRAMMAR verb phrase 2.vice president
  • VPL = CLOTHING visible panty line
  • VQPRD = WINE 1.a European classification for French wines of high quality producedunder strict controls, such as AOC wines. Full form Vins de Qualité Produits dans desRégions Déterminées 2.a European classification for Portuguese wines of high qualityproduced under strict controls. Full form Vinho de Qualidade Produzido em RegiãoDeterminada
  • VR = 1.Victoria Regina 2.COMPUTING virtual reality 3.MILITARY Volunteer Reserve
  • vr = GRAMMAR verb reflexive
  • VRC = COMPUTING an odd parity check on each character of a block received, to detect anyerrors. Full form vertical redundancy check
  • VRI = Victoria Queen and Empress (NOTE: From the Latin Victoria Regina Imperatrix.)
  • VRML = a computer-graphics programming language used to create images of threedimensionalscenes. Full form Virtual Reality Modelling Language
  • VS = COMPUTING virtual storage
  • vs = vide supra (NOTE: From the Latin, ‘see above'.)?versus
  • VSD = MEDICINE ventricular septal defect
  • VSO = an organization that sends volunteers to work and teach in developing countries.Full form Voluntary Service Overseas
  • vss. = 1.verses 2.versions
  • VT = 1.PHYSICS vacuum tube 2.a type of fuse more commonly known as a proximity fuse.Full form variable time 3.MAIL Vermont (NOTE: The abbreviation VT is part of the USsorting code on the last line of a Vermont address.)
  • vt = GRAMMAR verb transitive
  • VTOL = AVIAT a system used by some aircraft that enables them to take off andland vertically. Full form vertical takeoff and landing175 VxD
  • VTR = HOUSEHOLD video tape recorder
  • VU = ECOLOGY vulnerable (species)
  • vu = ONLINE Vanuatu (NOTE: The abbreviation vu is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Vul. = BIBLE Vulgate
  • Vulg. = BIBLE Vulgate
  • vulg. = 1.vulgar 2.vulgarly
  • vv = vice versa
  • vv. = 1.MUSIC (first and second) violins 2.verses 3.volumes
  • VW = Very Worshipful
  • VxD = COMPUTING a device driver used to control one part of the Windows operatingsystem or to link a peripheral device to the Windows operating system. Full form virtualdevice driver
  • W = 1.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS tungsten 2.GEOGRAPHY Wales 3.Warden 4.MEASUREMENTS,ELECTRICITY watt 5.ONLINE web (address) 6.Wednesday 7.PHYSICS weight 8.LANGUAGEWelsh 9.west 10.western 11.CLOTHING women's (NOTE: The abbreviation W is used ofclothing sizes.) 12.PHYSICS work
  • w = 1.TIME week 2.CRICKET wicket(s) 3.CRICKET a ball bowled beyond the reach of thebatsman or batswoman, for which one run is awarded to the batting side. Full formwide(s) 4.MEASUREMENTS width 5.wife 6.with
  • w.c. = COMMERCE without charge
  • w/d = COMMERCE warranted
  • W Glam. = GEOGRAPHY West Glamorgan
  • w/o = without
  • w.o.b. = INSURANCE washed overboard
  • W3 = ONLINE World Wide Web
  • W3C = ONLINE a consortium of organizations, programmers, developers, industryexecutives, and users that seeks to guide the evolution of the World Wide Web andensure that all its technologies are compatible with one another
  • W8 = ONLINE wait (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • W8ING = ONLINE waiting (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • WA = 1.MAIL Washington (State) (NOTE: The abbreviation WA is part of the US sorting codeon the last line of an address in the state of Washington.) 2.GEOGRAPHY WesternAustralia 3.INSURANCE with average
  • WAAAF = AIR FORCE Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force
  • WAAC = ARMY an voluntary association of women working with the British Armyin World War 2, though with fewer rights and privileges and a lower status than men.Full form Women's Army Auxiliary Corps
  • WAAF = AIR FORCE a branch of the Royal Air Force for women, established in 1939to release men for active service in World War II. In 1949 it was renamed the Women'sRoyal Air Force. Full form Women's Auxiliary Air Force. Former name for Women'sRoyal Air Force (NOTE: The acronym WAAF was used as a noun to denote a memberof the Women's Auxiliary Air Force.)
  • WACA = CRICKET a cricket club and ground in Perth, Western Australia. Full formWest Australian Cricket Association
  • WAEF = ONLINE when all else fails (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • Wal. = LANGUAGE Walloon
  • WAN = COMPUTING a network of computers and peripheral devices linked by cableand satellite over a broad geographic area. Full form wide area network
  • wanna = want to
  • WAP = 1.COMPUTING wireless access point 2.ONLINE a standard protocol for thetransmission of electronic data between devices such as mobile phones and pagers andother sources of digital information such as the Internet. Full form wireless applicationprotocol
  • War. = GEOGRAPHY Warwickshire
  • war. = warrant
  • Warks. = GEOGRAPHY Warwickshire
  • wasn't = was not
  • WAVES = NAVY the women's branch of the US Naval Reserve that was organizedin World War II. It no longer exists as a separate entity. Full form Women Accepted forVolunteer Emergency Service (NOTE: A member of the WAVES was known as aWave.)177 what's
  • WB = 1.describes a boat that has specially designed compartments to hold water to actas ballast. Full form water ballast 2.FREIGHT waybill 3.ONLINE welcome back (used inInternet chat rooms) 4.westbound
  • Wb = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS weber
  • wb = 1.FREIGHT waybill 2.westbound
  • WBA = BOXING World Boxing Association
  • WBC = 1.MEDICINE white blood cell 2.BOXING World Boxing Council
  • WbN = west by north
  • WbS = west by south
  • WC = 1.water closet (NOTE: Although ‘water closet' is a rather old-fashioned name for atoilet, the abbreviation WC is still in use on signs, in lists of facilities, and as a noun inits own right.) 2.ONLINE who cares (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • wc = COMMERCE without charge
  • WCC = CHRISTIANITY World Council of Churches
  • WCED = ENVIRONMENT World Commission on Environment and Development
  • WCMC = ECOLOGY World Conservation Monitoring Centre
  • WD = MILITARY War Department
  • wd = 1.HEALTH SERVICES ward 2.COMMERCE warranted 3.wood 4.word
  • WDA = 1.BUSINESS Welsh Development Agency 2.ACCOUNTING writing-down allowance
  • WDM = COMPUTING a method of increasing the data capacity of an optic fibre bytransmitting several light signals at different wavelengths along the same fibre. Full formwavelength division multiplex(ing)
  • wdth = MEASUREMENTS width
  • WDV = ACCOUNTING written-down value
  • WDYT = ONLINE what do you think (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • we'd = 1.we had 2.we would
  • we'll = 1.we shall 2.we will
  • we're = we are
  • we've = we have
  • WEA = EDUCATION Workers' Educational Association
  • Wed. = CALENDAR Wednesday
  • WEF = ECONOMICS World Economic Forum
  • weren't = were not
  • Westm. = Westminster
  • WET = TIME Western European Time
  • WEU = INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Western European Union
  • wf = 1.ONLINE Wallis and Futuna Islands (NOTE: The abbreviation wf is seen at the end ofInternet addresses, preceded by a dot.) 2.PRINTING wrong font
  • wff = LOGIC well-formed formula
  • WFTC = FINANCE Working Families' Tax Credit
  • WFTU = HUMAN RESOURCES World Federation of Trade Unions
  • wg = 1.water gauge 2.wire gauge
  • Wg Cdr = MILITARY Wing Commander
  • Wh = MEASUREMENTS, ELECTRICITY watt-hour
  • wh. = white
  • WHA = ENVIRONMENT World Heritage Area
  • what's = 1.what does 2.what has 3.what iswhf 178
  • whf = wharf
  • WHO = MEDICINE World Health Organization
  • who'd = 1.who had 2.who would
  • who'll = 1.who shall 2.who will
  • who's = 1.who has 2.who is
  • whs. = COMMERCE warehouse
  • whsle = COMMERCE wholesale
  • WI = 1.SOCIAL SCIENCES West Indian 2.GEOGRAPHY West Indies 3.MAIL Wisconsin (NOTE: Theabbreviation WI is part of the US sorting code on the last line of a Wisconsin address.)4.Women's Institute
  • Wilts. = GEOGRAPHY Wiltshire
  • WIMP = 1.PHYSICS a hypothetical subatomic particle that has been proposed as apossible form of dark matter. Full form weakly interacting massive particle 2.COMPUTING a graphical user interface for computers that includes windows, icons, andother features designed to make them more user-friendly. Full form windows, icons,mouse, pull-down menu / windows, icons, menus, pointers
  • WIP = BUSINESS work in progress
  • WIPO = World Intellectual Property Organization
  • WISC = COMPUTING writable instruction set computer
  • Wisd. = BIBLE Wisdom of Solomon
  • wk = 1.weak 2.week 3.work
  • wkly = weekly
  • wkt = CRICKET wicket
  • WL = 1.NAUTICAL water line 2.PHYSICS wavelength
  • WLTM = would like to meetThe abbreviation WLTM is one of several that are routinely used in personal ads and onlinedating. Because of the original cost of newspaper advertising a shorthand has evolved whichincludes terms such as ALA (‘all letters answered'), GSOH (‘good sense of humour'), LTR(‘long-term relationship'), n/s (‘non-smoker'), and the somewhat terse NTW (‘no timewasters').
  • Wm. = William
  • WMD = ARMS weapons of mass destruction
  • wmk. = watermark
  • WML = COMPUTING 1.WAP markup language 2.wireless markup language
  • WMO = METEOROLOGY World Meteorological Organization
  • WNF = MEDICINE West Nile fever
  • WNV = MICROBIOLOGY West Nile virus
  • WNW = west-northwest
  • WO = 1.GOVERNMENT War Office 2.MILITARY warrant officer 3.S Africa WINE a guarantee ofthe place of origin for South African wines. Full form Wine of Origin 4.MILITARYwireless operator
  • WOB = ONLINE without a boyfriend (used in Internet chat rooms)
  • wob = INSURANCE washed overboard
  • WOG = ONLINE without a girlfriend (used in Internet chat rooms)
  • WOM = ONLINE word of mouth (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • WOMBAT = ONLINE waste of money, brains, and time (used in e-mails and textmessages)
  • won't = will not179 WTO
  • WOOF = MARKETING older people in or past middle age with a comfortable lifestyle andsignificant disposable income (humorous) Full form well-off older folks
  • woopy = SOCIAL SCIENCES _ see note at dinky
  • Worcs. = GEOGRAPHY Worcestershire
  • WORM = COMPUTING a computer storage medium, usually optical, in which datacannot be changed after it is stored but can be read. Full form write once read many(times)
  • would've = would have
  • wouldn't = would not
  • WOW = INDUST waiting on weather (NOTE: The abbreviation WOW is used in relation tooutdoor construction activities that rely on favourable weather conditions.)
  • WP = 1.METEOROLOGY weather permitting 2.LAW without harming somebody's legal rights.Full form without prejudice 3.COMPUTING word processing 4.COMPUTING wordprocessor
  • WPA = Work Projects Administration
  • WPB = wastepaper basket
  • WPC = POLICE Woman Police Constable
  • WPGA = GOLF Women's Professional Golfers' Association
  • WPI = COMMERCE wholesale price index
  • wpm = MEASUREMENTS words per minute (NOTE: The abbreviation wpm is most frequentlyused with reference to typing speed.)
  • wpn = ARMS weapon
  • WR = MEDICINE a blood test for syphilis. Full form Wassermann reaction
  • WRAAC = ARMY Women's Royal Australian Army Corps
  • WRAAF = AIR FORCE Women's Royal Australian Air Force
  • WRAC = ARMY an association of women formed in 1949 to undertake non-combat rolesin the army, disbanded in 1992. Full form Women's Royal Army Corps
  • WRAF = AIR FORCE a branch of the Royal Air Force for women, established in 1939 torelease men for active service in World War II. Before 1949 it was called the Women'sAuxiliary Air Force (WAAF). Full form Women's Royal Air Force
  • WRANS = NAVY Women's Royal Australian Naval Service
  • WRNS = NAVY Women's Royal Naval Service (NOTE: The WRNS no longer exists as aseparate entity. Its members were called ‘Wrens', from the informal pronunciation of theabbreviation.)
  • wrnt = LAW warrant
  • WRP = POLITICS Worker's Revolutionary Party
  • WRT = ONLINE, POLITICS (used in e-mails and text messages) 1.with regard to 2.with respectto
  • WRULD = MEDICINE work-related upper limb disorder
  • WRVS = SOCIAL WELFARE Women's Royal Voluntary Service
  • ws = ONLINE Samoa (NOTE: The abbreviation ws comes from the country's original name,Western Samoa. It is seen at the end of Internet addresses, preceded by a dot.)
  • WSW = west-southwest
  • wt = MEASUREMENTS weight
  • WTA = TENNIS 1.Women's Tennis Association 2.World Tennis Association
  • WTC = COMMERCE World Trade Center
  • WTG = ONLINE an informal expression of congratulations (used in e-mails and textmessages) Full form way to go
  • WTH = ONLINE what the heck (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • WTO = COMMERCE World Trade OrganizationWV 180
  • WV = MAIL West Virginia (NOTE: The abbreviation WV is part of the US sorting code on thelast line of a West Virginia address.)
  • WWF = 1.ECOLOGY World Wildlife Fund 2.WRESTLING World Wrestling FederationThe World Wildlife Fund changed its name to the World Wide Fund for Nature in 1986;however, the abbreviation WWF was so well-known that it did not fall out of use. In 2000 itbecame the official name for the organization.
  • WWI = HISTORY World War One
  • WWII = HISTORY World War Two
  • WWW = ONLINE World Wide Web
  • www = ONLINE World Wide Web
  • WY = MAIL Wyoming (NOTE: The abbreviation WY is part of the US sorting code on the lastline of a Wyoming address.)
  • WYSIAYG = COMPUTING what you see is all you get (NOTE: The abbreviationWYSIAYG is used to describe a WYSIWIG word processing program that is not complexenough for an advanced user's needs.)
  • WYSIWYG = COMPUTING what you see is what you get (NOTE: The abbreviationWYSIWYG is used to indicate that what appears on the screen (especially in wordprocessing) will appear in the same form on the printout.)
  • X = 1.exchange 2.extension 3.PHYSICS, ELECTRONICS reactance
  • x = 1.MATHEMATICS an algebraic variable 2.MEASUREMENTS by (NOTE: The symbol x is used ingiving two or more dimensions.) 3.BRIDGE a card that is not an honour, i.e. a picture cardor a ten 4.MATHEMATICS a coordinate along the x-axis (conventionally the horizontal one)5.COMMERCE ex 6.extension 7.MATHEMATICS multiplied by
  • XA = COMPUTING Extended Architecture
  • xa = BUSINESS describes shares in a company that are sold without any of the accompanyingrights, e.g. current dividends. Full form ex-all
  • xc = BUSINESS ex-capitalization
  • XD = STOCK EXCHANGE without the right to the current dividend on purchase. Full form exdividend
  • xdiv = STOCK EXCHANGE without the right to the current dividend on purchase. Full form exdividend
  • Xe = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS xenon
  • XGA = COMPUTING extended graphics array
  • XL = CLOTHING extra large (NOTE: The abbreviation XL is used as a size of clothing.)
  • XML = ONLINE a programming language designed for web documents that allows for thecreation of customized tags for individual information fields. Full form ExtensibleMarkup Language
  • XMODEM = COMPUTING a file transfer protocol for asynchronouscommunications in which data is sent in 128-byte blocks
  • Xn = CHRISTIANITY ChristianThe letter ‘X' is used in place of ‘Christ' in various other contexts, notably the word Xmas. Itis a transliteration of the Greek letter ‘chi', the first letter of the Greek name for Christ.
  • Xnty = CHRISTIANITY Christianity
  • XP = COMPUTING 1.Athlon XP 2.Windows XP
  • xr = BUSINESS ex-rights
  • XS = CLOTHING extra small (NOTE: The abbreviation XS is used as a size of clothing.)
  • XT = COMPUTING a version of the original IBM PC, developed by IBM, that used an 8088processor and included a hard disk
  • Xt = Christ
  • Xtian = Christian
  • xtn = extension
  • Xty = Christianity
  • Y = 1.ELECTRICITY admittance 2.MATHEMATICS an unknown factor 3.MONEY yen 4.MEASUREMENTS yotta- 5.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS yttrium 6.MONEY yuan
  • y = 1.MATHEMATICS an algebraic variable 2.MATHEMATICS a coordinate along the y-axis(conventionally the vertical one) 3.TIME year 4.MEASUREMENTS yocto-
  • Y/C = COMPUTING two parts of a video signal representing the luminance (Y) and thechrominance (C) of the image
  • Y2K = TIME year 2000The abbreviation Y2K was used in the closing years of the 20th century, especially withreference to the millennium bug, an anticipated problem for computer software that codeddates using only the last two digits of the year.
  • YA = ONLINE yet another (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • YAC = BIOTECHNOLOGY a sequence of DNA taken from another organism and insertedin a yeast to reveal its function. Full form yeast artificial chromosome
  • YAG = a synthetic mineral used in infrared lasers and as a gemstone. Full formyttrium, aluminium, garnet
  • yappy = SOCIAL SCIENCES _ see note at dinky
  • Yb = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ytterbium
  • YBS = ONLINE you'll be sorry (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • YC = POLITICS Young Conservative
  • yd = MEASUREMENTS yard
  • YDT = TIME Yukon Daylight Time
  • ye = ONLINE Yemen (NOTE: The abbreviation ye is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • YER = BANKING yearly effective rate
  • YHA = Youth Hostels Association
  • YHWH = JUDAISM the usual transliteration of the Tetragrammaton, the fourletters representing the Hebrew name of God in the Bible, sometimes expanded toYahweh
  • YIU = ONLINE yes, I understand (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • YK = FINANCE yugen kaisha
  • YM = ONLINE you mean (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • YMCA = CHRISTIANITY Young Men's Christian AssociationThe abbreviation YMCA is used as a noun, especially denoting a centre where social, sports,or educational facilities (and sometimes accommodation) are provided for members of theassociation and others.
  • YMHA = JUDAISM Young Men's Hebrew Association
  • YMODEM = COMPUTING a variation of the XMODEM file transfer protocolthat uses 1024-byte blocks and can send multiple files
  • YNK = ONLINE you never know (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • YOB = year of birth
  • Yorks. = GEOGRAPHY Yorkshire
  • you'd = 1.you had 2.you would
  • you'll = 1.you shall 2.you will
  • you're = you are
  • you've = you have183 YWHA
  • YOYO = ONLINE you're on your own (used in e-mails and text messages)
  • yr = 1.year 2.younger 3.your
  • Yrs = Yours (NOTE: The abbreviation Yrs is used at the end of a letter.)
  • YST = TIME Yukon Standard Time
  • YT = 1.ONLINE yours truly (used in e-mails and text messages) 2.GEOGRAPHY Yukon Territory
  • yt = ONLINE Mayotte (NOTE: The abbreviation yt is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • YTD = ACCOUNTING year to date
  • YTS = HUMAN RESOURCES Youth Training Scheme
  • yu = ONLINE Yugoslavia (NOTE: The abbreviation yu is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Yug. = GEOGRAPHY Yugoslavia
  • Yugo. = GEOGRAPHY Yugoslavia
  • yuppie = SOCIAL SCIENCES a young educated city-dwelling professional, especiallywhen regarded as materialistic. Full form young urban (or upwardly mobile)professionalYuppie is the most enduring of a number of acronyms coined in the late 20th century todenote various socioeconomic groups. It has given rise to various derivatives, notably the verbyuppify and the noun yuppification, referring to an influx of such people into an area or tomodifications made in accordance with their tastes, needs, and values.
  • YWCA = CHRISTIANITY Young Women's Christian AssociationThe abbreviation YWCA is used as a noun, especially denoting a centre where social, sports,or educational facilities (and sometimes accommodation) are provided for members of theassociation and others.
  • YWHA = Young Women's Hebrew Association
  • Z = 1.CHEMISTRY atomic number 2.PHYSICS impedance 3.MEASUREMENTS zetta- 4.GEOGRAPHYzone
  • z = 1.MATHEMATICS a Cartesian coordinate along the z-axis 2.MATHEMATICS an algebraicvariable 3.CHEMISTRY atomic number 4.MONEY zaïre 5.MEASUREMENTS zepto- 6.MEASUREMENTS zetta- 7.GEOGRAPHY zone
  • za = ONLINE South Africa (NOTE: The abbreviation za is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • ZANU = POLITICS a nationalist political party that helped bring about majority rulein Zimbabwe. It merged with the opposition party ZAPU in 1988 to form ZANU-PF. Fullform Zimbabwe African National Union
  • ZAPU = POLITICS a nationalist political party that helped bring about majority rulein Zimbabwe. It merged with ZANU in 1988 to form ZANU-PF. Full form ZimbabweAfrican People's Union
  • ZBB = FINANCE zero-based budgeting
  • ZDPS = BUSINESS zero dividend preference shares
  • ZEV = ECOLOGY zero emission vehicle
  • ZIF = COMPUTING zero insertion force (socket)
  • Zin = WINE Zinfandel
  • Zl = MONEY zloty
  • zm = ONLINE Zambia (NOTE: The abbreviation zm is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • ZMODEM = COMPUTING an enhanced version of the XMODEM filetransfer protocol that includes error detection and the ability to restart a transfer whereit left off if the connection is cut
  • Zn = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS zinc
  • zod. = ASTROLOGY zodiac
  • zool. = 1.zoological 2.zoology
  • ZPG = SOCIAL SCIENCES zero population growth
  • Zr = CHEMICAL ELEMENTS zirconium
  • zr = ONLINE Zaire (NOTE: The abbreviation zr is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • zw = ONLINE Zimbabwe (NOTE: The abbreviation zw is seen at the end of Internet addresses,preceded by a dot.)
  • Å = MEASUREMENTS, PHYSICS angstrom